Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1    |          health. In addition to the direct effect of health on economy,
  2    I,     2.  2    |             restrictions on foreign direct investments and other capital
  3    I,     2.  5    |             restrictions on foreign direct investment and other capital
  4    I,     2.  7    |             of these issue may have direct or indirect effects on health,
  5    I,     2.  8    |        Energy-generating~Resource~ ~Direct health impacts~ ~ ~ ~ ~Indirect
  6    I,     2. 10.  3|           more and more real. 6 The direct employment effects of ICTs
  7    I,     2. 10.  3|         Framework programmes are of direct interest to DG Health and
  8   II,     4.  1    |             HLY does not yet permit direct comparison with these two
  9   II,     5.  2.  3|       future to distinguish between direct PCI (coronary angioplasty
 10   II,     5.  4.  1|          great or even greater than direct health care costs (WHO 2002).
 11   II,     5.  4.  6|           further investigations or direct actions. The definition
 12   II,     5.  4.  6|           in all countries with the direct contribution of scientific
 13   II,     5.  5.  3|           schizophrenia exceeds the direct treatment costs due to remarkable
 14   II,     5.  5.  3|      research is needed to separate direct effects from more general
 15   II,     5.  5.  3|      distance (Gaebel et al, 2005).~Direct and indirect costs of schizophrenia~
 16   II,     5.  5.  3|         true for schizophrenia. The direct costs account only for a
 17   II,     5.  5.  3|           do not in all cases cover direct and indirect expenditures
 18   II,     5.  5.  3|           for the highest amount of direct costs, as evaluated by Andlin-Sobocki (
 19   II,     5.  5.  3|             co-workers explored the direct and indirect costs in a
 20   II,     5.  5.  3|          years. They found that the direct costs were dominated by
 21   II,     5.  5.  3|          represented only 7% of the direct costs. Indirect costs represented
 22   II,     5.  5.  3|           F20-F29~Figure 5.5.3.2.7. Direct healthcare costs by brain
 23   II,     5.  5.  3|           in these studies has made direct comparison of risk factors
 24   II,     5.  5.  3|            necessarily because of a direct lack of association, and
 25   II,     5.  5.  3|          per patient in 2005, total direct costs (healthcare costs [
 26   II,     5.  5.  3|             with a mean of €31 000. Direct costs, excluding informal
 27   II,     5.  5.  3|             billion in 2005 (41% of direct costs or 20% of the total
 28   II,     5.  5.  3|     Directive 2000/78 EC, prohibits direct and indirect discrimination
 29   II,     5.  5.  3|              secondary progression, direct comparison of immunomodulatory
 30   II,     5.  5.  3|            EU25 and EFTA countries. Direct cost outside the formal
 31   II,     5.  5.  3| constituting 57% of the total cost. Direct healthcare cost totalled
 32   II,     5.  5.  3|         2007; Spottke et al, 2005). Direct cost only reflect a small
 33   II,     5.  5.  3|          Peto V, Playfer JR (2003): Direct economic impact of Parkinson’
 34   II,     5.  6.  3|        which almost two-thirds were direct costs of medical care (Levy
 35   II,     5.  6.  3|               Economic impact~ ~The direct and indirect cost of illness
 36   II,     5.  6.  3|          Birnbaum et al, 2000). The direct costs are typically between
 37   II,     5.  6.  3|            the total (Woolf, 2008). Direct costs are high during the
 38   II,     5.  6.  3|        found to be less than 20% of direct costs in earlier studies
 39   II,     5.  6.  4|             of costs related to the direct costs of health care, although
 40   II,     5.  6.  4|             are not negligible. The direct costs will increase with
 41   II,     5.  6.  4|          Meerding, 1998). The total direct cost for health services
 42   II,     5.  6.  6|         Wanke LA, Buatti MC (2000): Direct and Indirect Costs of Rheumatoid
 43   II,     5.  6.  6|           Zeidler H, Ruof J (2005): Direct Costs Related to Rheumatoid
 44   II,     5.  7.  1|          these diseases impose high direct and indirect costs to society.
 45   II,     5.  8.  3|         shown that the estimates of direct annual costs per patient
 46   II,     5.  8.  3|              one-third of the total direct COPD cost was directed to
 47   II,     5.  8.  3|           In other studies, average direct costs per patient were estimated
 48   II,     5.  8.  3|         accounting for about 60% of direct costs (Jansson et al, 2002).~ ~
 49   II,     5.  8.  5|           history should be used to direct the decision process.~ ~
 50   II,     5.  9.  3|         must be considered, such as direct and indirect costs. A more
 51   II,     5.  9.  3|          and long-term reduction of direct and indirect costs.~ ~At
 52   II,     5.  9.  3|        Europe is consistent and the direct costs are related to outpatient
 53   II,     5.  9.  3|     estimation of the proportion of direct costs of asthma care. The
 54   II,     5.  9.  3|            make up 37% of the total direct cost of asthma; hospital
 55   II,     5.  9.  4|          children (n = 966) with no direct contact to agriculture,
 56   II,     5.  9.  5|    immediate benefits and long term direct and indirect costs and include
 57   II,     5. 11.  3|        fashion, there is reasonable direct and indirect evidence to
 58   II,     5. 11.  4|             hand psoriasis confer a direct disability by affecting
 59   II,     5. 11.  4|           and these have shown that direct costs are as high as for
 60   II,     5. 12.  2|             were computed using the direct method based on the world
 61   II,     5. 13    |        diseases associated with it (direct costs); lost of productivity
 62   II,     5. 13    |           2005). In 2002, the total direct and indirect annual costs
 63   II,     5. 13    |           prepared a compilation of direct cost studies worldwide including
 64   II,     6.  3.  1|             costs based on both the direct health service costs and
 65   II,     6.  3.  1|     billions of euro.~ ~Besides the direct and indirect annual costs,
 66   II,     6.  3.  3|           in these countries making direct comparisons inappropriate.
 67   II,     6.  3.  4|          deaths. In addition to the direct impact on health services,
 68   II,     6.  3.  5|         coverage does not exhibit a direct relationship with the wealth
 69   II,     6.  3.  6|        include outdoor swimming and direct contact with infected animals.~
 70   II,     6.  3.  6|             in many countries makes direct comparisons between them
 71   II,     6.  3.  6|              or contaminated water. Direct contact with infected animals
 72   II,     6.  3.  6|           Humans become infected by direct or indirect contact with
 73   II,     6.  3.  6|            usually infected through direct exposure to faeces from
 74   II,     6.  3.  7|             from infected ticks; 2) direct contact or ingestion of
 75   II,     6.  3.  7|             are usually infected by direct inhalation of aerosols during
 76   II,     6.  3.  7|      Infection in humans may follow direct or indirect exposure to
 77   II,     6.  3.  7|             through a bite from, or direct contact with saliva of,
 78   II,     7.  4.  2|          and an excess share in the direct medical costs~ ~Every year
 79   II,     7.  5    |           substantial proportion of direct cost related to injury is
 80   II,     8.  2.  2|      impairment can be divided into direct and indirect costs. The
 81   II,     8.  2.  2|             and indirect costs. The direct costs are those of the treatment
 82   II,     9        |            of her child. There is a direct relation between low birth weight,
 83   II,     9.  2.  4|            of her child. There is a direct relation between low birth weight,
 84   II,     9.  3.  2|             obstetrical death, both direct (the pregnancy directly
 85  III,    10.  1.  1|            be causal or non-causal, direct or indirect, and synergistic
 86  III,    10.  1.  1|          and energy expenditure are direct modulators of body weight.
 87  III,    10.  2.  1|          All the diseases caused by direct smoke and second-hand smoke
 88  III,    10.  2.  1|           can be expressed as~ ~ ~ “Direct costs”, associated with
 89  III,    10.  2.  1|        individuals, rather than the direct effects of nicotine (NID ).~
 90  III,    10.  2.  1|       people and adults. There is a direct relationship between alcohol
 91  III,    10.  2.  1|             2004, more than 122 000 direct drug-related deaths were
 92  III,    10.  2.  1|             Institute, 2006) allows direct comparison of levels of
 93  III,    10.  2.  1|        diseases associated with it (direct costs); lost of productivity
 94  III,    10.  2.  1|           2005). In 2002, the total direct and indirect annual costs
 95  III,    10.  2.  1|           prepared a compilation of direct cost studies worldwide including
 96  III,    10.  3.  1|            more circumstantial than direct. The physiological role
 97  III,    10.  3.  2|           Identified inputs such as direct discharges from industrial
 98  III,    10.  3.  4|       health aspects of floods into direct effects caused by the floodwaters (
 99  III,    10.  3.  4|           populations through their direct and indirect impact on health
100  III,    10.  4.  1|          fine particles and ozoneDirect SO2 and NO2 effects omitted,
101  III,    10.  4.  2|          the existence of a serious direct or indirect risk to human
102  III,    10.  4.  2|             rejection, related to a direct or indirect risk to human
103  III,    10.  4.  2|             nutrients. The need for direct evidence of benefit to humans (
104  III,    10.  4.  3|             the modern society have direct impacts on water supply
105  III,    10.  4.  5|             on human health through direct contact, aerosols inhalation
106  III,    10.  4.  5|        effects of land-filling lack direct exposure measurements of
107  III,    10.  5.  1|      concerns are predominant while direct health effects are rare.
108  III,    10.  5.  3|            international level.~The direct employment effects of ICTs
109  III,    10.  5.  3|             restrictions on foreign direct investment and other capital
110  III,    10.  5.  3|             health promotion on the direct medical costs was also studied
111   IV,    11.  1.  5|           cream-skimming~There is a direct relationship between strategies
112   IV,    11.  1.  5|       methods and quality of care~ ~Direct financial incentives to
113   IV,    11.  2.  1|        services, while others offer direct access and typically a greater
114   IV,    11.  3.  2|              Common methods include direct fixed price control, profit
115   IV,    11.  3.  2|    combination of price and volume, direct price regulation schemes
116   IV,    11.  6.  2|           called user charges), and direct out-of-pocket payments (
117   IV,    11.  6.  2|       include both cost sharing and direct payments) (see below).~ ~
118   IV,    11.  6.  2|     Taxation has different sources (direct or indirect), different
119   IV,    11.  6.  2|           general or hypothecated). Direct taxes are taxes levied on
120   IV,    11.  6.  2|   individuals, households or firms. Direct taxes have the potential
121   IV,    11.  6.  2|             income taxes, a form of direct tax, are progressive if
122   IV,    11.  6.  2|            tax). While on the whole direct taxation is equitable, inequities
123   IV,    11.  6.  2|            level of indirect versus direct, local versus national and
124   IV,    11.  6.  2|             to the more progressive direct taxes the equity gains will
125   IV,    11.  6.  2|             in broadly three forms: direct payments (‘pure private’
126   IV,    11.  6.  2|         systems. The three forms of direct cost sharing consist of:
127   IV,    11.  6.  2|         payments into cost sharing, direct payments and, if recorded,
128   IV,    11.  6.  2|           also reflect increases in direct and/or informal payments.
129   IV,    11.  6.  3|            overall progressiveness. Direct taxes are progressive in
130   IV,    11.  6.  3|          member States of the time, direct taxes are progressively
131   IV,    11.  6.  3|             decline in the share of direct (personal and corporate)
132   IV,    11.  6.  3|            taxes with a ceiling and direct consumption taxes.~ ~The
133   IV,    11.  6.  5|           Expenditure Transfers and Direct Transfers in Eight Countries.
134   IV,    12.  1    |       started its life in 1950 as a direct response to shortage in
135   IV,    12.  1    |          fields which have as their direct objective the protection
136   IV,    12.  2    |            further investigation or direct action.~ ~Main relevant
137   IV,    12.  4    |        advice on all matters with a direct or indirect impact on food
138   IV,    12.  8    |             legislation which has a direct impact on health in areas
139   IV,    12. 10    |    Statistics Office~which measures direct drug-related deaths~based.
140   IV,    12. 10    |         tasks and activities have a direct impact on public health,
141   IV,    13.  8    |             membership, others have direct adherents. They work at
142   IV,    13.  8    |      awareness raising campaigns to direct contacts with policy makers.
143   IV,    13.  8    |             Along with informal and direct contacts with EU officials,