Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  5.  1|                   although there are other congenital and socio-economic predispositions
  2   II,     5.  5.  1|              Predisposing factors are both congenital and environmental. Stressful
  3   II,     5.  6.  1|                   sports; and (6) genetic, congenital and developmental disorders.
  4   II,     6.  3.  5|                    eliminating measles and congenital rubella and maintaining
  5   II,     6.  3.  5|             strategic plan for measles and congenital rubella infection in the
  6   II,     6.  3.  6|                   pregnant women can cause congenital toxoplasmosis, with varying
  7   II,     8.  1.  1|                  include those affected by congenital anomalies as well as hearing
  8   II,     8.  2.  1|                  their SPID was genetic or congenital in 51% cases, acquired in
  9   II,     8.  2.  1|             syndrome), infections (such as congenital cytomegalovirus), or birth
 10   II,     8.  2.  1|                    PKU), galactosemia, and congenital hypothyroidism, can cause
 11   II,     8.  2.  1|                    PKU), galactosemia, and congenital hypothyroidism. Children
 12   II,     8.  2.  3|               excludes hearing loss due to congenital causes, infectious diseases,
 13   II,     8.  2.  3|                description~ ~Prevalence of congenital permanent childhood hearing
 14   II,     9        |             therefore needed to supplement congenital anomaly registers to determine
 15   II,     9        |               fetus are largely unknown.~ ~Congenital anomalies~ ~In the majority
 16   II,     9        |            majority of individual cases of congenital anomaly, the cause of the
 17   II,     9        |                   during early pregnancy). Congenital anomalies are usually grouped
 18   II,     9        |             promoted for the prevention of congenital anomalies. Some dietary
 19   II,     9        |                  of delivering babies with congenital anomaly due to chronic disease
 20   II,     9        |                both associated with higher congenital anomaly risk (EUROCAT, 2004;
 21   II,     9        |                  relation to the burden of congenital anomalies in the population.~ ~
 22   II,     9        |              continuing measure to prevent congenital rubella syndrome, associated
 23   II,     9        |                  deafness, eye defects and congenital heart disease. Monitoring
 24   II,     9        |                    to capture all cases of congenital rubella syndrome, as some
 25   II,     9        |               market which carry a risk of congenital anomaly when taken during
 26   II,     9        |                 about the level of risk of congenital anomaly associated with
 27   II,     9        |                    cited in the section on congenital anomalies are listed in
 28   II,     9        |                  the child matures. Though congenital abnormalities are well recorded
 29   II,     9.  1.  1|                    in Europe today include congenital anomalies, very preterm
 30   II,     9.  1.  1|                     Prevalence of selected congenital anomalies~R: Distribution
 31   II,     9.  1.  1|              perinatal death/deaths due to congenital anomalies~F: Prevalence
 32   II,     9.  1.  1|                     mainly prematurity and congenital anomalies. Data on congenital
 33   II,     9.  1.  1|              congenital anomalies. Data on congenital anomalies are presented
 34   II,     9.  1.  1|                 2005 or most recent year~ ~Congenital malformations~ ~See Chapter
 35   II,     9.  1.  1|                  and specific treatment of congenital malformations.~ ~Low birth weight
 36   II,     9.  1.  1|                     1998): Contribution of congenital malformations to perinatal
 37   II,     9.  1.  2|                                     9.1.2. Congenital Malformations~ ~ ~
 38   II,     9.  1.  2|               Introduction~ ~Collectively, congenital anomalies represent an important
 39   II,     9.  1.  2|                  cost to pregnant women.~ ~Congenital (“present from birth”) anomalies
 40   II,     9.  1.  2|       epidemiological surveillance through congenital anomaly registers, and the
 41   II,     9.  1.  2|              infancy or childhood. “Majorcongenital anomalies are those with
 42   II,     9.  1.  2|               screening may be included in congenital anomaly registers, but are
 43   II,     9.  1.  2|        neurological conditions also have a congenital origin but are not diagnosed
 44   II,     9.  1.  2|          inequalities in the prevalence of congenital anomalies. These are now
 45   II,     9.  1.  2|                well as these inequalities, congenital anomalies are often ignored
 46   II,     9.  1.  2|                   are inequalities between congenital anomalies and more common
 47   II,     9.  1.  2|                   European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) is the principal
 48   II,     9.  1.  2|         information on the epidemiology of congenital anomalies in Europe. EUROCAT
 49   II,     9.  1.  2|                network of population-based congenital anomaly registers, using
 50   II,     9.  1.  2|                   established registers of congenital anomalies not participating
 51   II,     9.  1.  2|          epidemiological information about congenital anomalies in Europe include
 52   II,     9.  1.  2|                    infant mortality due to congenital anomalies. Their data can
 53   II,     9.  1.  2|                  countries with no current congenital anomaly registers. The data
 54   II,     9.  1.  2|             limited with regard to type of congenital anomaly. Differences between
 55   II,     9.  1.  2|                    infant mortality due to congenital anomaly can reflect one
 56   II,     9.  1.  2|            pregnancies being affected by a congenital anomaly in that country
 57   II,     9.  1.  2|                   quality of treatment for congenital anomalies (e.g. surgery
 58   II,     9.  1.  2|                anomalies (e.g. surgery for congenital heart disease) and e) practices
 59   II,     9.  1.  2|          stillbirth or livebirth where the congenital anomaly is so severe that
 60   II,     9.  1.  2|              particularly useful for major congenital anomalies where livebirth
 61   II,     9.  1.  2|            particularly across years. Many congenital anomaly registers nevertheless
 62   II,     9.  1.  2|                   analysis~ ~Prevalence of congenital anomalies~ ~EUROCAT records
 63   II,     9.  1.  2|                  total prevalence of major congenital anomalies of 23.8 per 1
 64   II,     9.  1.  2|                    1 000 births of EUROCAT congenital anomaly subgroups 2000-2004~ ~
 65   II,     9.  1.  2|                    chromosomal anomalies). Congenital heart disease is the most
 66   II,     9.  1.  2|                 figures on 95 subgroups of congenital anomaly, available on its
 67   II,     9.  1.  2|                  the overall prevalence of congenital anomalies (followed by the
 68   II,     9.  1.  2|              increase in the prevalence of congenital heart disease (Figure 9.
 69   II,     9.  1.  2|                termination of pregnancy.~ ~Congenital anomalies are an important
 70   II,     9.  1.  2|                   rate of stillbirths with congenital anomaly is 0.43 per 1 000
 71   II,     9.  1.  2|               mortality rate associated to congenital anomaly of 0.99 per 1 000
 72   II,     9.  1.  2|                   Table 9.1.2.2). The main congenital anomaly subgroups contributing
 73   II,     9.  1.  2|                    perinatal mortality are congenital heart disease (23% of perinatal
 74   II,     9.  1.  2|                   first week deaths, while congenital heart disease contributes
 75   II,     9.  1.  2|                 Perinatal mortality due to congenital anomalies, 2000-2004.~ ~
 76   II,     9.  1.  2|                 Perinatal mortality due to congenital anomaly varies per country (
 77   II,     9.  1.  2|                    mortality associated to congenital anomaly are recorded in
 78   II,     9.  1.  2|                   and neonatal deaths with congenital anomaly (Table 9.1.2.3).
 79   II,     9.  1.  2|                   due to the presence of a congenital anomaly, whether as a TOPFA,
 80   II,     9.  1.  2|                  mortality consequences of congenital anomaly, the vast majority
 81   II,     9.  1.  2|                  vast majority of cases of congenital anomaly across Europe are
 82   II,     9.  1.  2|                    or educational needs.~ ~Congenital heart disease~ ~The live
 83   II,     9.  1.  2|                   live birth prevalence of congenital heart disease is 6.1 per
 84   II,     9.  1.  2|                   1), the largest group of congenital anomalies. This average
 85   II,     9.  1.  2|                 The reported prevalence of congenital heart disease has been increasing (
 86   II,     9.  1.  2|                    TOPFA is not common for congenital heart disease, unless the
 87   II,     9.  1.  2|                   is associated with other congenital anomalies or is lethal.~ ~
 88   II,     9.  1.  2|             therefore needed to supplement congenital anomaly registers to determine
 89   II,     9.  1.  2|               fetus are largely unknown.~ ~Congenital anomalies~In the majority
 90   II,     9.  1.  2|            majority of individual cases of congenital anomaly, the cause of the
 91   II,     9.  1.  2|                   during early pregnancy). Congenital anomalies are usually grouped
 92   II,     9.  1.  2|             promoted for the prevention of congenital anomalies. Some dietary
 93   II,     9.  1.  2|                  of delivering babies with congenital anomaly due to chronic disease
 94   II,     9.  1.  2|                both associated with higher congenital anomaly risk (EUROCAT, 2004;
 95   II,     9.  1.  2|                  relation to the burden of congenital anomalies in the population~ ~
 96   II,     9.  1.  2|              continuing measure to prevent congenital rubella syndrome, associated
 97   II,     9.  1.  2|                  deafness, eye defects and congenital heart disease. Monitoring
 98   II,     9.  1.  2|                    to capture all cases of congenital rubella syndrome, as some
 99   II,     9.  1.  2|               market which carry a risk of congenital anomaly when taken during
100   II,     9.  1.  2|                 about the level of risk of congenital anomaly associated with
101   II,     9.  1.  2|                    cited in the section on congenital anomalies are listed in
102   II,     9.  1.  2|                      Primary prevention of congenital anomalies has not been an
103   II,     9.  1.  2|               socioeconomic differences in congenital anomaly risk at European
104   II,     9.  1.  2|             environmental risk factors for congenital anomaly such as maternal
105   II,     9.  1.  2|              poverty should help to reduce congenital anomaly risk, as well as
106   II,     9.  1.  2|                 morbidity, for example for congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic
107   II,     9.  1.  2|                 initiatives and policies~ ~Congenital anomalies straddle different
108   II,     9.  1.  2|                  is particularly great for congenital anomalies, coming from the
109   II,     9.  1.  2|                    euro was being spent on congenital anomaly registers by European
110   II,     9.  1.  2|                   Union.~ ~The majority of congenital anomalies are rare (as defined
111   II,     9.  1.  2|       rare diseases (see Chapter 5.15) are congenital. The rare disease public
112   II,     9.  1.  2|             environmental risk factors for congenital anomalies, and to further
113   II,     9.  1.  2|                   studies of children with congenital anomalies need support.
114   II,     9.  1.  2|              evaluation of the “burden” of congenital anomalies in Europe. Such
115   II,     9.  1.  2|                 agenda.~ ~Risk factors for congenital anomalies amenable to primary
116   II,     9.  1.  2|                  are also risk factors for congenital anomalies. Any strategy
117   II,     9.  1.  2|            pregnancy” can pay attention to congenital anomalies as part of a range
118   II,     9.  1.  2| neuro-developmental outcomes. However, for congenital anomalies a system of pre-conceptional
119   II,     9.  1.  2|                    environmental causes of congenital anomalies.~ ~
120   II,     9.  1.  2|                 seen increasing success in congenital anomaly prevention, as evidenced
121   II,     9.  1.  2|                research into the causes of congenital anomalies, have the potential
122   II,     9.  1.  2|                     2004): Surveillance of congenital malformations in Italy:
123   II,     9.  1.  2|                Consent for Registration of Congenital Anomalies in Europe", British
124   II,     9.  1.  2|                  Occupational Exposure and Congenital Malformations Working Group (
125   II,     9.  1.  2|       Malformations Working Group (1997): “Congenital Malformations and Maternal
126   II,     9.  1.  2|                  Occupational Exposure and Congenital Malformations", Scandanavian
127   II,     9.  1.  2|                 Environmental Pollution on Congenital Anomalies". In 'The Impact
128   II,     9.  1.  2|                    for the Registration of Congenital Anomalies", EUROCAT Central
129   II,     9.  1.  2|             Environmental Risk Factors for Congenital Anomalies", EUROCAT Central
130   II,     9.  1.  2|                  Report 8: Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in Europe 1980-
131   II,     9.  1.  2|                   Population Based Study", Congenital Heart Diseases, Vol 2, pp
132   II,     9.  1.  2|                      Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Malformations in Europe”,
133   II,     9.  1.  2|             Procedures in Pregnancies with Congenital Malformations in 14 Regions
134   II,     9.  1.  2|                     Garne E et al (1999): "Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia - A
135   II,     9.  1.  2|                    Perinatal mortality and congenital anomalies in babies of women
136   II,     9.  1.  2|                    Inequalities in Risk of Congenital Anomaly”, Arch Dis Childh,
137   II,     9.  2.  3|                   years (see Chapter 4.1). Congenital malformations are the main
138   II,     9.  2.  4|                  the child matures. Though congenital abnormalities are well recorded
139   II,     9.  3.  1|                   young are as a result of congenital disorders, with a rapid
140   II,     9.  3.  2|            associated to preterm birth and congenital anomalies (Hansen et al,
141   II,     9.  3.  2|                     1998): Contribution of congenital malformations to perinatal
142   IV,    11.  5.  4|                  due to positive serology, congenital and inherited disorders,
143  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|     competitiveness~condom~condoms~conduct~congenital~conjunctivitis~conscious~