Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  1.  1|               obesity, excessive fat intake, lack of exercise and exposure
  2   II,     5.  1.  1|          fibres, associated with low intake of fruit and vegetables
  3   II,     5.  1.  1|             factors, such as alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have
  4   II,     5.  1.  1|      overweight and limiting alcohol intake, may also contribute towards
  5   II,     5.  1.  1|           and obesity~Excessive food intake as compared to needs deriving
  6   II,     5.  1.  1|         basal metabolism. Inadequate intake of specific nutrients.~Reproductive
  7   II,     5.  2.  3|         vegetables and reducing salt intake). The more recent decline
  8   II,     5.  2.  3|          some environmental factors (intake of dietary salt and saturated
  9   II,     5.  2.  3|            antioxidants due to a low intake of fruit and vegetables,
 10   II,     5.  2.  4|      Interestingly, moderate alcohol intake (20-30 g/day in men and
 11   II,     5.  2.  5|            marine origin), a reduced intake of foods rich in preformed
 12   II,     5.  2.  5|              cholesterol, a moderate intake of salt and of salty foods,
 13   II,     5.  2.  5|            salty foods, an increased intake of fruit, vegetables and
 14   II,     5.  2.  6|           reduction of sodium (salt) intake to less than 1,5 g (3,8
 15   II,     5.  2.  6|             g) per day, an increased intake of fruit, vegetables, and
 16   II,     5.  5.  2|             factors, such as alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have
 17   II,     5.  5.  2|      overweight and limiting alcohol intake, may also contribute towards
 18   II,     5.  5.  3|        discontinuation of medication intake with often serious consequences (
 19   II,     5.  5.  3|            1997). Antipsychotic drug intake was associated with a 4-
 20   II,     5.  5.  3|            in heavy smokers. Alcohol intake, however, was not associated
 21   II,     5.  5.  3|       factors such as animal product intake, herbal tea or tropical
 22   II,     5. 13    |             consumption and with the intake of excessive (as compared
 23   II,     5. 13    |        associated with excess energy intake poses one of the most serious
 24   II,     5. 13    |              low fruit and vegetable intake and physical inactivity (
 25   II,     5. 13    |         diseases with excessive food intake and unbalanced nutrition.~
 26   II,     9        |         pattern, energy and nutrient intake vary widely across Europe.
 27   II,     9        |              with an emphasis on low intake of saturated fats and high
 28   II,     9.  1.  2|            Growing gap in folic acid intake with respect to level of
 29   II,     9.  3.  1|               especially low calcium intake. Severe bone loss and fractures
 30   II,     9.  3.  1|            not exclusively, from the intake of calcium and vitamin D –
 31   II,     9.  3.  1|            and moderation in alcohol intake are obvious. A decade ago
 32   II,     9.  4.  4|         pattern, energy and nutrient intake vary widely across Europe.
 33   II,     9.  4.  4|              with an emphasis on low intake of saturated fats and high
 34  III,    10.  1.  1|              al, 2005). High caloric intake combined with low energy
 35  III,    10.  1.  1|        factors which increase energy intake and / or reduce physical activity
 36  III,    10.  1.  1|          2005). The amount of energy intake and expenditure as well
 37  III,    10.  1.  1|    physical activity influences food intake are complex (Titchenal,
 38  III,    10.  1.  1|            an important role in food intake regulation (Blundell and
 39  III,    10.  1.  1|        normal activity range, energy intake is balanced with the activity
 40  III,    10.  1.  1|        evidence suggests that energy intake is more or less resistant
 41  III,    10.  1.  1|      equivalent increases in caloric intake (King, 1999; King et al,
 42  III,    10.  1.  1|        energy expenditure and energy intake may be due to the fact that
 43  III,    10.  1.  1|             behavioural acts of food intake depend partly on environmental
 44  III,    10.  1.  1|           correlation between energy intake and expenditure increases:
 45  III,    10.  1.  1|    demonstrate an increase in energy intake. However, obese, untrained
 46  III,    10.  1.  1|             through increased energy intake. Intense exercise is more
 47  III,    10.  1.  1|            by the fact that the food intake response to exercise is
 48  III,    10.  1.  1|     assessing energy expenditure and intake create an uncertainty about
 49  III,    10.  1.  1|             only consider the energy intake immediately following the
 50  III,    10.  1.  1|             interaction between food intake and physical activity is
 51  III,    10.  1.  1|             Titchenal, 1988).~ ~Food intake is not only influenced by
 52  III,    10.  1.  3|              training on the dietary intake of healthy adolescents.
 53  III,    10.  1.  3|        energy expenditure and energy intake. Int J Obes Relat Metab
 54  III,    10.  1.  3|           physical activity and food intake. Proc Nutr Soc 57:77-84.~
 55  III,    10.  1.  3|            physical activity on food intake. Clinical Nutrition 24:885-
 56  III,    10.  1.  3|             1988): Exercise and food intake. What is the relationship?
 57  III,    10.  2.  1|              over a lifetime alcohol intake increases the risk of harm.
 58  III,    10.  2.  1|    consumption (amount, frequency of intake, types) as well as tobacco
 59  III,    10.  2.  1|                   Frequency of daily intake of food and drink~ ~· Proportion
 60  III,    10.  2.  1|             10.2.1.7. Excessive food intake and imbalanced diet~ ~ ~
 61  III,    10.  2.  1|          Years~DRI~Dietary Reference Intake~EHES~European Heath Examination
 62  III,    10.  2.  1|             consumption and with the intake of excessive (as compared
 63  III,    10.  2.  1|          associated to excess energy intake poses one of the most serious
 64  III,    10.  2.  1|              low fruit and vegetable intake and physical inactivity (
 65  III,    10.  2.  1|       detailed evaluation of dietary intake in Europe, there is a need
 66  III,    10.  2.  1|           for comparisons of dietary intake data between countries,
 67  III,    10.  2.  1|              used to collect dietary intake data and food composition
 68  III,    10.  2.  1|              National Survey of Food Intake and Nutritional Status~ ~
 69  III,    10.  2.  1|              2004) Food and nutrient intake in European Journal of Clinical
 70  III,    10.  2.  1|          European studies on dietary intake have been conducted but
 71  III,    10.  2.  1|          provide comparative dietary intake information between countries.
 72  III,    10.  2.  1|           used for the estimation of intake of foods, nutrients and
 73  III,    10.  2.  1|            the assessment of dietary intake of the specific needs and
 74  III,    10.  2.  1|        comparable individual dietary intake data were collected at European
 75  III,    10.  2.  1|           variations in true dietary intake levels. Within this project,
 76  III,    10.  2.  1|              measuring habitual food intake at the individual level
 77  III,    10.  2.  1|           origin. The average folate intake of the Austrian population
 78  III,    10.  2.  1|           The ENHR confirmed the low intake in other member countries.~
 79  III,    10.  2.  1|       concerns the recommended daily intake level. While the recommendation
 80  III,    10.  2.  1|              own guidelines for food intake. In Scandinavian countries,
 81  III,    10.  2.  1|            in the US reference daily intake (RDI). In the light of the
 82  III,    10.  2.  1|           toxicity effects, a higher intake might however be desirable.~ ~
 83  III,    10.  2.  1|            Calcium. Adequate calcium intake in older adults can retard
 84  III,    10.  2.  1|             able to increase calcium intake in this way. In such individuals,
 85  III,    10.  2.  1|          recommended that an average intake of about 1,200 mg of calcium
 86  III,    10.  2.  1|            of age (Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)).~o Vitamin D. Because
 87  III,    10.  2.  1|                 Iron~ ~Although meat intake is generally high in most
 88  III,    10.  2.  1|         elderly although the average intake met the recommendations.
 89  III,    10.  2.  1|              increased saturated fat intake, reduced intakes of complex
 90  III,    10.  2.  1|         requires appropriate dietary intake of energy in the form of
 91  III,    10.  2.  1|   macronutrients as well as adequate intake of essential nutrients,
 92  III,    10.  2.  1|              the EU excessive energy intake is the main nutritional
 93  III,    10.  2.  1|        nutritional issue, inadequate intake of micronutrients can also
 94  III,    10.  2.  1|            for adults notably a high intake of fat and sugar. Special
 95  III,    10.  2.  1|         applies to adults. While the intake of folate is generally adequate
 96  III,    10.  2.  1|              Reducing energy and fat intake can easily entail insufficient
 97  III,    10.  2.  1|             consumption and nutrient intake~ ~Based on EUROSTAT SBA,
 98  III,    10.  2.  1|            average food and nutrient intake and their distribution over
 99  III,    10.  2.  1|              balance;~· decrease the intake of salt;~· decrease the
100  III,    10.  2.  1|              of salt;~· decrease the intake of total fats from 35-45%
101  III,    10.  2.  1|              45% of the total energy intake to 15-30% and to decrease
102  III,    10.  2.  1|              30% and to decrease the intake also of cholesterol-raising
103  III,    10.  2.  1|              FAO population nutrient intake goals~ ~Population groups
104  III,    10.  2.  1|       approach can influence dietary intake through small but important
105  III,    10.  2.  1|      increase in fruit and vegetable intake. Moderate evidence on assisting
106  III,    10.  2.  1|         requirements and recommended intake levels.~· Foods make up
107  III,    10.  2.  1|                      Yngve A (2005): Intake of fruit and vegetables
108  III,    10.  2.  1|            and their mothers, folate intake in Swedish children and
109  III,    10.  2.  1|        Reference values for nutrient intake of the German speaking countries (
110  III,    10.  2.  1|             Riboli E (2006): Dietary intake of different types and characteristics
111  III,    10.  2.  3|           reduction of sodium (salt) intake to less than 1,5 g (3,8
112  III,    10.  2.  3|             g) per day, an increased intake of fruit, vegetables, and
113  III,    10.  3.  2|        Chemicals~TDI~Tolerable Daily Intake~TEQ~Toxicity Equivalent~
114  III,    10.  3.  2|             the TDI (tolerable daily intake) for tributyltin oxide is
115  III,    10.  4.  2| International Estimate of Short Term Intake~MOE~Margin of Exposure~MRLs~
116  III,    10.  4.  2|              mercury:~neurotoxic~ ~ ~Intake via fish consumption~well
117  III,    10.  4.  2|           animal feed~ ~ ~In 1998/99 intake of~dioxins and dioxin-like~
118  III,    10.  4.  2|          population was above~EU/WHO intake standard~ ~ ~Environmental~
119  III,    10.  4.  2|             by EFSA in~preparation~ ~Intake in 5% of the~Population
120  III,    10.  4.  2|           derived a tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg
121  III,    10.  4.  2|        cancer is in humans after the intake of acrylamide-containing
122  III,    10.  4.  2|            on a TDI (Tolerable daily intake) of 0.1µg PFOS/kg body weight (
123  III,    10.  4.  2|             the UK showed an average intake of 0.13µg/kg bw (EFSA, 2006).~ ~
124  III,    10.  4.  2|           indicate that the level of intake is below the reference values.
125  III,    10.  4.  2|   immune system. The tolerable daily intake for tributyltin oxide is
126  III,    10.  4.  2|             but allocating the total intake as vegetables with at least
127  III,    10.  4.  2|          standard; the average daily~intake of aflatoxin B1 in the~Netherlands
128  III,    10.  4.  2|     principles for setting tolerable intake levels for dioxins, furans
129  III,    10.  4.  2|             short term and long term intake of pesticide residues via
130  III,    10.  4.  2| International Estimate of Short Term Intake (IESTI). The IESTI is calculated
131  III,    10.  4.  2|            out in Annex VII; dietary intake assessment and toxicological
132  III,    10.  4.  2|       exposure assessment. Here, the intake of the compound from food
133  III,    10.  5.  1|            are mostly related to the intake of contaminated food (Milstead
134   IV,    11.  3.  1|             recently, controlled the intake to medical schools. But
135   IV,    11.  3.  1|              limiting medical school intake. From 1990 to 2005, the
136   IV,    12.  2    |            marine origin), a reduced intake of foods rich in preformed
137   IV,    12.  2    |              cholesterol, a moderate intake of salt and of salty foods,
138   IV,    12.  2    |            salty foods, an increased intake of fruits, vegetables and
139   IV,    12. 10    |              pressure~Decreasing the intake of salt is a objective of
140   IV,    12. 10    |              pressure~Decreasing the intake of salt is a objective of