Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  9. FB|       pregnancy and infancy, because maternal smoking during pregnancy
  2   II,     5.  9. FB|             protective effect of any maternal exclusion diet during that
  3   II,     5.  9. FB|             The protective effect of maternal avoidance of potential food
  4   II,     9        |              perinatal health~ ~High maternal age at delivery. Maternal
  5   II,     9        |            maternal age at delivery. Maternal demographic characteristics
  6   II,     9        |          known to be associated with maternal and neonatal conditions
  7   II,     9        |             The relationship between maternal age and perinatal health
  8   II,     9        |            with deprivation.~ ~Older maternal age is a risk factor for
  9   II,     9        |         heating), family income, and maternal education (see above). Data
 10   II,     9        |               UNICEF, 2005). Data on maternal education is more difficult
 11   II,     9.  1    |           origin (Cans et al, 2003). Maternal deaths occur less frequently -
 12   II,     9.  1.  1|       century, the post-war focus on maternal and child health programmes
 13   II,     9.  1.  1|         Today, perinatal, infant and maternal mortality rates are among
 14   II,     9.  1.  1|            however. As perinatal and maternal health have improved, absolute
 15   II,     9.  1.  1|           neonatal and child health; maternal health; population characteristics
 16   II,     9.  1.  1|          Neonatal screening policies~Maternal health~ C: Maternal mortality
 17   II,     9.  1.  1|         policies~Maternal health~ C: Maternal mortality ratio by age,
 18   II,     9.  1.  1|             age, mode of delivery~R: Maternal mortality by cause of death~
 19   II,     9.  1.  1|              R: Prevalence of severe maternal morbidity~F: Prevalence
 20   II,     9.  1.  1|           fetuses~C: Distribution of maternal age~C: Distribution of parity~
 21   II,     9.  1.  1|             to women~F: Indicator of maternal satisfaction~F: Births attended
 22   II,     9.  1.  1|         Table 9.1 and the section on maternal health.~ ~HealthCare~ ~Healthcare
 23   II,     9.  1.  1|          Vutuc C, Lindmark G (2003): Maternal health outcomes in Europe.
 24   II,     9.  1.  1|          Alexander S, Berg CJ (1995) Maternal mortality in developed countries:
 25   II,     9.  1.  1|          Varnoux N, Breart G (1995): Maternal deaths and substandard care:
 26   II,     9.  1.  1|            JT, Vintzileos AM (2004): Maternal age and risk of fetal death
 27   II,     9.  1.  1|              et al (2005): Impact of maternal age on obstetric outcome.
 28   II,     9.  1.  1|       pregnancy: smoking prevalence, maternal characteristics, and pregnancy
 29   II,     9.  1.  1|             outcomes with increasing maternal age. Hum Reprod 2007;22(
 30   II,     9.  1.  1|                Contemporary risks of maternal morbidity and adverse outcomes
 31   II,     9.  1.  1|             outcomes with increasing maternal age and plurality. Fertil
 32   II,     9.  1.  1|          Kiely JL (1994): Effects of maternal age, parity, and smoking
 33   II,     9.  1.  1|              CW, Willinger M (2006): Maternal age and the risk of stillbirth
 34   II,     9.  1.  1|          immigrant versus indigenous maternal deaths in The Netherlands.
 35   II,     9.  1.  2|             associated with advanced maternal age. The increase in average
 36   II,     9.  1.  2|              The increase in average maternal age in Europe is documented
 37   II,     9.  1.  2|        corresponds to differences in maternal age profile between countries (
 38   II,     9.  1.  2|           outweighed the increase in maternal age. In 2000-2004, differences
 39   II,     9.  1.  2|      screening and TOPFA, as well as maternal age differences, resulted
 40   II,     9.  1.  2|       socioeconomic status and young maternal age (less than 20 years).
 41   II,     9.  1.  2|            perinatal health~ ~ ~High maternal age at delivery. Maternal
 42   II,     9.  1.  2|            maternal age at delivery. Maternal demographic characteristics
 43   II,     9.  1.  2|          known to be associated with maternal and neonatal conditions
 44   II,     9.  1.  2|             The relationship between maternal age and perinatal health
 45   II,     9.  1.  2|            with deprivation.~ ~Older maternal age is a risk factor for
 46   II,     9.  1.  2|           congenital anomaly such as maternal nutrition, maternal infection,
 47   II,     9.  1.  2|          such as maternal nutrition, maternal infection, maternal drug
 48   II,     9.  1.  2|       nutrition, maternal infection, maternal drug exposure, occupational
 49   II,     9.  1.  2|              The phenomenon of older maternal age at childbirth and its
 50   II,     9.  1.  2|         Congenital Malformations and Maternal Occupational Exposure to
 51   II,     9.  1.  2|           Aymé S, Goujard J (1992): "Maternal Occupational Exposure and
 52   II,     9.  2.  4|         heating), family income, and maternal education (see above). Data
 53   II,     9.  2.  4|               UNICEF, 2005). Data on maternal education is more difficult
 54   II,     9.  3.  1|          Development Goals (WHO)~MMR~Maternal mortality rate~MOMS~European
 55   II,     9.  3.  2|                               9.3.2. Maternal health~ ~
 56   II,     9.  3.  2|          Although a very rare event, maternal mortality is considered
 57   II,     9.  3.  2|             performance because many maternal deaths are associated with
 58   II,     9.  3.  2|           are potentially avoidable. Maternal mortality results from several
 59   II,     9.  3.  2|          complications and diseases. Maternal morbidity is not, however,
 60   II,     9.  3.  2|            Data sources relevant for maternal health have been presented
 61   II,     9.  3.  2|             indicator for monitoring maternal health, the maternal mortality
 62   II,     9.  3.  2|      monitoring maternal health, the maternal mortality ratio, as well
 63   II,     9.  3.  2|              recommended indicators, maternal deaths by cause and the
 64   II,     9.  3.  2|             the prevalence of severe maternal morbidity (Alexander et
 65   II,     9.  3.  2|             al, 2003). The causes of maternal death can be separated into
 66   II,     9.  3.  2|            such as cardiac and other maternal conditions that are aggravated
 67   II,     9.  3.  2|     pregnancy. Committees that audit maternal deaths regularly report
 68   II,     9.  3.  2|     definition of what constitutes a maternal death in European statistics
 69   II,     9.  3.  2|             deaths are excluded. The maternal mortality ratio is a complex
 70   II,     9.  3.  2|            in which the numerator is maternal deaths and the denominator
 71   II,     9.  3.  2|          full population at risk for maternal death. Accurate MMRs require
 72   II,     9.  3.  2|            years.~ ~Data quality for maternal deaths must be considered
 73   II,     9.  3.  2|            countries, for example, a maternal death of a woman who is
 74   II,     9.  3.  2|            not be counted. Audits of maternal deaths exist in many countries
 75   II,     9.  3.  2|              Confidential Enquiry on Maternal Deaths in the UK, which
 76   II,     9.  3.  2|         shown in Figure 9.3.2.1. the maternal mortality ratio in the European
 77   II,     9.  3.  2|           has declined from about 20 maternal deaths per 100 000 live
 78   II,     9.  3.  2|              3.2.2., which gives the maternal mortality ratios for the
 79   II,     9.  3.  2|       significant.~ ~Figure 9.3.2.2. Maternal mortality ratio in selected
 80   II,     9.  3.  2|              the same or even higher maternal mortality ratios after the
 81   II,     9.  3.  2|           1990s. Improved quality of maternal mortality statistics may
 82   II,     9.  3.  2|              women (such as advanced maternal age, the increased proportion
 83   II,     9.  3.  2|              of chronic diseases and maternal conditions, the higher multiple
 84   II,     9.  3.  2|            to establish the level of maternal morbidity within different
 85   II,     9.  3.  2|           The prevalence of “severematernal morbidity, which is most
 86   II,     9.  3.  2|              from 0.02-37%.~ ~Severe maternal morbidity is a EURO-PERISTAT
 87   II,     9.  3.  2|             the multiple birth rate, maternal age, parity, smoking and
 88   II,     9.  3.  2|             age, parity, smoking and maternal education. The mother’s
 89   II,     9.  3.  2|          only currently available on maternal age and parity in existing
 90   II,     9.  3.  2|            studies to be affected by maternal characteristics such as
 91   II,     9.  3.  2|         There are wide variations in maternal mortality ratios in Europe.
 92   II,     9.  3.  2|             job finding and counting maternal deaths. A priority for the
 93   II,     9.  3.  2|            complete ascertainment of maternal deaths. It is also essential
 94   II,     9.  3.  2|         death. Instituting audits of maternal deaths are a well proven
 95   II,     9.  3.  2|          registers to measure severe maternal morbidity.~ ~The great variety
 96   II,     9.  3.  2|          Vutuc C, Lindmark G (2003): Maternal health outcomes in Europe.
 97   II,     9.  3.  2|          Alexander S, Berg CJ (1995) Maternal mortality in developed countries:
 98   II,     9.  3.  2|          Varnoux N, Breart G (1995): Maternal deaths and substandard care:
 99   II,     9.  3.  2|            JT, Vintzileos AM (2004): Maternal age and risk of fetal death
100   II,     9.  3.  2|              et al (2005): Impact of maternal age on obstetric outcome.
101   II,     9.  3.  2|       pregnancy: smoking prevalence, maternal characteristics, and pregnancy
102   II,     9.  3.  2|          confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom.~ ~
103   II,     9.  3.  2|             outcomes with increasing maternal age. Hum Reprod 2007;22(
104   II,     9.  3.  2|                Contemporary risks of maternal morbidity and adverse outcomes
105   II,     9.  3.  2|             outcomes with increasing maternal age and plurality. Fertil
106   II,     9.  3.  2|          Kiely JL (1994): Effects of maternal age, parity, and smoking
107   II,     9.  3.  2|              CW, Willinger M (2006): Maternal age and the risk of stillbirth
108   II,     9.  3.  2|            Confidential enquiry into maternal deaths in The Netherlands
109   II,     9.  3.  2|          immigrant versus indigenous maternal deaths in The Netherlands.
110  III,    10.  2.  1|            health effects~Effects on Maternal and Child Health~Other diseases
111  III,    10.  2.  1|      communicable diseases, and into maternal and child health policies; (
112  III,    10.  2.  5|           malnutrition can be due to maternal malnutrition (being rare
113  III,    10.  2.  5|         gestational diabetes or even maternal smoking. Longitudinal data
114  III,    10.  2.  5|              in Europe indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy
115  III,    10.  2.  5|             of antenatal exposure to maternal smoking on behaviournal
116  III,    10.  2.  5|       Schuengel C (2007): Unresolved maternal attachment representations,
117  III,    10.  2.  5|           representations, disrupted maternal behavior and disorganized
118  III,    10.  2.  5|            of schizophrenia with low maternal body mass index, small size
119  III,    10.  4.  2|    perfluorinated compounds in human maternal and cord blood samples:
120   IV,    11.  6.  4| transplantation, emergency, neonatal/maternal, miscellanea) and a list