Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  1.  1|            Cardiovascular diseases~CVD clinically manifests itself
  2   II,     5.  1.  1|         dyslipidemia and obesity). CVD is a multifactorial disease,
  3   II,     5.  1.  1|      differences in IHD. Among all CVD risk factors, age remains
  4   II,     5.  1.  1|          important risk factor for CVD. A too rich diet (excess
  5   II,     5.  2.Acr|           Computed Tomography Scan~CVD~Cardiovascular Disease~DBP~
  6   II,     5.  2.  1|         The most frequent forms of CVD are those of atherosclerotic
  7   II,     5.  2.  1|            Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for almost half
  8   II,     5.  2.  1|             Allender et al, 2008). CVD is also a major cause of
  9   II,     5.  2.  1|            rates of mortality from CVD, there is an increasing
 10   II,     5.  2.  1|          men and women living with CVD. This paradox relates to
 11   II,     5.  2.  1|          survival of patients with CVD.~The burden of CVD is killing
 12   II,     5.  2.  1|            with CVD.~The burden of CVD is killing more people than
 13   II,     5.  2.  1|    clinical onset is mainly acute, CVD often evolves gradually,
 14   II,     5.  2.  1|            most European countries CVD mortality has declined since
 15   II,     5.  2.  1|    mortality, the annual number of CVD is expected to increase
 16   II,     5.  2.  1|            in the health burden of CVD and consequent increase
 17   II,     5.  2.  1|            costs increase and make CVD prevention and treatment
 18   II,     5.  2.  2| comparability of data available on CVD beyond mortality, other
 19   II,     5.  2.  2|     individuals aged over 75 years CVD mortality becomes increasingly
 20   II,     5.  2.  2|            strategies.~Dynamics of CVD mortality in Western and
 21   II,     5.  2.  2|         Kuulasmaa et al, 2000) and CVD medical care (Tunstall-Pedoe
 22   II,     5.  2.  2|      system (IHD, stroke and other CVD), cancer and violence were
 23   II,     5.  2.  2|            discharge rates for all CVD, IHD, acute myocardial infarction (
 24   II,     5.  2.  2|    coronary care to the decline in CVD mortality. Data from the
 25   II,     5.  2.  2|               5.2.2.3 Risk factors~CVD clinically manifests itself
 26   II,     5.  2.  2|      pressure, diabetes, obesity). CVD is a multifactorial disease,
 27   II,     5.  2.  2|      differences in IHD. Among all CVD risk factors, age remains
 28   II,     5.  2.  2|          important risk factor for CVD.~Last available data on
 29   II,     5.  2.  3|        heart disease~ ~Mortality~ ~CVD is the main cause of death
 30   II,     5.  2.  3|            In the 35-74 age-range, CVD accounts for 34% of total
 31   II,     5.  2.  3|      together with the data on all CVD hospital discharges. There
 32   II,     5.  2.  3|            hospitalization for all CVD and for IHD and stroke.
 33   II,     5.  2.  3|  hospitalizations are due to other CVD. This means that in recent
 34   II,     5.  2.  3|         hospitalizations for other CVD, such as heart failure and
 35   II,     5.  2.  3|          rates (x100.000) from all CVD, IHD,AMI, and stroke Last
 36   II,     5.  2.  3|          source of information for CVD morbidity. Three treatments
 37   II,     5.  2.  3|       routinely updated sources of CVD morbidity data in EU.~ ~
 38   II,     5.  2.  4|      factors in primary prevention~CVD is eminently preventable.
 39   II,     5.  2.  4|          use would more than halve CVD incidence.~CVD has a multifactor
 40   II,     5.  2.  4|          than halve CVD incidence.~CVD has a multifactor aetiology,
 41   II,     5.  2.  4|        continuous association with CVD incidence (age, blood pressure,
 42   II,     5.  2.  4|      factors for the prediction of CVD. Actually, obesity is a
 43   II,     5.  2.  4|            factors associated with CVD include diabetes mellitus,
 44   II,     5.  2.  4|          associated with a reduced CVD incidence (Wellman J, 2004).~
 45   II,     5.  2.  4|            a part of the change in CVD (Kuulasmaa et al. 2000).~
 46   II,     5.  2.  4|      observed country variation in CVD can be attributed to differences
 47   II,     5.  2.  4|         the European guidelines on CVD prevention had been properly
 48   II,     5.  2.  5|           associated with very low CVD risk (Palmieri et al, 2006;
 49   II,     5.  2.  5|          An established concept in CVD prevention is that individual
 50   II,     5.  2.  5|        increasing intensity as the CVD risk increases; treatment
 51   II,     5.  2.  5|      control are the milestones of CVD prevention. The preferential
 52   II,     5.  2.  5|           prevention approaches of CVD risk factors related to
 53   II,     5.  2.  5|            had the world’s highest CVD mortality rate. Planners
 54   II,     5.  2.  5|            factors contributing to CVD and sought appropriate changes,
 55   II,     5.  2.  5|           blood pressure. By 1992, CVD mortality rates for men
 56   II,     5.  2.  5|         later, major reductions in CVD risk factor levels, morbidity
 57   II,     5.  2.  5|           al, 1998).~Experience in CVD control, spelt out in the
 58   II,     5.  2.  5|          foster disease (including CVD) control and will help reduce
 59   II,     5.  2.  5|         action is taken to address CVD.~· The Luxembourg Declaration (
 60   II,     5.  2.  5|     strengthening of comprehensive CVD prevention plans and to
 61   II,     5.  2.  5|        have been adopted to combat CVD and other major non-communicable
 62   II,     5.  2.  5|        special focus on “Women and CVD” was held in Brussels under
 63   II,     5.  2.  5|          by reducing the impact of CVD is fully reported in the
 64   II,     5.  2.  6|           role in the aetiology of CVD. These factors are largely
 65   II,     5.  2.  6|         cessation occur faster for CVD than in other diseases.
 66   II,     5.  2.  6|      Plasma cholesterol levels and CVD risk~Observational studies
 67   II,     5.  2.  6|            in blood in determining CVD risk was elucidated in the
 68   II,     5.  2.  6|       protective) association with CVD (Kannel WB, 1985). Randomized,
 69   II,     5.  2.  6|            years a 1% reduction of CVD incidence (Robinson JG et
 70   II,     5.  2.  6|         individuals considered for CVD prevention.~ ~Blood pressure
 71   II,     5.  2.  6|   prevention.~ ~Blood pressure and CVD risk~Elevated blood pressure
 72   II,     5.  2.  6|      Lewington S et al, 2002). The CVD risk associated to blood
 73   II,     5.  2.  6|            associated to increased CVD risk, especially in elderly
 74   II,     5.  2.  6|   reduction of fatal and non fatal CVD events. The reduction is
 75   II,     5.  2.  6|          patients with established CVD) (Graham I et al, 2007).~ ~
 76   II,     5.  4.  6|       options for the reduction of CVD and of the rising prevalence
 77   II,     5.  8.Acr|      obstructive pulmonary disease~CVD~cardiovascular disease~ECRHS~
 78   II,     5.  8.  3|            Cardiovascular disease (CVD) was described as a very
 79   II,     5.  8.  3|           factor for both COPD and CVD, CVD in patients with COPD
 80   II,     5.  8.  3|      factor for both COPD and CVD, CVD in patients with COPD is
 81   II,     9.  3.  1|         Men’s Health Forum, 2005). CVD tends to affect women about
 82   II,     9.  3.  1|            Arber, 2006).~ ~Because CVD tends to develop at a later
 83   II,     9.  3.  1|            in all atherothrombotic CVD, incidence increases with
 84  III,    10.  2.  1|     obstructive pulmonary disease.~CVD~Cardiovascular disease.~
 85  III,    10.  2.  1|         related diseases (COPD and CVD) for the EU at an equivalent
 86  III,    10.  2.  1|            Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest single cause
 87  III,    10.  2.  1|    including lung cancer, COPD and CVD. It is estimated that 79,
 88  III,    10.  2.  1|            prominent NCDs, such as CVD, cancer and COPD have one
 89  III,    10.  2.  1|         related diseases: COPD and CVD, in Europe amount to between €
 90  III,    10.  2.  1|      International study measuring CVD risk factors including insufficient
 91  III,    10.  2.  2|            time, a 1% reduction of CVD incidence. The ischemic
 92  III,    10.  2.  2|         has a protective effect on CVD. HDL less than 1.2 mmol/
 93  III,    10.  2.  2|         individuals considered for CVD prevention.~ ~For more details
 94  III,    10.  2.  3|     mortality from CHD and stroke. CVD risk is associated to blood
 95  III,    10.  2.  3|            associated to increased CVD risk, especially in elderly
 96  III,    10.  2.  3|   reduction of fatal and non fatal CVD events. The reduction is
 97  III,    10.  2.  3|     sufficient, and if the overall CVD risk of the patient is high,
 98  III,    10.  5.  3|           cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as well as for mental disorders -
 99  III,    10.  5.  3|             The economic burden of CVD in the EU25 is estimated
100  III,    10.  5.  3|         years were lost because of CVD mortality. This was estimated
101  III,    10.  5.  3|          days were lost because of CVD morbidity (i.e. 591 days
102  III,    10.  5.  3|           billion. Thus, premature CVD deaths were responsible
103  III,    10.  5.  3|          of the indirect costs and CVD illness, in those of working
104   IV,    12.  2    |           Cardiovascular diseases (CVD)~ ~Blood lipid and blood
105   IV,    12.  2    |      control are the milestones of CVD prevention. An established
106   IV,    12.  2    |          An established concept in CVD prevention is that individual
107   IV,    12.  2    |        increasing intensity as the CVD risk increases; treatment
108   IV,    12.  2    |            had the world’s highest CVD mortality rate. Planners
109   IV,    12.  2    |            factors contributing to CVD and sought appropriate changes,
110   IV,    12.  2    |           blood pressure. By 1992, CVD mortality rates for men
111   IV,    12.  2    |         later, major reductions in CVD risk factor levels, morbidity
112   IV,    12.  2    |     strengthening of comprehensive CVD prevention plans and to
113   IV,    12.  2    |      adopted with a view to combat CVD and other major non-communicable
114   IV,    12.  2    |        special focus on “Women and CVD” was held in Brussels under
115   IV,    12.  2    |          by reducing the impact of CVD is registered fully in the
116   IV,    12.  2    |            Brussels. Experience in CVD control, spelt out in the
117   IV,    12.  2    |          foster disease (including CVD) control and will help reduce
118   IV,    12.  2    |           options for reduction of CVD and because of the rising
119   IV,    12. 10    |    management programmes, e.g. DMP CVD, structured hypertension
120  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|  cryptosporidiosis~cryptosporidium~CVD~cyanobacteria~cycling~cyclophosphamide~