Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.Acr    |            Programme~EURIPA~European Rural and Isolated Practitioners
  2    I,     2.  7    |          2003). EURIPA, the European Rural and Isolated Practitioners
  3    I,     2.  7    |           means of transportation.~ ~Rural neglect. As the section
  4    I,     2.  7    | environmental health determinants in rural places and villages. It
  5    I,     2. 11    |     utilization among residents of a rural region. Health Services
  6   II,     5.  5.  1|     employment status, education and rural/urban living and thus compare
  7   II,     5.  5.  3|          well as no effect of urban, rural, and mixed habitation area.
  8   II,     5.  5.  3|          mental health problems in a rural town. Aust N Z J Psychiatry.
  9   II,     5.  5.  3|           whether the study was in a rural or urban location and whether
 10   II,     5.  5.  3|             a door-to-door survey in rural Bolivia. Parkinsonism Relat
 11   II,     5.  8.  3|          1711 middle-aged men of two rural Finnish cohorts, which were
 12   II,     5.  8.  4|          1711 middle-aged men of two rural Finnish cohorts, which were
 13   II,     5.  8.  7|             follow-up in middle-aged rural men. Chest 2006; 130: 1129-
 14   II,     5.  9.Acr|             Against Allergy-Study in Rural Environments~QoL~Quality
 15   II,     5.  9.  2|             Against Allergy-Study in Rural Environments), under the
 16   II,     5.  9.  4|            Farm children living in a rural area suffer less frequently
 17   II,     8.  2.  3|     subjective hearing problems in a rural Danish population aged 31-
 18   II,     9.  1.  1|       avoidable mortality in a Dutch rural region: a retrospective
 19   II,     9.  2.  2|             may be living in extreme rural and urban poverty, and are
 20   II,     9.  3.  2|       avoidable mortality in a Dutch rural region: a retrospective
 21  III,    10.  1    |             consumer products~Urban, Rural and Industrial~Age~Climatic
 22  III,    10.  3.  4|          cases were reported more in rural villages than in provincial
 23  III,    10.  3.  4|            already limited income of rural families. The mass media
 24  III,    10.  4.  3|          rural areas: only 3040% of rural households in Eastern-European
 25  III,    10.  4.  3|          rural areas: only 3040% of rural households have access to
 26  III,    10.  4.  5|            widespread, especially in rural more than in urban areas.~ ~
 27  III,    10.  5.  1|           large-scale migration from rural to urban areas and led to
 28  III,    10.  5.  1|           and noise exposure in many rural places but tend to be looked
 29  III,    10.  5.  1|            city may spread to former rural and forested areas, thus
 30  III,    10.  5.  1|              relation to smaller and rural human settlements.~Most
 31  III,    10.  5.  1|            for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK.~Desai MA, Mehta
 32  III,    10.  5.  1|     sanitation target: the urban and rural challenge of the decade.
 33  III,    10.  5.  1|            for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs~ECHI~European Community
 34  III,    10.  5.  2|                    10.5.2. Urban and rural populations~ ~
 35  III,    10.  5.  2|           definition of “urban” and “rural”. First of all, these areas
 36  III,    10.  5.  2|         urbanism” and then label as “rural” what does not fall under “
 37  III,    10.  5.  2|             that the dualism between rural and urban areas may be more
 38  III,    10.  5.  2|             categories (urban versus rural), but also defined an intermediate
 39  III,    10.  5.  2|        easily considered as urban or rural based on the profile of
 40  III,    10.  5.  2|           health status of urban and rural populations strongly depends
 41  III,    10.  5.  2|              given studyurban and rural are defined (Johnson-Webb
 42  III,    10.  5.  2|        differences between urban and rural populations may be expressed
 43  III,    10.  5.  2|          variation between urban and rural settlement are for example
 44  III,    10.  5.  2|             EURIPA, the Institute of Rural Health (UK) and a number
 45  III,    10.  5.  2|              Eurofound, Institute of Rural Health, EURIPA etc.)~Gaps
 46  III,    10.  5.  2|        provision – between urban and rural setting, as well as adequate
 47  III,    10.  5.  2|     irrespective of the country, the rural population is some years
 48  III,    10.  5.  2|            rate is slightly lower in rural than in urban areas (OECD,
 49  III,    10.  5.  2|        educational differences, with rural residents being 1.3 times
 50  III,    10.  5.  2|            green spaces in urban and rural setting~ ~Health data~ ~
 51  III,    10.  5.  2|           definition of “urban” and “rural” is not comparable. Therefore,
 52  III,    10.  5.  2|       prevalence of poor health from rural to urban areas (O`Reilly
 53  III,    10.  5.  2|   Differences in death rates between rural and city areas were evident
 54  III,    10.  5.  2|           bring disadvantages to the rural population. Similar (although
 55  III,    10.  5.  2|      different between urbanized and rural parts of the same country.~ ~
 56  III,    10.  5.  2|        countries, the data show that rural residents more often define
 57  III,    10.  5.  2|             is posing a challenge to rural health services. Mostly,
 58  III,    10.  5.  2|           problems between urban and rural residents, showing that
 59  III,    10.  5.  2|           NIVEL, 2006). However, for rural females less problems were
 60  III,    10.  5.  2|         Health problems in urban and rural citizens in the Netherlands~ ~
 61  III,    10.  5.  2|              prevalence in urban and rural male citizens in the Netherlands~ ~
 62  III,    10.  5.  2|      citizens in the Netherlands~ ~A rural health profile of the UK (
 63  III,    10.  5.  2|           North West UK) stated that rural populations face broadly
 64  III,    10.  5.  2|          Wood, 2004). Even more, the Rural White Paper of the UK government
 65  III,    10.  5.  2|            stated that the health of rural residents is as good or
 66  III,    10.  5.  2|         urban settings (Male: 909 in rural versus 597 in urban places;
 67  III,    10.  5.  2|         urban places; Female: 667 in rural versus 322 in urban places).
 68  III,    10.  5.  2|      disadvantaged compared to their rural counterparts. Another survey
 69  III,    10.  5.  2|     indicators in England identified rural patients as associated to
 70  III,    10.  5.  2|              prevalence for girls in rural and urban settings (8.5%),
 71  III,    10.  5.  2|            number of health effects, rural citizens may have a considerable
 72  III,    10.  5.  2|              on the question whether rural citizens are more or less
 73  III,    10.  5.  2|              In the US, the National Rural Health Association (NRHA)
 74  III,    10.  5.  2|           national health systems in rural and less populated areas
 75  III,    10.  5.  2|               Sweden, United Kingdom~Rural: 20~Urban: 18~EU countries
 76  III,    10.  5.  2|            Portugal, Slovenia, Spain~Rural: 27~Urban: 24~ ~EU countries
 77  III,    10.  5.  2|          Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia~Rural: 34~Urban: 17~ ~2006-Accession
 78  III,    10.  5.  2|            Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey~Rural: 58~Urban: 47~ ~EU25~ ~Rural:
 79  III,    10.  5.  2|         Rural: 58~Urban: 47~ ~EU25~ ~Rural: 23~Urban: 20~ ~ ~ ~Adapted
 80  III,    10.  5.  2|              the equity of urban and rural citizens with regard to
 81  III,    10.  5.  2|           main barriers to effective rural emergency practice, most
 82  III,    10.  5.  2|          specific characteristics of rural health practice:~• increased
 83  III,    10.  5.  2|      distance and travel ~• specific rural illness, e.g. zoonoses ~•
 84  III,    10.  5.  2|           and mortality in urban and rural regions. Therefore, it is
 85  III,    10.  5.  2|       answering the question whether rural or urban residents are more
 86  III,    10.  5.  2|          statements on the urban and rural differences of health status
 87  III,    10.  5.  2|              evidence, it seems that rural residents are disadvantaged
 88  III,    10.  5.  2|            while in many cases lower rural disease prevalence rates
 89  III,    10.  5.  2|      recognition of the relevance of rural health services, but there
 90  III,    10.  5.  2|             and consistent review of rural and urban health conditions
 91  III,    10.  5.  2|      improvement or stabilization of rural health services. However,
 92  III,    10.  5.  2|          benefits and capacities for rural health service development
 93  III,    10.  5.  2|               2005): Healthcare in a rural setting. BMA Board of Science.~
 94  III,    10.  5.  2|    AttachmentsByTitle/PDFrural/$FILE/rural.pdf (accessed on 16 January
 95  III,    10.  5.  2|           Campbell NC et al. (2000): Rural factors and survival from
 96  III,    10.  5.  2|              future. A fair deal for rural England. The Stationary
 97  III,    10.  5.  2|            Gesler WM (1997): What is rural? Issues and considerations.
 98  III,    10.  5.  2|           considerations. Journal of Rural Health. 13(3), 253-256.~ ~
 99  III,    10.  5.  2|             improvement of emergency rural health care. Rural and Remote
100  III,    10.  5.  2|         emergency rural health care. Rural and Remote Health 5, on-line
101  III,    10.  5.  2|            New Zealand (2007): UrbanRural Health Comparisons: Key
102  III,    10.  5.  2|       Ministry of Health.~ ~National Rural Health Association (no date
103  III,    10.  5.  2|               What`s different about rural health care? [http://www.
104  III,    10.  5.  2|              tool for studying urban/rural health and health care utilization
105  III,    10.  5.  2|            Research, Utrecht) at the Rural Health Conference, Lodi,
106  III,    10.  5.  2|         Connolly S (2007): Urban and rural variations in morbidity
107  III,    10.  5.  2|           2002): Stroke in urban and rural populations in North-East
108  III,    10.  5.  2|     September 2007)~ ~Wood J (2004): Rural Health and Healthcare: a
109  III,    10.  5.  2|      European Union~EURIPA~ European Rural and Isolated Practitioners
110  III,    10.  5.  2|      Services Research~NRHA~National Rural Health Association~OECD~
111   IV,    11.  3.  1|             to attract physicians to rural and deprived urban areas.
112   IV,    11.  3.  1|        involves training specific to rural practice. Norway and Sweden
113   IV,    11.  3.  1|        students and to train them in rural health issues. Financial
114   IV,    11.  6.  4|         status, low birthweight (and rural cost adjustment)~Norway~
115   IV,    11.  6.  4|             Age, sex, mortality (and rural costs)~Slovakia~5 health