Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    -,     1            |              following the enlargement to 25 countries in 2004 and to 27 countries
   2    -,     1            |                  countries in 2004 and to 27 countries in 2007, but also previously-identified
   3    -,     1            |              coverage inevitably vary across countries, due to cultural, technical,
   4    -,     1            |                      Authorities of European Countries for fulfilling their task
   5    -,     1.  0.  0(1) |                                        These Countries will be referred collectively
   6    -,     1.  0.  0(1) |                collectively as the “EUGLOREH Countries” and will be listed in Tables
   7    I,     2.  1        |                     marriage is high in some countries, even after a child is born.
   8    I,     2.  1        |                     and services of European countries have evolved to meet the
   9    I,     2.  1        |                      outcomes in high-income countries such as the EU Member States
  10    I,     2.  1        |                    the labour market in rich countries, while country-level historical
  11    I,     2.  2        |                    of Europe with low-income countries results in a regular flow
  12    I,     2.  2        |                   malaria re-introduction in countries where it has been eradicated
  13    I,     2.  3        |               country, but generally in many countries its contribution has increased
  14    I,     2.  3        |                     adapt.~ ~Migration to EU countries has been constantly increasing
  15    I,     2.  3        |                 originate from Mediterranean countries and former colonies. During
  16    I,     2.  3        |                    asylum seekers from these countries FGM has now also become
  17    I,     2.  3        |                      immigrants from Western countries (EU Member States, Northern
  18    I,     2.  3        |                healthcare workforce in their countries of birth and training~ ~
  19    I,     2.  4        |                    not only between European countries, but also within the country  20    I,     2.  4        |                      Europe and neighbouring countries.~ ~As highlighted in the
  21    I,     2.  4        |                 differences existing between countries are the per capita Gross
  22    I,     2.  4        |                 between the groups of the 15 countries already members of the EU
  23    I,     2.  4        |                Income per capita in EUGLOREH Countries, 2007.~ ~GDP is defined
  24    I,     2.  4        |                 dynamics of economy in these countries.~ ~Europe has become wealthier
  25    I,     2.  4        |                 domestic product in EUGLOREH countries.~ ~Inequalities persist,
  26    I,     2.  4        |                    not only between European countries, but also within the country’
  27    I,     2.  4        |                      Europe and neighbouring countries. Regions of relative wealth
  28    I,     2.  4        |                  range from 8% in the Nordic countries, the Czech Republic and
  29    I,     2.  4        |                    indicate that:~ ~· in all countries with available data, rates
  30    I,     2.  4        |                     In many Western European countries, mortality differences between
  31    I,     2.  4        |                     In many Western European countries, the 1980s and 1990s were
  32    I,     2.  4        |             inequalities in mortality in all countries, both among men and women.
  33    I,     2.  4        |                   the three Eastern European countries, as compared to between
  34    I,     2.  4        |                   the three Western European countries. Among women, however, relative
  35    I,     2.  4        |                      compared to the Western countries. Since the political transition,
  36    I,     2.  4        |                 changed dramatically in many countries in Eastern Europe, sometimes
  37    I,     2.  4        |                socio-economic groups: in the countries with available data, mortality
  38    I,     2.  4        |                  some other Eastern European countries suggests a similar widening
  39    I,     2.  4        |                    is not seen in some other countries (e.g. the Czech Republic),
  40    I,     2.  4        |            Population Ageing in Six European Countries”. DG Employment and Social
  41    I,     2.  5        |                states (i.e. Eastern European countries). In many of these countries
  42    I,     2.  5        |                 countries). In many of these countries the traditional occupational
  43    I,     2.  5        |                    cent in 2005 in developed countries. Services include wholesale
  44    I,     2.  5        |                   workforce. In all European countries, the average age of the
  45    I,     2.  5        |                      widely across developed countries. Many countries took steps
  46    I,     2.  5        |                    developed countries. Many countries took steps to increase retirement
  47    I,     2.  5        |            Population Ageing in Six European Countries”. As retired people generally
  48    I,     2.  5        |                  report integrates accession countries into the analysis. The report
  49    I,     2.  5        |                     in work in the accession countries compared to 40% in the EU.
  50    I,     2.  5        |               country, but generally in many countries its contribution has increased
  51    I,     2.  5        |                   managers and favours those countries more capable of meeting
  52    I,     2.  5        |                    skill-biased in developed countries. Perceived lack of control
  53    I,     2.  5        |                 mortality. In industrialised countries, high-skilled occupations,
  54    I,     2.  5        |               intensity is increasing in all countries in Europe with more weekend
  55    I,     2.  6        |                  States, candidates and EFTA countries.~ ~The indicator shows the
  56    I,     2.  6        |                      be achieved in European countries after varying lengths of
  57    I,     2.  6        |                   school leavers in EUGLOREH Countries, per gender, in 2006.~ ~
  58    I,     2.  6        |                     2003/04 in virtually all countries for which data are available
  59    I,     2.  6        |                  programmes in most European countries. In the EU25 as a whole,
  60    I,     2.  6        |               however, in the three Southern countries of Spain, Italy and Portugal,
  61    I,     2.  6        |                      increased in nearly all countries, by an average of almost
  62    I,     2.  6        |                     graduated in 2004 in all countries except Turkey, where women
  63    I,     2.  6        |                    outnumbered women in most countries. The exceptions are Ireland,
  64    I,     2.  6        |                  share of enrolments in most countries, which partly reflects the
  65    I,     2.  6        |                     from 2002 to 2050 in all countries but Luxembourg. Measured
  66    I,     2.  6        |                    ratio are expected in all countries but Denmark and the Netherlands,
  67    I,     2.  6        |                    expenditure varies across countries depending on the specific
  68    I,     2.  7        |               billion (UNFPA, 2007). In most countries, the trend towards urbanisation
  69    I,     2.  7        |               diverse picture. However, EU15 countries tend to be more urbanised
  70    I,     2.  7        |                    in rural settlements. The countries where a significant proportion
  71    I,     2.  7        |                      differences, as in many countries there is a trend for rural areas
  72    I,     2.  7        |                 settlements which in many EU countries represent a significant
  73    I,     2.  8        |                 central and Eastern European countries, both in district heating
  74    I,     2.  9        |                occurring in several European countries and there is a risk of human
  75    I,     2. 10.  4    |                 Several studies in different countries indicate the significance
  76    I,     2. 10.  4    |                   satisfy the needs of those countries, but when products move
  77    I,     2. 10.  5    |                      approaches in different countries should be compared looking
  78    I,     3.  1        |            Scandinavian and Western European countries in the early 1970s; elsewhere
  79    I,     3.  1        |                 replacement fertility in all countries except France (2.23), Ireland (
  80    I,     3.  1        |                     of the main reasons that countries in Eastern and Southern
  81    I,     3.  1        |          characteristic for Eastern European countries. Opposite is the ‘pattern
  82    I,     3.  2        |                      between 5 and 10%. Five Countries will have almost the same
  83    I,     3.  2        |                   over the past 25 years. In countries with a net natural decrease
  84    I,     3.  2        |                 originate from Mediterranean countries, former colonies, or countries
  85    I,     3.  2        |               countries, former colonies, or countries of Eastern Europe. The strict
  86    I,     3.  3        |                      Currently, all European countries are facing population ageing
  87    I,     3.  3        |                     various degrees. In many countries, the population has already
  88    I,     3.  3        |                   come, much larger in these countries than in EU15 (the so-called ‘
  89    I,     3.  3        |                    of this century. The EU15 countries can also still make a profit
  90    I,     3.  3        |               beginning of the 1980s in most countries, caused by the baby-boom
  91    I,     3.  3        |                      26.1). In this group of countries only Sweden shows an atypical
  92    I,     3.  3        |                           Nevertheless, some countries show declining old-age dependency
  93    I,     3.  3        |                     last 20 years. All other countries saw their old-age dependency
  94    I,     3.  3        |               increase by 2.3% per year. The countries with the lowest growth rates
  95    I,     3.  3        |                      This means that several countries witness large changes in
  96    I,     3.  3        |                    here the variation across countries diminished over time, although
  97   II,     4.  1        |                  fact that new Member States countries have much lower life expectancies,
  98   II,     4.  1        |                      in health in individual countries than between different countries.~ ~
  99   II,     4.  1        |             countries than between different countries.~ ~Table 4.1.1 shows estimates
 100   II,     4.  1        |             expansion of morbidity among all countries for men and women. If we
 101   II,     4.  1        |                  between Western and eastern countries. A specific analysis made
 102   II,     4.  1        |                     diverge. In one group of countries, the growth in life expectancy
 103   II,     4.  1        |                   These are high convergence countries. A second group, where growth
 104   II,     4.  1        |                    These are low convergence countries. The third group includes
 105   II,     4.  1        |                   third group includes those countries that at some time ceased
 106   II,     4.  1        |                  values. These are divergent countries. It is in this third group
 107   II,     4.  1        |                    Baltic and Eastern Europe countries are found as their life
 108   II,     4.  1        |                    comparison with these two countries, LE does. Thus Table 4.1.
 109   II,     4.  2        |                      Since 1970, in the EU15 countries life expectancy at birth
 110   II,     4.  2        |                       Slovenia and Slovakia) countries life expectancy has developed
 111   II,     4.  2        |                     increasing in the latter countries as well. Behind the overall
 112   II,     4.  2        |                   has risen in most European countries during the last decades,
 113   II,     4.  2        |                   expectancy across European countries has become smaller or larger.~ ~
 114   II,     4.  2        |                expectancy at birth across EU countries can be attributed to the
 115   II,     4.  2        |                    trends is limited to some Countries only, due to the availability
 116   II,     4.  2        |              unweighted) average of the EU15 countries during the last decades,
 117   II,     4.  2        |                      were visible in most EU countries. In all countries, the decline
 118   II,     4.  2        |                    most EU countries. In all countries, the decline in mortality
 119   II,     4.  2        |                  groups, even though in most countries the decline of mortality
 120   II,     4.  2        |                     life expectancy. In most countries, mortality decline was larger
 121   II,     4.  2        |                     in the Southern European countries Spain, Portugal, Greece
 122   II,     4.  2        |                      three Southern European countries. In the 1990s, mortality
 123   II,     4.  2        |                    life expectancy in all EU countries. In most countries, the
 124   II,     4.  2        |                    all EU countries. In most countries, the increase in life expectancy
 125   II,     4.  2        |                       Among Western European countries Denmark showed a deviating
 126   II,     4.  2        |                  considerably. In Eastern EU countries, life expectancy had developed
 127   II,     4.  2        |            favourably than in the Western EU countries, particularly for men. In
 128   II,     4.  2        |                      men. In several Eastern countries mortality of men in their
 129   II,     4.  2        |                     of death for selected EU countries for the periods 1980-1990
 130   II,     4.  2        |                    1990 and 1990-2000. These countries were selected on the basis
 131   II,     4.  2        |                   both periods. They include countries in North, Western, South,
 132   II,     4.  2        |                      in mortality across the countries of the European Union.~ ~
 133   II,     4.  2        |                     cause of death, selected countries.~ ~In most EU countries,
 134   II,     4.  2        |                      countries.~ ~In most EU countries, the decline in mortality
 135   II,     4.  2        |                   are some differences among countries in the relative importance
 136   II,     4.  2        |                      in the 1980s in several countries, but in the 1990s the decline
 137   II,     4.  2        |            expectancy of women in almost all countries. Infectious diseases (cause
 138   II,     4.  2        |                    of men in 9 out of the 13 countries. In several countries, infectious
 139   II,     4.  2        |                     13 countries. In several countries, infectious diseases had
 140   II,     4.  2        |                    table 3) declined in most countries. This may be related to
 141   II,     4.  2        |                     3) has decreased in most countries. One remarkable exception
 142   II,     4.  2        |                 exception is that in Eastern countries mortality by traffic accidents
 143   II,     4.  2        |                      in the Eastern European countries. There are remarkable differences
 144   II,     4.  2        |                remarkable differences across countries in the size of the contribution
 145   II,     4.  2        |                     table 3) across European countries. For example, the effect
 146   II,     4.  2        |                Southern and Eastern European countries and relatively small in
 147   II,     4.  2        |                   small in Northern European countries. It is not clear to what
 148   II,     4.  2        |                coding causes of death across countries. In spite of these differences
 149   II,     4.  2        |                  differences across European countries, the overall patterns in
 150   II,     4.  2        |                     7 out of the 13 selected countries the decline in mortality
 151   II,     4.  2        |                      even in 9 out of the 13 countries. For Polish men and Dutch
 152   II,     4.  2        |                    birth 1980-2000, selected countries~ ~Table 4.2.5 shows that
 153   II,     4.  2        |                     8 out of the 13 selected countries and for women in 12 countries,
 154   II,     4.  2        |                countries and for women in 12 countries, even though for women in
 155   II,     4.  2        |                     though for women in most countries the effect was smaller than
 156   II,     4.  2        |                     than for men. As in most countries men started to smoke less
 157   II,     4.  2        |                  negative in 7 out of the 13 countries. As women started to smoke
 158   II,     4.  2        |                   expectancy in 12 of the 13 countries. In 9 of these countries
 159   II,     4.  2        |                     countries. In 9 of these countries the negative impact in the
 160   II,     4.  2        |                expectancy at birth, selected countries.~ ~The decline in mortality
 161   II,     4.  2        |             expectancy at 65 for selected EU countries. Only countries for which
 162   II,     4.  2        |                  selected EU countries. Only countries for which there was data
 163   II,     4.  2        |                   expectancy at 65, selected countries.~ ~Table 4.2.6 shows that
 164   II,     4.  2        |                    11 out of the 17 selected countries the increase in life expectancy
 165   II,     4.  2        |                      1980s and in most other countries there was no big difference
 166   II,     4.  2        |               decades. In several Eastern EU countries there was a negative development
 167   II,     4.  2        |                      in the 1990s. For those countries for which we also know the
 168   II,     4.  2        |                      an acceleration in most countries except for the Eastern EU
 169   II,     4.  2        |                    except for the Eastern EU countries. Thus it can be concluded
 170   II,     4.  2        |                    apart from the Eastern EU countries for men there is no indication
 171   II,     4.  2        |                         For women in several countries, the increase in life expectancy
 172   II,     4.  2        |                      for men, whereas in all countries the increase for women in
 173   II,     4.  2        |                    development in Eastern EU countries has been negative. In most
 174   II,     4.  2        |                   negative. In most other EU countries, life expectancy has increased
 175   II,     4.  2        |                      the age of 80, selected countries.~ ~The conclusion is that
 176   II,     4.  2        |                      expectancy for European countries is whether differences are
 177   II,     4.  2        |                   they are persistent. If in countries where life expectancy used
 178   II,     4.  2        |                      has been higher than in countries where life expectancy has
 179   II,     4.  2        |                     at birth across European countries in 1970 with the average
 180   II,     4.  2        |                      men in Eastern European countries.~ ~Figure 4.2.3. Relationship
 181   II,     4.  2        |                   men.~ ~If Eastern European countries are excluded, there appears
 182   II,     4.  2        |                   excluding Eastern European Countries, men.~ ~If we exclude Eastern
 183   II,     4.  2        |                     exclude Eastern European countries for women as well, the relationship
 184   II,     4.  2        |                   excluding Eastern European Countries, women.~ ~Thus apart from
 185   II,     4.  2        |                  apart from Eastern European countries we may conclude that there
 186   II,     4.  3        |                     morbidity trends in four countries. Population and Development
 187   II,     4.  3        |           expectancies in the European Union countries: calculation and comparisons.
 188   II,     4.  3        |                differences between the 25 EU countries. Montpellier, EHEMU: 9-48.~ ~
 189   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 intolerances.~ ~In developed countries and lower/middle income
 190   II,     5.  1.  1    |                     middle income developing countries, cardiovascular complications
 191   II,     5.  1.  1    |                     In low-income developing countries, infections still remain
 192   II,     5.  1.  1    |                    on the rise also in these countries. Non-communicable diseases,
 193   II,     5.  1.  1    |                    considered from different countries.~ ~ ~ ~Cancer ~ ~The majority
 194   II,     5.  2.  1    |            productive life.~In most European countries CVD mortality has declined
 195   II,     5.  2.  2    |             structure differs among European countries. Moreover, among individuals
 196   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 understand differences among countries in order to develop and
 197   II,     5.  2.  2    |                    make trends more visible, countries were divided into Baltic
 198   II,     5.  2.  2    |                     were divided into Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania),
 199   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 Lithuania), Eastern European countries, distinguished in Central
 200   II,     5.  2.  2    |                     Central Eastern European countries (Czech Republic, Poland,
 201   II,     5.  2.  2    |                      Balkan Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania),
 202   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  Romania), Northern European countries (Denmark, Ireland, Finland,
 203   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   Kingdom), Central European countries (Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg,
 204   II,     5.  2.  2    |              Slovenia) and Southern European countries (Greece, Spain, France,
 205   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   those of the Mediterranean countries; therefore Malta might be
 206   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   group of Southern European countries. The country with the lowest
 207   II,     5.  2.  2    |                      because the majority of countries send to the European organizations (
 208   II,     5.  2.  2    |                available for the majority of countries (Allender et al, 2008).~
 209   II,     5.  2.  2    |                      in 37 populations of 21 countries the relative contribution
 210   II,     5.  2.  2    |            necessarily representative of the countries in which they were located,
 211   II,     5.  2.  2    |                    make trends more visible, countries have been divided, as for
 212   II,     5.  2.  2    |                      as for IHD, into Baltic countries, Eastern European countries (
 213   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  countries, Eastern European countries (distinguished in Central
 214   II,     5.  2.  2    |                     Central Eastern European countries and Balkan Eastern European
 215   II,     5.  2.  2    |                      Balkan Eastern European countries), Northern European countries,
 216   II,     5.  2.  2    |                countries), Northern European countries, Central European countries
 217   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  countries, Central European countries and Southern European countries.
 218   II,     5.  2.  2    |              countries and Southern European countries. Malta is included among
 219   II,     5.  2.  2    |               included among Northern Europe countries because mortality rates
 220   II,     5.  2.  2    |                    to those of Mediterranean countries and the population has similar
 221   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   group of Southern European countries. The country with the lowest
 222   II,     5.  2.  2    |            necessarily representative of the countries in which they were located,
 223   II,     5.  2.  2    |                     Due to differences among countries in the methodology adopted
 224   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   Eastern and Eastern Europe countries (Table 5.2.1). According
 225   II,     5.  2.  3    |                      in Figure 5.2.1: in all countries from 1994 to 2003 mortality
 226   II,     5.  2.  3    |                      fell by 38% in Northern countries2 (from 300 to 186 per 100.
 227   II,     5.  2.  3(1) |                                Baltic Europe countries include: Estonia, Latvia,
 228   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    in Central Eastern Europe countries3 (from 440 to 242 per 100.
 229   II,     5.  2.  3(2) |                                     Northern countries include: Denmark, Ireland,
 230   II,     5.  2.  3    |                        27% in Eastern Europe countries4 (from 450 to 326 per 100.
 231   II,     5.  2.  3(3) |                       Central Eastern Europe countries include: Czech Republic,
 232   II,     5.  2.  3    |                        37% in Central Europe countries5 (from 225 to 142 per 100.
 233   II,     5.  2.  3(4) |                               Eastern Europe countries include: Bulgaria, Hungary
 234   II,     5.  2.  3    |                       34% in Southern Europe countries6 (from 139 to 91 per 100.
 235   II,     5.  2.  3(5) |                               Central Europe countries include: Belgium, Germany,
 236   II,     5.  2.  3(6) |                              Southern Europe countries include: Greece, Spain,
 237   II,     5.  2.  3    |                      000) and 27% in Baltic7 countries (from 696 to 505 per 100.
 238   II,     5.  2.  3    |                     by 40% in Central Europe countries (from 73 to 44 per 100.000),
 239   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    in Central Eastern Europe countries (from 157 to 77 per 100.
 240   II,     5.  2.  3    |                        23% in Eastern Europe countries (from 169 to 130 per 100.
 241   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   000), 36% in Baltic Europe countries (from 231 to 148 per 100.
 242   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   and 41% in Southern Europe countries (from 40 to 23 per 100.000).~ ~
 243   II,     5.  2.  3    |               possible and comparisons among countries are not totally reliable.
 244   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    and stroke, in almost all countries more than half of hospitalizations
 245   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 widely across Europe and all countries have seen significant rate
 246   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   Eastern and Eastern Europe countries have lower rates than Northern
 247   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   than Northern and Southern countries. The only data available
 248   II,     5.  2.  3    |                      than in Southern Europe countries; for men living in Warsaw
 249   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    people living in Northern countries, but not falling as fast
 250   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  Central Eastern and Eastern countries. Case fatality from coronary
 251   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   Eastern and Eastern Europe countries than in Northern and Southern
 252   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 Northern and Southern Europe countries (Tunstall-Pedoe et al, 1999).
 253   II,     5.  2.  3    |                      MONICA experience, some countries continued to collect data
 254   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    1970s in Western European countries. IHD continued to fall through
 255   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  noticed in Eastern European countries up to the 1990s. Since then,
 256   II,     5.  2.  3    |                     also in Eastern European countries (approximately 20 years
 257   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  later than Western European countries). The decline in IHD mortality
 258   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   rates has been greater for countries with the highest mortality
 259   II,     5.  2.  3(7) |                                Baltic Europe countries include: Latvia, Lithuania,
 260   II,     5.  2.  3    |               temporal trends in the various countries more difficult. Stroke units
 261   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    men than in women in most countries but the differences narrow
 262   II,     5.  2.  3    |                substantial differences among countries.~ ~Table 5.2.5. Age-standardized (
 263   II,     5.  2.  3    |                       40% in Southern Europe countries (from 136 to 82 per 100.
 264   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    100.000), 21% in Northern countries (from 110 to 87 per 100.
 265   II,     5.  2.  3    |                      and 6% in Baltic Europe countries (from 298 to 279 per 100.
 266   II,     5.  2.  3    |                      rates in Central Europe countries were more than seven times
 267   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 lower than in Eastern Europe countries. Temporal trends from 1993
 268   II,     5.  2.  3    |                       46% in Southern Europe countries (from 99 to 54 per 100.000),
 269   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    100.000), 21% in Northern countries (from 87 to 68 per 100.000),
 270   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   000), 13% in Baltic Europe countries (from 218 to 189 per 100.
 271   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 lower than in Eastern Europe countries.~ ~Figure 5.2.4. Age-standardized (
 272   II,     5.  2.  3    |                     cannot be compared among countries. Their interpretation is
 273   II,     5.  2.  3    |                mortality has been greater in countries with higher rates. The decline
 274   II,     5.  2.  3    |                      in the former communist countries has greatly affected people’
 275   II,     5.  2.  4    |                    in Sweden, but in several countries this trend is changing.
 276   II,     5.  2.  4    |                      Europe than in Northern countries. In women, it is generally
 277   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  Central Eastern and Eastern countries (see also Chapter 8).~ ~
 278   II,     5.  2.  4    |                different age ranges in 22 EU countries.~ ~Table 5.2.8. Estimated
 279   II,     5.  2.  4    |                hypercholesterolemia in 27 EU countries for men and women of different
 280   II,     5.  2.  4    |                    of smoking habit in 27 EU countries for men and women of different
 281   II,     5.  2.  4    |                    as BMI 30kg/m2 ) in 27 EU countries for men and women of different
 282   II,     5.  2.  4    |                   comparison among high risk countries. Therefore, it is important
 283   II,     5.  2.  4    |                pressure in all participating countries and also in cholesterol
 284   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  myocardial infarction in 52 countries, representing every inhabited
 285   II,     5.  2.  4    |                      6 in different European countries to describe the management
 286   II,     5.  2.  5    |                    not change equally across countries. For this reason, it is
 287   II,     5.  2.  5    |                     in place in all European countries.~· Several WHO resolutions
 288   II,     5.  2.  6    |                     cholesterol in different countries is associated with the country
 289   II,     5.  2.  6    |                usually observed in developed countries (now around 200 mg/dL).
 290   II,     5.  2.  6    |                largely prevalent in European countries, is about 2 times higher
 291   II,     5.  2.  6    |                      men aged 40-59 in seven countries. Acta Med Scand Suppl 460:
 292   II,     5.  2.  7    |                cardiovascular diseases in 27 countries, 1968-1977. World Health
 293   II,     5.  2.  7    |                     from heart disease in 26 countries from 1950 to 1978. Int J
 294   II,     5.  2.  7    |           Comparisons of 15 populations in 9 countries within the WHO MONICA stroke
 295   II,     5.  2.  7    |                  mortality in industrialized countries since 1950. World Health
 296   II,     5.  2.  7    |                  myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study):
 297   II,     5.  3.  1    |                      age. The LE of European countries is still increasing, and
 298   II,     5.  3.  1    |                     increasing, and in these countries a cancer epidemic is currently
 299   II,     5.  3.  2    |                     coverage, while in other countries regional CRs cover up to
 300   II,     5.  3.  2    |                   cancer patients. For those countries with regional coverage,
 301   II,     5.  3.  2    |          establishing cancer registration in countries where is currently absent.~ ~
 302   II,     5.  3.  2    |              collected data from 34 European countries regarding teaching and continuing
 303   II,     5.  3.  2    |                       looking at 19 European countries aims to determine the existence
 304   II,     5.  3.  3    |                    estimates in the European countries for the year 2006 (Ferlay
 305   II,     5.  3.  3    |                      registration systems in countries. The data available comprise
 306   II,     5.  3.  3    |                   Data are included only for countries reporting data properly
 307   II,     5.  3.  3    |              available for selected European countries from the EUROCARE project (
 308   II,     5.  3.  3    |              relative survival show European countries ordered by their per capita
 309   II,     5.  3.  5    |             incidence rate compared to other countries with a similar GDP. In 2006
 310   II,     5.  3.  5    |             incidence rate compared to other countries with a similar GDP. In 2006
 311   II,     5.  3.  5    |                      in 2006).~Most European countries have experienced the peak
 312   II,     5.  3.  5    |                screening programs in various countries that anticipate incidence
 313   II,     5.  3.  5    |                      cervical cancer. If two countries have similar HPV infection
 314   II,     5.  3.  5    |              screening programmes in various countries. Countries with lower GDP
 315   II,     5.  3.  5    |             programmes in various countries. Countries with lower GDP may have
 316   II,     5.  3.  5    |                    PSA test in more affluent countries. In fact, the increase of
 317   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 survival in various European countries. The EUROCARE project aims
 318   II,     5.  3.  6    |                       The results of various countries are based mostly only on
 319   II,     5.  3.  6    |                     as proxy-older for other countries in macro-areas (i.e. Northern,
 320   II,     5.  3.  6    |                       Eastern Europe, Nordic countries, and West and South Europe)
 321   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    better survival than men. Countries with 5-year relative survival
 322   II,     5.  3.  6    |                      for women were Northern countries (Finland, Sweden, Iceland
 323   II,     5.  3.  6    |                      survival than the other countries with similar GDP both for
 324   II,     5.  3.  6    |                     December 1999 B) Women~ ~Countries fell into two stomach cancer
 325   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 women: on the one hand, most countries of Northern and Western
 326   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 Denmark and Eastern European countries, i.e those with the lowest
 327   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    women than in men in most countries.~Data on survival trends (
 328   II,     5.  3.  6    |                     in most Western European countries (France, Germany, Italy,
 329   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    33) exceeding 75% in most countries of Western Europe. In Finland,
 330   II,     5.  3.  6    |                     steadily in all European countries, but at different rates (
 331   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    Europe than in the Nordic countries, where survival rates were
 332   II,     5.  3.  6    |                     rates between the Nordic countries and Western Europe has greatly
 333   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    to other Western European countries. Conversely, improvements
 334   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  evident in Eastern European countries; actually , the gap between
 335   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 Eastern and Western European countries has increased (Coleman et
 336   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    improved steadily in most countries, but not in Eastern European
 337   II,     5.  3.  6    |                      not in Eastern European countries, where it has remained low (
 338   II,     5.  3.  6    |                Northern and Western European countries with effective cervical
 339   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    failed, survival in these countries is still higher than in
 340   II,     5.  3.  6    |                     than in Eastern European countries where there are no organised
 341   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    time was observed in most countries (data not showed). The main
 342   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 levels, whereas the European countries with the highest survival
 343   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    registries in 23 European countries on 2 699 086 adult cancer
 344   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  cancer was higher in Nordic countries (except Denmark) and central
 345   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    on health (TNEH) for most countries. Denmark and UK had lower
 346   II,     5.  3.  6    |                     all-cancer survival than countries with similar TNEH; Finland
 347   II,     5.  3.  6    |                      health-care services in countries with poor survival, might
 348   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  better cancer care. Wealthy countries with high TNEH generally
 349   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  higher in Northern European countries and lower in Eastern European
 350   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    lower in Eastern European countries, although, patients in Eastern
 351   II,     5.  3.  7    |                 identification of regions or countries in which survival could
 352   II,     5.  3.  7    |                      practice among European countries and pressure to raise consistently
 353   II,     5.  3.  7    |                 achieved, especially in some countries. There is still an urgent
 354   II,     5.  3.  7    |                    oncology in the different countries is often difficult to analyze,
 355   II,     5.  3.  7    |                    matter of concern in many countries. The use of anticancer drugs
 356   II,     5.  3.  7    |              significantly improved in other countries.~· An increasing number
 357   II,     5.  3.  7    |                      impact accessibility in countries with low purchasing power.
 358   II,     5.  3.  7    |                 Authorities in most European countries define, mainly at national
 359   II,     5.  3.  7    |                   national level and in some countries also at regional level,
 360   II,     5.  3.  7    |                    remain between and within countries in different healthcare
 361   II,     5.  3.  8    |                     of the elderly in richer countries)~· Focus on early diagnosis:
 362   II,     5.  3.  8    |               especially in Eastern European countries)~ ~Medium and long term
 363   II,     5.  3.  8    |                      control, that even rich countries may soon be unable to meet.
 364   II,     5.  4.  1    |                   T2DM is increasing in most countries worldwide (King 1998; Wild
 365   II,     5.  4.  1    |             population resides in developing countries. The regions with the highest
 366   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 Mexico and Egypt. Developing countries account for seven of the
 367   II,     5.  4.  1    |                     developed and developing countries (King 1998; Wild 2004).~ ~
 368   II,     5.  4.  1    |                    For low and middle-income countries, economic development leads
 369   II,     5.  4.  1    |                      type 2 diabetes in 8 EU countries: Belgium, France, Germany,
 370   II,     5.  4.  1    |                     et al 2002). For these 8 countries, the average annual costs
 371   II,     5.  4.  2    |               PatientsAssociations from EU countries joined diabetes experts
 372   II,     5.  4.  2    |               optimise health care in all EU countries through the definition of
 373   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   and comparable data across countries remains a difficult job,
 374   II,     5.  4.  2    |                frequent case where different countries/regions adopt different
 375   II,     5.  4.  2    |               problem at all ages and in all countries.~It causes prolonged ill
 376   II,     5.  4.  2    |                     death can be achieved.~ ~Countries should be given formal recognition
 377   II,     5.  4.  2    |             estimates refer to more than 200 Countries for the years 2007 and forecasts
 378   II,     5.  4.  2    |                Network (SPSN). In several EU countries, primary care based sentinel
 379   II,     5.  4.  2    |                reimbursement systems in most countries, mostly based on Diagnosis
 380   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   that is lacking in most EU countries at the national level.~ ~
 381   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   sales are recorded in most countries.~Through this source and
 382   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   doses adopted by different countries (Papoz 1993), which poses
 383   II,     5.  4.  2    |                availability in EUCID over 20 countries~ ~Core indicator~ ~Countries
 384   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 countries~ ~Core indicator~ ~Countries with recent data~Data sources~ ~
 385   II,     5.  4.  2    |                      all ages. Almost in all countries, prevalence reaches a peak
 386   II,     5.  4.  2    |                      for EUCID participating countries. Notably, the difference
 387   II,     5.  4.  2    |                    Germany) amongst the four countries that could provide data.~
 388   II,     5.  4.  2    |              indicator of all, through which countries can evaluate the long term
 389   II,     5.  4.  2    |                availability in EUCID over 20 countries~Secondary indicator~ ~Countries
 390   II,     5.  4.  2    |              countries~Secondary indicator~ ~Countries with~recent data~II Epidemiology
 391   II,     5.  4.  2    |                      extremely positive (60% countries above 90%) casts some doubts
 392   II,     5.  4.  2    |                     Europe with a total of 8 countries achieving a percentage of
 393   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   due to the small number of countries submitting data (N=2).~Fundus
 394   II,     5.  4.  3    |                      incidence in the Nordic countries (Lancet, 2000). These data
 395   II,     5.  4.  3    |                    observed in almost all EU countries over ten years, corresponding
 396   II,     5.  4.  3    |                    Germany) amongst the four countries that could provide data.~
 397   II,     5.  4.  3    |                   found a variation across 9 countries from 4 (Cyprus) to 149 (
 398   II,     5.  4.  3    |               diabetic population. Across 11 countries, the indicators varied between
 399   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  Portugal) per 100,000 in 10 countries delivering accurate data.
 400   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  2006) show results for 7 EU countries ranging between 77.4% (Spain)
 401   II,     5.  4.  3    |                   The median value across 11 countries is 60.5%, corresponding
 402   II,     5.  4.  3    |                     EUCID crude data from 12 countries are consistent with the
 403   II,     5.  4.  3    |                     indicator varies between countries from 5% (Scotland) to 94% (
 404   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 EUCID indicator varies in 11 countries between 44% (Ireland) and
 405   II,     5.  4.  3    |                     published by EUCID on 11 countries vary from 6% (Scotland)
 406   II,     5.  4.  3    |                    is not consistent amongst countries.~Measurement of triglycerides
 407   II,     5.  4.  3    |                     EUCID crude data from 11 countries present a range between
 408   II,     5.  4.  3    |                   factor was found across 11 countries in crude percentages of
 409   II,     5.  4.  3    |                    databases collected by 10 countries from 25% (Finland) to 97% (
 410   II,     5.  4.  3    |                   measured this value over 9 countries, showing a percentage of
 411   II,     5.  4.  3    |               pressure control. In EUCID, 11 countries provided data with a percentage
 412   II,     5.  4.  3    |                   and 46% (Sweden) across 12 countries, with a median of 30% for
 413   II,     5.  4.  3    |                    percentages from 11 EUCID countries report values between 10%
 414   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 Important variations between countries have been observed and may
 415   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 among diabetics. In EUCID 12 countries provided data; the percentage
 416   II,     5.  4.  3    |                       In EUCID there were 10 countries contributing data, showing
 417   II,     5.  4.  3    |                    median is 57%. Only three countries reported percentages above
 418   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  OECD collected data on 7 EU countries, with retinal examination
 419   II,     5.  4.  3    |                      EUCID report, only four countries contributed data, ranging
 420   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  creatinine ths. In EUCID 11 countries provided figures, ranging
 421   II,     5.  4.  3    |                   and Scotland. A total of 7 countries reported values above 90%.
 422   II,     5.  4.  3    |                     failure. In EUCID only 8 countries provided data, with figures
 423   II,     5.  4.  3    |                   measured by EUCID across 9 countries, varies from 78 (Scotland)
 424   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  reported by OECD from 13 EU countries lead to a median equal to
 425   II,     5.  4.  3    |                      In EUCID, a total of 10 countries reported a range between
 426   II,     5.  4.  4    |                   general population in most countries are now overweight. The
 427   II,     5.  4.  4    |                     65 and 74 yrs, where all countries approach at least a figure
 428   II,     5.  4.  4    |                      up to almost 50% in the countries with figures available for
 429   II,     5.  4.  4    |                     it is possible that some countries are using tracking systems
 430   II,     5.  4.  4    |                    dialysis/transplant among countries is even more striking, the
 431   II,     5.  4.  4    |                   variations in data between countries, which may be the result
 432   II,     5.  4.  4    |                      many procedures in most countries. Notably, fundus inspection
 433   II,     5.  4.  4    |            inspection is performed in 57% of countries submitting data, with information
 434   II,     5.  4.  6    |                     important in the case of countries reporting a percentage as
 435   II,     5.  4.  6    |                    future comparison between countries or regions); reproducibility
 436   II,     5.  4.  6    |                      The project involved 19 Countries and ended in 2008. As shown
 437   II,     5.  4.  6    |                    indicators in 20 European countries, confirming the current
 438   II,     5.  4.  6    |                     last years, with several countries taking steps to move forward
 439   II,     5.  4.  6    |                     to the IDF, among the 14 countries with no plan, six, namely
 440   II,     5.  4.  6    |                    normally published in all countries with the direct contribution
 441   II,     5.  4.  6    |                    duly considered by all EU countries. At the moment, these problems
 442   II,     5.  4.  8    |                 health systems level in OECD countries, OECD Health Technical Papers
 443   II,     5.  5.Int    |                   lifetime, costing the EU27 countries an estimated total of €300
 444   II,     5.  5.Int    |                      cared for. For example, countries in the European Region spend
 445   II,     5.  5.Int    |                     for older people.~ ~Some countries support people with severe
 446   II,     5.  5.Int    |                   employment, though in most countries economic inactivity remains
 447   II,     5.  5.Int    |                      mental health problems. Countries such as Italy and the UK
 448   II,     5.  5.Int    |              treatment. There are still many countries which continue to incarcerate
 449   II,     5.  5.Int    |                     in some Eastern European countries, but also in Belgium and
 450   II,     5.  5.Int    |                  prevalence rates in Western countries for anorexia nervosa in
 451   II,     5.  5.Int(18)|                      Western and non-Western countries.MedGenMed.6:49.~
 452   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   euro 118 bn in EU and EFTA countries (Sobocki et al 2006). The
 453   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      among the global top 15 countries in male suicide rates, and
 454   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  health morbidity between EU countries. There are also some discrepancies
 455   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      also be noted that some countries, e.g. Nordic Countries,
 456   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  some countries, e.g. Nordic Countries, currently receive information
 457   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  used in the same way in all countries. However, translation, even
 458   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      problems varies between countries and this may influence the
 459   II,     5.  5.  1    |            influenced by differences between countries in the availability of resources
 460   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      to be 15% in the ESEMeD countries. Lifetime prevalence of
 461   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      total in the six ESEMeD countries.~ ~Table 5.5.1.1 Lifetime
 462   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  disorders in the six ESEMeD countries~ ~About one third of those
 463   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 productivity in the 6 ESEMED countries, a burden higher than that
 464   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  disorders in the six ESEMeD countries~ ~Psychological distress~ ~
 465   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   there is variation between countries. Overall, 17% of the subjects
 466   II,     5.  5.  1    |               psychological distress between countries, taking Germany as the reference.
 467   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   reference. Three groups of countries could thus be distinguished:~ ~
 468   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  country Germany: the Nordic countries and Ireland~2) those with
 469   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 Germany : Most Mediterranean countries (Italy, Portugal, Greece,
 470   II,     5.  5.  1    |                        as well as the Baltic countries (Estonia, Lithuania and
 471   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 Central and Eastern European countries (Romania, Bulgaria, Poland,
 472   II,     5.  5.  1    |                number of Variables.~ ~In all countries, psychological distress
 473   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      of residence.~ ~In five countries (Portugal, Rumania, Austria,
 474   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   than older adults. In four countries (Sweden, Denmark, Great
 475   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    were not significant. The countries that experienced the most
 476   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   and very similar among all countries. In the 15-64 age group
 477   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   age groups, females in all countries have much lower suicide
 478   II,     5.  5.  1    |          health promotion Interventions into CountriesPolicies, Practice and
 479   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      health in many European countries, there are still common
 480   II,     5.  5.  1    |                     problems in six European countries. Psychiatric Services 58:
 481   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  gender-specific analysis of countries participating in the "European
 482   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 dementia in several European countries and came up with a set of
 483   II,     5.  5.  2    |                    and residential care. The countries covered in the study were
 484   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   prevalence rates for other countries where there may be other
 485   II,     5.  5.  2    |                    in Eastern Europe between countries with a high death rate and
 486   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 people with dementia in some countries and in the overall total
 487   II,     5.  5.  2(23)|                     EURO B category included countries with a low adult mortality
 488   II,     5.  5.  2(23)|               category covered all the other countries for which we calculated
 489   II,     5.  5.  2    |                dementia in selected EUGLOREH countries~ ~The calculations for the
 490   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 together.~ ~However, certain countries have lower percentages of
 491   II,     5.  5.  2    |                      83. Nevertheless, these countries all follow the same upward
 492   II,     5.  5.  2    |                      long-term care. In some countries (e.g. Luxembourg and Germany),
 493   II,     5.  5.  2    |                     care allowance. In other countries, long-term care is covered
 494   II,     5.  5.  2    |                    welfare services. In some countries, social support for people
 495   II,     5.  5.  2    |                     linked to disability. In countries where the emphasis is on
 496   II,     5.  5.  2    |                      close relative. In some countries, carers are supported in
 497   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   with dementia, but in some countries, support from the government
 498   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   therefore call on European countries to ratify the Hague Convention
 499   II,     5.  5.  2    |                guardianship measures in host countries. Three member states must
 500   II,     5.  5.  3    |              developing as well as developed countries and may even manifest themselves