Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  5.  3|     hepatitis, osteoporosis, altered pain sensitivity, sexual dysfunction,
  2   II,     5.  5.  3|          measures of general health, pain, role-emotion, and social
  3   II,     5.  6.  1|          most often characterised by pain and physical disability.
  4   II,     5.  6.  1|        symptomatic, such as low back pain.~ ~Musculoskeletal problems
  5   II,     5.  6.  1|              disorders e.g. low back pain; (4) regional and widespread
  6   II,     5.  6.  1|              regional and widespread pain disorders; (5) musculoskeletal
  7   II,     5.  6.  1|     arthritis, osteoporosis and back pain.~ ~Musculoskeletal problems
  8   II,     5.  6.  3|              Rates~ ~Musculoskeletal Pain and Disability~ ~Definitions~ ~
  9   II,     5.  6.  3|        Definitions~ ~Musculoskeletal pain is experienced by most people
 10   II,     5.  6.  3|              time.~ ~Musculoskeletal pain may be associated to a specific
 11   II,     5.  6.  3|              regional or generalized pain problem. It can be acute
 12   II,     5.  6.  3|              situation with low back pain; or may be chronic as is
 13   II,     5.  6.  3|             72 year-olds reported no pain during the previous year,
 14   II,     5.  6.  3|             reported musculoskeletal pain during the previous week
 15   II,     5.  6.  3|              15% had musculoskeletal pain every day during the previous
 16   II,     5.  6.  3|        prevalence of musculoskeletal pain increases mainly up to about
 17   II,     5.  6.  3|          decline in the complaint of pain has been noticed over 65
 18   II,     5.  6.  3|              chronic musculoskeletal pain (95% Cl) among all respondents (
 19   II,     5.  6.  3|    functioning, role functioning and pain.~ ~Musculoskeletal conditions
 20   II,     5.  6.  3|               1997). Musculoskeletal pain is usually associated to
 21   II,     5.  6.  3|         greater with more widespread pain, back pain and knee pain (
 22   II,     5.  6.  3|           more widespread pain, back pain and knee pain (Urwin et
 23   II,     5.  6.  3|             pain, back pain and knee pain (Urwin et al, 1998). In
 24   II,     5.  6.  3|          muscle, joint, neck or back pain which affected their daily
 25   II,     5.  6.  3|          restrictive musculoskeletal pain (Eurobarometer Special Report
 26   II,     5.  6.  3|            is characterized by joint pain, tenderness, limitation
 27   II,     5.  6.  3|            and the presence of joint pain most days (Altman et al,
 28   II,     5.  6.  3|          1964), leading to increased pain and disability (Dougados
 29   II,     5.  6.  3| physical activity (Table 5.6.4). The pain and disability associated
 30   II,     5.  6.  3|       symptoms. The presence of knee pain without an examination or
 31   II,     5.  6.  3|            Osteoarthritis results in pain, loss of motion of affected
 32   II,     5.  6.  3|             a major cause of chronic pain and disability resulting
 33   II,     5.  6.  3|              modifying drugs, better pain management and joint replacement
 34   II,     5.  6.  3|           later she may present back pain, with or without minor trauma,
 35   II,     5.  6.  3|         corticosteroid use. The back pain may remit and relapse with
 36   II,     5.  6.  3|              Hip fracture results in pain, loss of mobility and excess
 37   II,     5.  6.  3|             age or with comorbidity. Pain and loss of spinal movement
 38   II,     5.  6.  3|        deformities, is associated to pain and long-term impairment
 39   II,     5.  6.  3|           the absence of significant pain, whilst undiagnosed vertebral
 40   II,     5.  6.  3|          Community 1998).~ ~Low Back pain~ ~Definition~ ~Low back
 41   II,     5.  6.  3|                Definition~ ~Low back pain is a major health and socio-economic
 42   II,     5.  6.  3|            more episodes of low back pain in their lives. It is usually
 43   II,     5.  6.  3|             It is usually defined as pain localised below the line
 44   II,     5.  6.  3|           1986), with or without leg pain. It is usually classified
 45   II,     5.  6.  3|         non-specific”. Specific back pain is defined as symptoms caused
 46   II,     5.  6.  3|              of people with low back pain have no clearly defined
 47   II,     5.  6.  3|                Non-specific low back pain is usually classified according
 48   II,     5.  6.  3|           and recurrence. Acute back pain is of less than 6 weeks
 49   II,     5.  6.  3|          described as recurrent back pain.~ ~Natural history~ ~Most
 50   II,     5.  6.  3|            Most episodes of low back pain settle after a couple of
 51   II,     5.  6.  3|    exacerbations of chronic low back pain. Many people with chronic
 52   II,     5.  6.  3|         people with chronic low back pain also have widespread pain.~ ~
 53   II,     5.  6.  3|            pain also have widespread pain.~ ~Incidence~ ~There are
 54   II,     5.  6.  3|            the incidence of low back pain with sciatica was 11.6 /
 55   II,     5.  6.  3|         history of previous low back pain.~ ~Prevalence~ ~Lifetime
 56   II,     5.  6.  3|            between 58% and 84%. Back pain is very common but the prevalence
 57   II,     5.  6.  3|              that are suffering back pain at a particular point in
 58   II,     5.  6.  3|           The occurrence of low back pain is associated with age,
 59   II,     5.  6.  3|            to the occurrence of back pain are anxiety, depression,
 60   II,     5.  6.  3|            emotional instability and pain behaviour. Occupational
 61   II,     5.  6.  3|              loss attributed to back pain more than physical aspects
 62   II,     5.  6.  3|       society (socioeconomic)~ ~Back pain has a marked effect on the
 63   II,     5.  6.  3|            The problem is defined by pain, which is often persistent
 64   II,     5.  6.  3|              a background of chronic pain. Pain is often worse with
 65   II,     5.  6.  3|          background of chronic pain. Pain is often worse with prolonged
 66   II,     5.  6.  3|              have chronic widespread pain. Strenuous activities as
 67   II,     5.  6.  3|           during the episode of back pain by worsening of the pain
 68   II,     5.  6.  3|             pain by worsening of the pain and after the episode by
 69   II,     5.  6.  3|              90% of the cost of back pain is indirect due to work
 70   II,     5.  6.  3|           for prevention in low back pain http ). The costs are mainly
 71   II,     5.  6.  3|               25% of those with back pain persisting for more than
 72   II,     5.  6.  3|              cases with chronic back pain, the impact on health and
 73   II,     5.  6.  3|              non-specific widespread pain condition.~ ~Future trends~ ~
 74   II,     5.  6.  4|            the individual. A chronic pain condition might lead to
 75   II,     5.  6.  4|             over 4 days had low back pain, 20% neck and shoulder disorders
 76   II,     5.  6.  6|      Epidemiological aspects of back pain. J Soc Occup Med 36:90-94~
 77   II,     5.  6.  6|         features of chronic low-back pain. Lancet 354:581-585~Andersson
 78   II,     5.  6.  6|          Rosenberg C (1993): Chronic pain in a geographically defined
 79   II,     5.  6.  6|            gender, social class, and pain localization. Clin J Pain
 80   II,     5.  6.  6|            pain localization. Clin J Pain 9:174-182~Arnett FC, Edworthy
 81   II,     5.  6.  6|              Chronic musculoskeletal pain, prevalence rates, and sociodemographic
 82   II,     5.  6.  6|             Frymoyer JW (1988): Back pain and sciatica. N Engl J Med
 83   II,     5.  6.  6|               1997): Musculoskeletal pain and quality of life in patients
 84   II,     5.  6.  6|           with noninflammatory joint pain compared to rheumatoid arthritis:
 85   II,     5.  6.  6|              C, Coggon D (2000) Back pain in Britain: comparison of
 86   II,     5.  6.  6|               2004): Musculoskeletal pain in Europe: its impact and
 87   II,     5. 11.  1|            organ which distinguishes pain, touch, itching, heat and
 88   II,     5. 11.  4|           leg ulcers produce chronic pain and limit the ability to
 89   II,     5. 14.  1|              Ismail, 2007). To avoid pain and discomfort, decayed
 90   II,     5. 14.  3|       sequelae can cause significant pain and are expensive to treat.
 91   II,     5. 14.  3|         population. Measures of oral pain and oral functional limitation
 92   II,     5. 14.  3|             with dental emergencies (pain/problems) rather than for
 93   II,     8.  2.  2|            impaired quality of life, pain, suffering and premature
 94   II,     9        |          disease, and chronic pelvic pain. There is a significant
 95   II,     9.  2.  3|           disease and chronic pelvic pain. Adolescents tend to underestimate,
 96   II,     9.  2.  4|          disease, and chronic pelvic pain. There is a significant
 97   II,     9.  3.  1|              and~· the experience of pain.~ ~The above listed differences
 98   II,     9.  3.  1|           widespread musculoskeletal pain and fatigue disorder for
 99   II,     9.  3.  1|              still unknown, leads to pain in the soft fibrous tissues
100   II,     9.  3.  2|           delivery (such as invasive pain relief and Caesarean section).~ ~
101   II,     9.  5.  3|             manifests itself as back pain (30%), stress (28%), muscular
102   II,     9.  5.  3|            more from accidents, back pain and hearing loss (EU Agency
103  III,    10.  3.  3|             to the muscles, muscular pain and fever become characteristic
104   IV,    11.  4    |          Diabetes type-2 or low back pain, to alerts on single technologies
105   IV,    13.  6.  1|         those of:~ ~· Discomfort and pain on the child;~· Anxiety,
106  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|                       paediatricians~pain~palliative~palsy~pancreas~