Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    -,     1            |               available data (see Appendix 5) for preparing the Report
   2    -,     1            |                   Report, constituting its 5 Parts, has been structured
   3    I,     2.  1        |                   in EU15 than the roughly 5% accounted for by the financial
   4    I,     2.  2        |                  well as on supply. The 17.5% increase of international
   5    I,     2.  3        |                migration and over the last 5 years, EU net migrant inflows
   6    I,     2.  5        |                                          2.5. Unemployment rates and
   7    I,     2.  5        |              During the period 2006-2007 6.5 million new jobs have been
   8    I,     2.  5        |                   2030 (older workers + 15.5%, young adults -10%).~ ~
   9    I,     2.  5        |                  at which people retire by 5 years (the Barcelona target).
  10    I,     2.  6        |               education (i.e. ISCED levels 5 or 6) in 2003/2004~ ~This
  11    I,     2.  6        |                   men enrolled in ISCED in 5 level programmes in EU Member
  12    I,     2.  6        |                graduating with ISCED level 5 qualifications in the EU25,
  13    I,     2.  6        |                  programmes at ISCED level 5, outnumbering men by more
  14    I,     2.  7        |             expected to increase to almost 5 billion (UNFPA, 2007). In
  15    I,     2.  9        |            increases in Europe between 1.05.5 °C by the end of the century,
  16    I,     2.  9        |                    in Europe between 1.0–5.5 °C by the end of the century,
  17    I,     2.  9        |               increases by between 0.2 and 5.5 % for every 1 °C increase
  18    I,     2.  9        |             increases by between 0.2 and 5.5 % for every 1 °C increase
  19    I,     2. 10.  2    |                  Iron-oxide nanoparticles (5-100 nm range) are used for
  20    I,     2. 10.  3(7) |                 Review. Geneva, ILO; 134(4-5),587-603.~
  21    I,     2. 10.  5    |                                       2.10.5. Health technology assessment~ ~
  22    I,     2. 11        |                 Review. Geneva, ILO; 134(4-5),587-603~International Labour
  23    I,     2. 11        |               Health Perspectives, 115(1), 5-12~Suhrcke M, McKee M, Sauto
  24    I,     3.  1        |            children per woman) was below 2.5 only in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic,
  25    I,     3.  1        |                    fertility rates below 1.5 in 2005.~ ~The overall fertility
  26    I,     3.  1        |                   the percentage was about 5. In general, the percentages
  27    I,     3.  2        |               population to 6% in 2025 and 5% in 2050 (EUROSTAT). During
  28    I,     3.  2        |                   lowest was in Bulgaria (-5%).~ ~Figure 3.2. Population
  29    I,     3.  2        |             Netherlands and the UK between 5 and 10%. Five Countries
  30    I,     3.  2        |                      the UK (7%), Poland ( 5%), Italy (3%) and Netherlands (
  31    I,     3.  2        |                migration and over the last 5 years, EU net migrant inflows
  32    I,     3.  3        |                    EU27 in 2006~ ~Figure 3.5. Age composition in the
  33    I,     3.  3        |                    Figure 3.4 and Figure 3.5). Since population pyramids
  34    I,     3.  3        |                  trend in ageing. Figure 3.5.3 shows the percentage of
  35    I,     3.  3        |                    from 21.6 in 1980 to 25.5 in 2005. The country specific
  36    I,     3.  3        |                   the European Union was 1.5% during the last 20 years.
  37    I,     3.  3        |               Portugal (1.6%) and Spain (1.5%).~ ~Nevertheless, some
  38   II,     4.  1        |                  years for women including 5 to 6 years with severe limitations.
  39   II,     4.  1        |                   of 50 is much smaller, 1.5 years, than the total longevity
  40   II,     4.  1        |                   If we consider a gain of 5% between 1995 and 2001 to
  41   II,     4.  1        |                  compression and a loss of 5% to signify expansion then
  42   II,     4.  1        |                range from 65.3 years to 78.5 years (13.2 years gap) for
  43   II,     4.  1        |                   gap) for men and from 76.5 years to 84.0 years (7.5
  44   II,     4.  1        |                   5 years to 84.0 years (7.5 years gap) for women. The
  45   II,     4.  1        |         respectively from 48.0 years to 68.5 years (20.5 years gap) for
  46   II,     4.  1        |                    years to 68.5 years (20.5 years gap) for men and from
  47   II,     4.  1        |                    years to 23.6 years (14.5 years gap) for men and from
  48   II,     4.  1        |                   50 the HLY gaps reach 14.5 years for men and 13.7 years
  49   II,     4.  1        |             Welfare, 2006).5~ ~ ~Table 4.1.5. Life expectancy at birth (
  50   II,     4.  1        |                     per gender~ ~Table 4.1.5 shows firstly that by 2005
  51   II,     4.  1        |                that gender gaps range from 5.2 years in the USA to 7
  52   II,     4.  1        |                  annually) and EHIS (every 5 years) will provide the
  53   II,     4.  2        |                 cancer (causes 2, 3, 4 and 5 in table 3), had a smaller
  54   II,     4.  2        |             selected countries~ ~Table 4.2.5 shows that cancers caused
  55   II,     4.  2        |                  in the 1980s.~ ~Table 4.2.5. The effect of smoking related
  56   II,     4.  2        |                   if we compare Figure 4.2.5 with Figure 4.2.2). In that
  57   II,     4.  2        |                take 30 years.~ ~Figure 4.2.5. Relationship between the
  58   II,     5            |                                            5.~HEALTH IMPACTS OF NON COMMUNICABLE
  59   II,     5.  1        |                                            5.1. Introduction~ ~
  60   II,     5.  1.  1    |                                            5.1.1. Main non-communicable
  61   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 each Member States (Figure 5.1.1). At individual level,
  62   II,     5.  1.  1    |           non-communicable diseases (Table 5.1.1). On the other hand,
  63   II,     5.  1.  1    |                   all conditions.~ ~Figure 5.1.1a. Proportion of cardiovascular
  64   II,     5.  1.  1    |                   EU27 – A) Women~ ~Figure 5.1.1b. Proportion of cardiovascular
  65   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 EU27B) Men.~ ~ ~ ~Table 5.1.1. Risk factors for non-communicable
  66   II,     5.  1.  1    |                   and problems~See section 5.6.~Respiratory diseases
  67   II,     5.  1.  1    |          associated with smoking more than 5 cigarettes per day was about
  68   II,     5.  1.  1    |              periodontitis and make them 2-5 times more susceptible to
  69   II,     5.  1.  2    |                                            5.1.2. Patient centeredness~ ~
  70   II,     5.  1.  3    |                                            5.1.3. Therapeutic patient
  71   II,     5.  1.  4    |                                            5.1.4. Participation of patients
  72   II,     5.  2        |                                            5.2. Cardiovascular diseases~ ~
  73   II,     5.  2.  1    |                                            5.2.1. Introduction~ ~Diseases
  74   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                            5.2.2. Data sources~The magnitude
  75   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                            5.2.2.1. Ischemic heart disease~ ~
  76   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                            5.2.2.2. Stroke~ ~Mortality~
  77   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                            5.2.2.3 Risk factors~CVD clinically
  78   II,     5.  2.  3    |                                            5.2.3. Data description and
  79   II,     5.  2.  3    |                                            5.2.3.1. Ischemic heart disease~ ~
  80   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    of deaths in EU (Figure 5.1.1). Around half of the
  81   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    As explained in chapter 5.2.2Data sources’, it was
  82   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    Europe countries (Table 5.2.1). According to the most
  83   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    167 in Latvia).~ ~Table 5.2.1. Ischemic heart diseases (
  84   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    men are shown in Figure 5.2.1: in all countries from
  85   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  be found in women (Figure 5.2.2) for whom mortality
  86   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  23 per 100.000).~ ~Figure 5.2.1. Age-standardized mortality
  87   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  aged 35-74 years~ ~Figure 5.2.2. Age-standardized mortality
  88   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  years~ ~Morbidity~ ~Table 5.2.2 shows IHD and AMI hospital
  89   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   in medical care.~ ~Table 5.2.2. Crude hospital discharge
  90   II,     5.  2.  3    |           considered and reported in Table 5.2.3 (Allender et al, 2008).
  91   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 patients with IHD.~ ~Table 5.2.3. Crude rates per 1 million
  92   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 Project, reported in Table 5.2.4; here we can see mean
  93   II,     5.  2.  3    |              Working Group, 2003).~ ~Table 5.2.4. WHO-MONICA 13 EU population.
  94   II,     5.  2.  3    |                                            5.2.3.2. Stroke~Data on morbidity
  95   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   among countries.~ ~Table 5.2.5. Age-standardized (standard
  96   II,     5.  2.  3    |               among countries.~ ~Table 5.2.5. Age-standardized (standard
  97   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  higher. As shown in table 5.2.5, in the age range 75-
  98   II,     5.  2.  3    |              higher. As shown in table 5.2.5, in the age range 75-84
  99   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    men are shown in Figure 5.2.3; from 1994 to 2003 mortality
 100   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   Eastern Europe.~ ~Figure 5.2.3. Age-standardized (standard
 101   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  be found in women (Figure 5.2.4) for which mortality
 102   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 Europe countries.~ ~Figure 5.2.4. Age-standardized (standard
 103   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  years~ ~Morbidity~ ~Table 5.2.2 also shows stroke hospital
 104   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 data are reported in Table 5.2.6: here mean attack rates
 105   II,     5.  2.  3    |                Sarti et al, 2003).~ ~Table 5.2.6. WHO-MONICA Project
 106   II,     5.  2.  4    |                                            5.2.4. Risk factors~ ~
 107   II,     5.  2.  4    |                                            5.2.4.1. Risk factors in primary
 108   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 examination surveys. Table 5.2.7 (htt b, 2007) provides
 109   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  90 mmHg; 160 mmHg).~Table 5.2.8 shows data on total
 110   II,     5.  2.  4    |           different existing definitions ( 5.2 mmol/l, 6.2, 6.5 or 7.
 111   II,     5.  2.  4    |           definitions ( 5.2 mmol/l, 6.2, 6.5 or 7.8) and difficulties
 112   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 among elderly women.~Table 5.2.9 reports smoking habit
 113   II,     5.  2.  4    |                   also Chapter 8).~ ~Table 5.2.7. Estimated prevalence
 114   II,     5.  2.  4    |                   22 EU countries.~ ~Table 5.2.8. Estimated mean values
 115   II,     5.  2.  4    |              different age ranges.~ ~Table 5.2.9. Estimated prevalence
 116   II,     5.  2.  4    |              Obesity and overweight (Table 5.2.10) are also included
 117   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  et al, 2008) (see Chapter 5.1.4). Recent evidence suggests
 118   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  also Chapter 10).~ ~Table 5.2.10. Estimated prevalence
 119   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  WHO-MONICA Project (Table 5.2.11) collected between
 120   II,     5.  2.  4    |          environmental conditions.~ ~Table 5.2.11. Prevalence of smoking (%),
 121   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  been smokers (see Chapter 5.1.2.).~Unfortunately, despite
 122   II,     5.  2.  5    |                                            5.2.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
 123   II,     5.  2.  5    |                                        5.2.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
 124   II,     5.  2.  5    |                                            5.2.5.1. Prevention~ ~In 1982,
 125   II,     5.  2.  5    |                                        5.2.5.1. Prevention~ ~In 1982,
 126   II,     5.  2.  5    |                   environment see Sections 5.1. or 5.2.; for diabetes
 127   II,     5.  2.  5    |           environment see Sections 5.1. or 5.2.; for diabetes mellitus
 128   II,     5.  2.  5    |                   mellitus see Section 3.1.5. Annex 1 is also relevant
 129   II,     5.  2.  5    |                                            5.2.5.2. Policy~ ~· In 2002,
 130   II,     5.  2.  5    |                                        5.2.5.2. Policy~ ~· In 2002, the
 131   II,     5.  2.  6    |                                            5.2.6. Future developments~ ~
 132   II,     5.  2.  6    |                   by 1% will induce within 5 years a 1% reduction of
 133   II,     5.  2.  6    |                salt) intake to less than 1,5 g (3,8 g) per day, an increased
 134   II,     5.  2.  6    |                 references can be found in 5.2.7)~Baigent C, Keech A,
 135   II,     5.  2.  7    |                                            5.2.7. References~Allender
 136   II,     5.  3        |                                            5.3. Cancer~ ~
 137   II,     5.  3.  1    |                                            5.3.1 Introduction~ ~Cancer
 138   II,     5.  3.  1    |           diagnosis (i.e. 1-year, 3-years, 5-years after diagnosis);~ ~
 139   II,     5.  3.  1    |                    health relevance. Table 5.3.1 shows the burden of
 140   II,     5.  3.  1    |                 estimated in 2006.~ ~Table 5.3.1. Estimated incident
 141   II,     5.  3.  2    |                                            5.3.2 Data sources~ ~
 142   II,     5.  3.  2    |                                            5.3.2.1 Cancer Registration~ ~
 143   II,     5.  3.  2    |                                            5.3.2.2 Data from European
 144   II,     5.  3.  3    |                                            5.3.3 Data presentation~ ~
 145   II,     5.  3.  3    |                  as supplied by the WHO.~- 5-year relative survival for
 146   II,     5.  3.  3    |                   incidence, mortality and 5-year relative survival show
 147   II,     5.  3.  4    |                                            5.3.3 Risk factors~ ~The majority
 148   II,     5.  3.  5    |                                            5.3.4 Mortality and incidence
 149   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   incidence rates (Figures 5.3.1) were estimated in Hungary
 150   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   mortality rates (Figures 5.3.3) were estimated in Hungary
 151   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  cases per 100,000, Figure 5.3.2a) and in Northern Europe
 152   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  cases per 100,000, Figure 5.3.2b), while the highest
 153   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 deaths per 100,000, Figure 5.3.4a) and again in Northern
 154   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 deaths per 100,000, Figure 5.3.4b).~Figures 5.3.2 show
 155   II,     5.  3.  5    |                    Figure 5.3.4b).~Figures 5.3.2 show that incidence
 156   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   On the contrary, Figures 5.3.4 show that mortality
 157   II,     5.  3.  5    |               constant for women.~ ~Figure 5.3.1a. All cancer (ICD9 140-
 158   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.1b. All cancer (ICD9 140-
 159   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.2a. Trends of all cancer (
 160   II,     5.  3.  5    |             standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.2b. Trends of all cancer (
 161   II,     5.  3.  5    |                    sex B) Women~ ~ ~Figure 5.3.3a. All cancer (ICD9 140-
 162   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.3b. All cancer (ICD9 140-
 163   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.4a. Trends of all cancer (
 164   II,     5.  3.  5    |             standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.4b. Trends of all cancer (
 165   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   incidence rates (Figures 5.3.5) were estimated in Macedonia
 166   II,     5.  3.  5    |               incidence rates (Figures 5.3.5) were estimated in Macedonia
 167   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   mortality rates (Figures 5.3.7) were estimated in Lithuania
 168   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 for men and women (Figures 5.3.5 and Figures 5.3.7).
 169   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 men and women (Figures 5.3.5 and Figures 5.3.7). Stomach
 170   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  Figures 5.3.5 and Figures 5.3.7). Stomach cancer incidence (
 171   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  mortality trends (Figures 5.3.8) are decreasing both
 172   II,     5.  3.  5    |                    and mortality.~ ~Figure 5.3.5a. Stomach cancer (ICD9
 173   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.5b. Stomach cancer (ICD9
 174   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.6a. Trends of stomach
 175   II,     5.  3.  5    |             standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.6b. Trends of stomach
 176   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   by sex B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.7a. Stomach cancer (ICD9
 177   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.7b. Stomach cancer (ICD9
 178   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.8a. Trends of stomach
 179   II,     5.  3.  5    |             standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.8b. Trends of stomach
 180   II,     5.  3.  5    |               Ferlay et al, 2007). Figures 5.3.9 show that maximum incidence
 181   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 for men and women (Figures 5.3.10) (65 new cases in men
 182   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 100,000 in women). Figures 5.3.11 show that Hungary,
 183   II,     5.  3.  5    |              Europe mainly for men (Figure 5.3.10a). Male mortality rates (
 184   II,     5.  3.  5    |                    mortality rates (Figure 5.3.12a) are declining in
 185   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  Southern Europe.~ ~Figure 5.3.9a. Colorectal cancer (
 186   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.9b. Colorectal cancer (
 187   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.10a. Trends of colorectal
 188   II,     5.  3.  5    |             standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.10b. Trends of colorectal
 189   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   by sex B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.11a. Colorectal cancer (
 190   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.11b. Colorectal cancer (
 191   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.12a. Trends of colorectal
 192   II,     5.  3.  5    |             standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.12b. Trends of colorectal
 193   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   rates are lower.~Figures 5.3.13a and 5.3.15a show that
 194   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 lower.~Figures 5.3.13a and 5.3.15a show that Hungary
 195   II,     5.  3.  5    |                levels of incidence (Figure 5.3.14a) and mortality (Figure
 196   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 14a) and mortality (Figure 5.3.16a) rates (in respect
 197   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  maximum incidence (Figure 5.3.14b) and mortality (Figure
 198   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 14b) and mortality (Figure 5.3.16b) rates for women (
 199   II,     5.  3.  5    |             considered as shown in Figures 5.3.14a and 5.3.16a. In contrast,
 200   II,     5.  3.  5    |               shown in Figures 5.3.14a and 5.3.16a. In contrast, incidence
 201   II,     5.  3.  5    |               increasing for women (Figure 5.3.14b and 5.3.16b).~ ~Figure
 202   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  women (Figure 5.3.14b and 5.3.16b).~ ~Figure 5.3.13a.
 203   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 14b and 5.3.16b).~ ~Figure 5.3.13a. Lung cancer (ICD9
 204   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.13b. Lung cancer (ICD9
 205   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.14a. Trends of lung cancer (
 206   II,     5.  3.  5    |             standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.14b. Trends of lung cancer (
 207   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   by sex B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.15a. Lung cancer (ICD9
 208   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  sex in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.15b. Lung cancer (ICD9
 209   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  in 2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.16a. Trends of lung cancer (
 210   II,     5.  3.  5    |             standard) by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.16b. Trends of lung cancer (
 211   II,     5.  3.  5    |           screening implementation.~Figure 5.3.17 shows that the maximum
 212   II,     5.  3.  5    |                associated with GDP.~Figure 5.3.19 shows that in 2007
 213   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   Mortality trends (Figure 5.3.20) are decreasing in
 214   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   Eastern Europe.~ ~Figure 5.3.17. Female breast cancer (
 215   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   standard) in 2006~Figure 5.3.18. Trends of female breast
 216   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  European standard)~Figure 5.3.19. Female breast cancer (
 217   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   standard) in 2006~Figure 5.3.20. Trends of female breast
 218   II,     5.  3.  5    |                associated with GDP (Figure 5.3.21). This could be caused
 219   II,     5.  3.  5    |                    Northern Europe (Figure 5.3.22 and Figure 5.3.24)
 220   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   Figure 5.3.22 and Figure 5.3.24) where there are well-developed
 221   II,     5.  3.  5    |               screening programs.~ ~Figure 5.3.21. Cervical cancer (ICD9
 222   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   standard) in 2002~Figure 5.3.22. Trends of cervical
 223   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  European standard)~Figure 5.3.23. Uterus cancer standardized
 224   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  20-44 in 1996-2001~Figure 5.3.24. Trends of uterus cancer
 225   II,     5.  3.  5    |                associated with GDP (Figure 5.3.25) possibly due to the
 226   II,     5.  3.  5    |                    Southern Europe (Figure 5.3.26) reflects the PSA test
 227   II,     5.  3.  5    |           Mortality rates by years (Figure 5.3.28) are constant in Northern
 228   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   Eastern Europe.~ ~Figure 5.3.25. Prostate cancer (ICD9
 229   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   standard) in 2006~Figure 5.3.26. Trends of prostate
 230   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  European standard)~Figure 5.3.27. Prostate cancer (ICD9
 231   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   standard) in 2006~Figure 5.3.28. Trends of prostate
 232   II,     5.  3.  6    |                                            5.3.5 Survival data discussion~ ~
 233   II,     5.  3.  6    |                                        5.3.5 Survival data discussion~ ~
 234   II,     5.  3.  6    |                                            5.3.5.1 Childhood cancer survival~ ~
 235   II,     5.  3.  6    |                                        5.3.5.1 Childhood cancer survival~ ~
 236   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 1994. Sex-and-age-adjusted 5-year survival trends for
 237   II,     5.  3.  6    |                childhood cancers combined, 5-years survival increased
 238   II,     5.  3.  6    |                                            5.3.5.2 Adult cancer survival~ ~
 239   II,     5.  3.  6    |                                        5.3.5.2 Adult cancer survival~ ~
 240   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    For this reason Figures 5.3.29 show 5-year relative
 241   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 reason Figures 5.3.29 show 5-year relative survival for
 242   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   than men. Countries with 5-year relative survival higher
 243   II,     5.  3.  6    |                Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.29a. All cancers (ICD9
 244   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 age- and site-standardized 5-year relative survival by
 245   II,     5.  3.  6    |                December 1999 A) Men~Figure 5.3.29b. All cancers (ICD9
 246   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 age- and site-standardized 5-year relative survival by
 247   II,     5.  3.  6    |                level of prognosis (Figures 5.3.30). 5-year relative survival
 248   II,     5.  3.  6    |                prognosis (Figures 5.3.30). 5-year relative survival was
 249   II,     5.  3.  6    |                Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.30a. Stomach cancer (ICD9
 250   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 ICD9 151) age-standardized 5-year relative survival by
 251   II,     5.  3.  6    |                December 1999 A) Men~Figure 5.3.30b. Stomach cancer (ICD9
 252   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 ICD9 151) age-standardized 5-year relative survival by
 253   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   December 1999 B) Women~ ~5-year colorectal cancer relative
 254   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 relative survival (Figures 5.3.31) was over than 48%
 255   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    indicate that in Europe 5-year relative survival for
 256   II,     5.  3.  6    |                Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.31a. Colorectal cancer (
 257   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  153,154) age-standardized 5-year relative survival by
 258   II,     5.  3.  6    |                December 1999 A) Men~Figure 5.3.31b. Colorectal cancer (
 259   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  153,154) age-standardized 5-year relative survival by
 260   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    poor, with age-adjusted 5-year relative survival ~
 261   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  in men and women (Figures 5.3.32). Estimates of 1-year
 262   II,     5.  3.  6    |              survival improvement in time. 5-year age-adjusted relative
 263   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    Europe increased from 7.5% in men diagnosed in 1983–
 264   II,     5.  3.  6    |                Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.32a. Lung cancer (ICD9
 265   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 ICD9 162) age-standardized 5-year relative survival by
 266   II,     5.  3.  6    |                December 1999 A) Men~Figure 5.3.32b. Lung cancer (ICD9
 267   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 ICD9 162) age-standardized 5-year relative survival by
 268   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   is relatively good, with 5-year relative survival (
 269   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  relative survival (Figure 5.3.33) exceeding 75% in most
 270   II,     5.  3.  6    |                     Malta and Portugal had 5-year age-standardised survival
 271   II,     5.  3.  6    |                Slovakia and Slovenia) with 5-year relative survival rate
 272   II,     5.  3.  6    |             Coleman et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.33. Female breast cancer (
 273   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 ICD9 174) age-standardized 5-year relative survival.
 274   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    to 31st December 1999~ ~5-year relative survival for
 275   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    in Sweden (70%) (Figure 5.3.34) (Sant et al, 2003).
 276   II,     5.  3.  6    |             Coleman et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.34. Cervical cancer (ICD9
 277   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 ICD9 180) age-standardized 5-year relative survival.
 278   II,     5.  3.  6    |               survival for prostate cancer 5 years after diagnosis stood
 279   II,     5.  3.  6    |             diagnosis stood at 67% (Figure 5.3.35). 5-year relative survival
 280   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    at 67% (Figure 5.3.35). 5-year relative survival rates
 281   II,     5.  3.  6    |                Sant et al, 2003). European 5-year relative survival increased
 282   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   Exceptional increases in 5-year relative survival for
 283   II,     5.  3.  6    |             Coleman et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.35. Prostate cancer (ICD9
 284   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 ICD9 185) age-standardized 5-year relative survival.
 285   II,     5.  3.  6    |               December, 2003.~Age-adjusted 5-year relative survival for
 286   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   in the EUROCARE-4 study. 5-year period relative survival
 287   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  all cancers, age-adjusted 5-year period survival improved
 288   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 cancers. The European mean 5-year relative survival was
 289   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                            5.3.6 Control tools and policies~ ~
 290   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                            5.3.6.1 Primary prevention~ ~
 291   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                            5.3.6.2 Early diagnosis (secondary
 292   II,     5.  3.  7    |              pre-cancer lesions (with 3 or 5 years of interval); women
 293   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                            5.3.6.3. Oncologic care and
 294   II,     5.  3.  7    |                     as increases in costs >5% are often difficult to
 295   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                            5.3.6.4 Cancer Plans~ ~Definition
 296   II,     5.  3.  7    |                   Member States (see Table 5.3.2) consider national cancer
 297   II,     5.  3.  7    |                    cancer control.~ ~Table 5.3.2. Cancer national control
 298   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                            5.3.6.5 Research collaboration~ ~
 299   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                      5.3.6.5 Research collaboration~ ~
 300   II,     5.  3.  8    |                                            5.3.7 Future developments~ ~
 301   II,     5.  3.  9    |                                            5.3.8 References~ ~Berrino
 302   II,     5.  3.  9    |               century. Ann Oncol 14 (suppl 5):v128-v149.~ ~ESMO (2006):
 303   II,     5.  3.  9    |            commentary. Ann Oncol 14 (suppl 5):v61-v118.~ ~Stewart BW,
 304   II,     5.  4        |                                            5.4. Diabetes~
 305   II,     5.  4.  1    |                                            5.4.1 Introduction~Diabetes
 306   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 the next 20 years. (Figure 5.4.1). The latest edition
 307   II,     5.  4.  1    |                  reports a prevalence of 8.5% in the EU 27 Member States,
 308   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 1998; Wild 2004).~ ~Figure 5.4.1. The Growing Diabetes
 309   II,     5.  4.  1    |                  worldwide prevalence of 7.5%, estimated to increase
 310   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                            5.4.2 Data sources~ ~ ~
 311   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                            5.4.2 Data sources~ ~The different
 312   II,     5.  4.  2    |         fundamental recommendations (Table 5.4.1). The Declaration acknowledged
 313   II,     5.  4.  2    |               international level.~ ~Table 5.4.1. Recommendations St.
 314   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                            5.4.2.1. National and regional
 315   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                            5.4.2.2. IDF Diabetes Atlas~ ~
 316   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                            5.4.2.3. Quality of care monitoring~ ~
 317   II,     5.  4.  2    |           Greenfield et al 2004, see Table 5.4.2), only three were available
 318   II,     5.  4.  2    |                Outcomes Framework.~ ~Table 5.4.2. OECD indicators~ ~ ~
 319   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                            5.4.2.4. Health Surveys~ ~
 320   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                            5.4.2.5. Sentinel Surveillance
 321   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                      5.4.2.5. Sentinel Surveillance Network~ ~
 322   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                            5.4.2.6. Hospital discharge
 323   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                            5.4.2.7. Insurance/reimbursement
 324   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                            5.4.2.8. National drug sales~ ~
 325   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                            5.4.2.9. Conclusion~ ~Different
 326   II,     5.  4.  2    |                    are presented in Tables 5.4.3 and 5.4.4.~ ~Table 5.
 327   II,     5.  4.  2    |              presented in Tables 5.4.3 and 5.4.4.~ ~Table 5.4.3. EUDIP
 328   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   5.4.3 and 5.4.4.~ ~Table 5.4.3. EUDIP core indicators
 329   II,     5.  4.  2    |               Germany), and a median of 87.5/1000. These different results,
 330   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   secondary cause.~ ~Table 5.4.4. EUDIP secondary indicators
 331   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 HbA1c tested, with HbA1c>7.5%~14~Percent of diabetic
 332   II,     5.  4.  2    |              months with total cholesterol>5 mmol/l~14~Percent of diabetic
 333   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 different cut-off value (9.5%) that makes data less comparable
 334   II,     5.  4.  2    |                    Total cholesterol level>5 mmol/l is an important indicator
 335   II,     5.  4.  2    |                    total cholesterol above 5 mmol/l.~Measurement of LDL
 336   II,     5.  4.  3    |                                            5.4.3 Data description and
 337   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  increase were 6.3% (4.1-8.5%) for children aged 0-4
 338   II,     5.  4.  3    |                    aged 0-4 years, 3.1% (1.5-4.8%) for 5-9 years, and
 339   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 years, 3.1% (1.5-4.8%) for 5-9 years, and 2.4% (1.0-3.
 340   II,     5.  4.  3    |               Cyprus), with a median of 30.5/1000.~According to the IDF
 341   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  across 11 countries is 60.5%, corresponding to Austria
 342   II,     5.  4.  3    |                    Total cholesterol level>5 mmol/l. In EUCID databases
 343   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  with a median value of 42.5%. Age did not seem to have
 344   II,     5.  4.  3    |              varies between countries from 5% (Scotland) to 94% (Cyprus),
 345   II,     5.  4.  3    |          Netherlands), with a median of 64.5%. The percentages are lower
 346   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 with a median equal to 654.5. The indicator is age dependant
 347   II,     5.  4.  4    |                                            5.4.4. Data discussion~ ~Information
 348   II,     5.  4.  5    |                                            5.4.5. Risk factors~ ~The
 349   II,     5.  4.  5    |                                        5.4.5. Risk factors~ ~The major
 350   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                            5.4.6. Control tools and policies~
 351   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                            5.4.6.1. Surveillance~The
 352   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                            5.4.6.2. Primary prevention~
 353   II,     5.  4.  6    |                    lifestyles. See Chapter 5.13. on overweight and obesity
 354   II,     5.  4.  6    |                   cholesterol, see Chapter 5.2.4. and for other risk
 355   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                            5.4.6.3. Secondary prevention~
 356   II,     5.  4.  6    |             indicators reported in section 5.4.3, which indicate clearly
 357   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                            5.4.6.4. National guidelines
 358   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                            5.4.6.5. EU initiatives against
 359   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                      5.4.6.5. EU initiatives against
 360   II,     5.  4.  6    |                   1-2 June 2006 (see Table 5.4.1);~ ~Table 5.4.1. EU
 361   II,     5.  4.  6    |                  see Table 5.4.1);~ ~Table 5.4.1. EU Council Recommendations~
 362   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                            5.4.6.6. International initiatives~ ~
 363   II,     5.  4.  7    |                                            5.4.7. Future developments~
 364   II,     5.  4.  7    |                    aspects listed in table 5.4.5, which are highly related
 365   II,     5.  4.  7    |                aspects listed in table 5.4.5, which are highly related
 366   II,     5.  4.  8    |                                            5.4.8. References~Armesto
 367   II,     5.  4.  8    |                Study Group Epidemiology.;4(5):421-7~Pruna S, Stanciu
 368   II,     5.  4.  8    |                   2030. Diabetes Care. ;27(5):1047-53~ ~ ~
 369   II,     5.  5        |                                            5.5. Mental and brain diseases
 370   II,     5.  5        |                                          5.5. Mental and brain diseases
 371   II,     5.  5.Int    |                    corresponding to around 5 million people in the EU27.
 372   II,     5.  5.Int    |                subjects range from 0.1% to 5.7%, whilst for bulimia it
 373   II,     5.  5.Int    |                    9 million (prevalence 4.5-5.0 per 1000), 1.9 million
 374   II,     5.  5.Int    |                    million (prevalence 4.5-5.0 per 1000), 1.9 million
 375   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                            5.5.1. Depression, mood/anxiety
 376   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                          5.5.1. Depression, mood/anxiety
 377   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                            5.5.1.1. Introduction~ ~Mood
 378   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                          5.5.1.1. Introduction~ ~Mood
 379   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                            5.5.1.2. Data sources~ ~ ~
 380   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                          5.5.1.2. Data sources~ ~ ~
 381   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                            5.5.1.2.1. Registers~ ~There
 382   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                          5.5.1.2.1. Registers~ ~There
 383   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   the introductory Section 5.5.1.~ ~Mood and anxiety
 384   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 the introductory Section 5.5.1.~ ~Mood and anxiety disorders.
 385   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                            5.5.1.2.2. Data from population
 386   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                          5.5.1.2.2. Data from population
 387   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   are presented in Chapter 5.5.1. Mental Disorders. The
 388   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 are presented in Chapter 5.5.1. Mental Disorders. The
 389   II,     5.  5.  1    |             presented in detail in Chapter 5.5.1. Mental Disorders. Two
 390   II,     5.  5.  1    |           presented in detail in Chapter 5.5.1. Mental Disorders. Two
 391   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  in more detail in Chapter 5.5.1. Mood Disorders.~ ~ ~
 392   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   more detail in Chapter 5.5.1. Mood Disorders.~ ~ ~
 393   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                            5.5.1.3. Data description
 394   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                          5.5.1.3. Data description and
 395   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    disorder was 14%. Table 5.5.1.1 presents lifetime
 396   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  disorder was 14%. Table 5.5.1.1 presents lifetime and
 397   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  ESEMeD countries.~ ~Table 5.5.1.1 Lifetime and 12 month
 398   II,     5.  5.  1    |                ESEMeD countries.~ ~Table 5.5.1.1 Lifetime and 12 month
 399   II,     5.  5.  1    |           Practitioners (GP) only.~ ~Table 5.5.1.2. Level of care use (%)
 400   II,     5.  5.  1    |         Practitioners (GP) only.~ ~Table 5.5.1.2. Level of care use (%)
 401   II,     5.  5.  1    |            diseases and diabetes.~ ~Figure 5.5.1.1. Relative burden of
 402   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   and diabetes.~ ~Figure 5.5.1.1. Relative burden of
 403   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  anxiety disorder.~ ~Table 5.5.1.3. Lifetime suicidal
 404   II,     5.  5.  1    |                anxiety disorder.~ ~Table 5.5.1.3. Lifetime suicidal behaviour
 405   II,     5.  5.  1    |                increased with age.~ ~Table 5.5.1.4. Psychological distress
 406   II,     5.  5.  1    |              increased with age.~ ~Table 5.5.1.4. Psychological distress
 407   II,     5.  5.  1    |             Hungary and Croatia).~ ~Figure 5.5.1.2. Odds ratio (with
 408   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   and Croatia).~ ~Figure 5.5.1.2. Odds ratio (with 95%
 409   II,     5.  5.  1    |            psychological distress.~ ~Table 5.5.1.5. Odds Ratio for a
 410   II,     5.  5.  1    |          psychological distress.~ ~Table 5.5.1.5. Odds Ratio for a score
 411   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    distress.~ ~Table 5.5.1.5. Odds Ratio for a score
 412   II,     5.  5.  1    |              Slovakia and Latvia.~ ~Figure 5.5.1.3. Odds ratio (with
 413   II,     5.  5.  1    |            Slovakia and Latvia.~ ~Figure 5.5.1.3. Odds ratio (with 95%
 414   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   younger adults.~ ~Figure 5.5.1.4. Odds ratio (with
 415   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 younger adults.~ ~Figure 5.5.1.4. Odds ratio (with 95%
 416   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    Malta and Italy (Figure 5.5.1.5).~ ~Figure 5.5.1.5.
 417   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  Malta and Italy (Figure 5.5.1.5).~ ~Figure 5.5.1.5.
 418   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    and Italy (Figure 5.5.1.5).~ ~Figure 5.5.1.5. Death
 419   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  Figure 5.5.1.5).~ ~Figure 5.5.1.5. Death due to suicide
 420   II,     5.  5.  1    |                Figure 5.5.1.5).~ ~Figure 5.5.1.5. Death due to suicide
 421   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   5.5.1.5).~ ~Figure 5.5.1.5. Death due to suicide and
 422   II,     5.  5.  1    |              Europe are presented in Table 5.5.1.6.~ ~Table 5.5.1.6.
 423   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   are presented in Table 5.5.1.6.~ ~Table 5.5.1.6. Annually
 424   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  in Table 5.5.1.6.~ ~Table 5.5.1.6. Annually age adjusted
 425   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   Table 5.5.1.6.~ ~Table 5.5.1.6. Annually age adjusted
 426   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    years is given in Table 5.5.1.7.~ ~Table 5.5.1.7.
 427   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  years is given in Table 5.5.1.7.~ ~Table 5.5.1.7. Age
 428   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  in Table 5.5.1.7.~ ~Table 5.5.1.7. Age adjusted mortality
 429   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   Table 5.5.1.7.~ ~Table 5.5.1.7. Age adjusted mortality
 430   II,     5.  5.  1    |             estimated at -6.1%(P<0.0001), –5.4%(P<0.0001) and –5.0%(P<
 431   II,     5.  5.  1    |                0001), –5.4%(P<0.0001) and –5.0%(P<0.0001) respectively.~ ~
 432   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  the 0-14 age group (Table 5.5.1.8) the suicide rates
 433   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    0-14 age group (Table 5.5.1.8) the suicide rates were
 434   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Kingdom and Ireland.~ ~Table 5.5.1.8. Number of deaths (
 435   II,     5.  5.  1    |             Kingdom and Ireland.~ ~Table 5.5.1.8. Number of deaths (N)
 436   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                            5.5.1.4. Control tools and
 437   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                          5.5.1.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
 438   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                            5.5.1.5. Future developments~ ~
 439   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                          5.5.1.5. Future developments~ ~
 440   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                      5.5.1.5. Future developments~ ~In
 441   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                            5.5.1.6. References~ ~Alonso
 442   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                          5.5.1.6. References~ ~Alonso
 443   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Surveys. Br J Psychiatry 192(5):368-75.~ ~O A (2002). Fatal
 444   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                            5.5.2. Dementia including
 445   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                          5.5.2. Dementia including Alzheimer’
 446   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                            5.5.2.1. Introduction~ ~The
 447   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                          5.5.2.1. Introduction~ ~The
 448   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                            5.5.2.2. Data sources~ ~The
 449   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                          5.5.2.2. Data sources~ ~The
 450   II,     5.  5.  2    |              separate prevalence rates per 5 year age groups up to the
 451   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                            5.5.2.3. Data description
 452   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                          5.5.2.3. Data description and
 453   II,     5.  5.  2    |           suffering from dementia.~ ~Table 5.5.2.1. EURODEM prevalence
 454   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   from dementia.~ ~Table 5.5.2.1. EURODEM prevalence
 455   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   prevalence rates~ ~Table 5.5.2.2. Prevalence rates
 456   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 prevalence rates~ ~Table 5.5.2.2. Prevalence rates reported
 457   II,     5.  5.  2    |                    are as follows:~ ~Table 5.5.2.3. The estimated number
 458   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  are as follows:~ ~Table 5.5.2.3. The estimated number
 459   II,     5.  5.  2    |                Union indicate an estimated 5,526,488 to 6,120,842 people
 460   II,     5.  5.  2    |           Alzheimer Europe, 2006a). Figure 5.5.2.1.1 uses the statistics
 461   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   Europe, 2006a). Figure 5.5.2.1.1 uses the statistics
 462   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   the population.~ ~Figure 5.5.2.1. The number of people
 463   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 the population.~ ~Figure 5.5.2.1. The number of people
 464   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                            5.5.2.4. Risk factors~ ~A
 465   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                          5.5.2.4. Risk factors~ ~A tremendous
 466   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                            5.5.2.5. Control and policy
 467   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                          5.5.2.5. Control and policy
 468   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                      5.5.2.5. Control and policy tools~ ~
 469   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                            5.5.2.6. Future developments~ ~
 470   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                          5.5.2.6. Future developments~ ~
 471   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                            5.5.2.7. References~ ~Alzheimer
 472   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                          5.5.2.7. References~ ~Alzheimer
 473   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                            5.5.3. OTHER DISEASES~ ~
 474   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                          5.5.3. OTHER DISEASES~ ~
 475   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                            5.5.3.1. Eating Disorders~ ~
 476   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                          5.5.3.1. Eating Disorders~ ~
 477   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                            5.5.3.1.1. Introduction~ ~
 478   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                          5.5.3.1.1. Introduction~ ~Eating
 479   II,     5.  5.  3    |               exercise a mortality rate of 5,6% per decade (Misra et
 480   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                            5.5.3.1.2. Data sources~ ~ ~
 481   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                          5.5.3.1.2. Data sources~ ~ ~
 482   II,     5.  5.  3    |           countries. The overview in table 5.5.3.1.2.1 illustrates the
 483   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    The overview in table 5.5.3.1.2.1 illustrates the
 484   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    in the project.~ ~Table 5.5.3.1.1 Overview of data
 485   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  in the project.~ ~Table 5.5.3.1.1 Overview of data availability
 486   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   X~ ~Turkey~ ~X~ ~ ~Table 5.5.3.1.2.1: Available data
 487   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     Turkey~ ~X~ ~ ~Table 5.5.3.1.2.1: Available data
 488   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                            5.5.3.1.3. Data description
 489   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                          5.5.3.1.3. Data description
 490   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  follow-up measurements of 5 or 10 years allowing conclusions
 491   II,     5.  5.  3    |            prospective cohort study with a 5 year follow-up for Goteborg
 492   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                            5.5.3.1.4. Risk factors and
 493   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                          5.5.3.1.4. Risk factors and
 494   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                            5.5.3.1.5. Control tools and
 495   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                          5.5.3.1.5. Control tools and
 496   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                    5.5.3.1.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
 497   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                            5.5.3.1.6. Future developments~ ~
 498   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                          5.5.3.1.6. Future developments~ ~
 499   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                            5.5.3.1.7. References~Alexander
 500   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                          5.5.3.1.7. References~Alexander