Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    -,     1            |                                             1. FOREWORD~ ~The main objectives
   2    -,     1            |                     Organizations (Appendix 1); (iii) reviewed by the
   3    I,     2.  1        |                                           2.1. Introduction~ ~This Chapter
   4    I,     2.  1        |               macroeconomic level (Figure 2.1).~ ~ ~ ~The analysis of
   5    I,     2.  4        |                    the growth rate. Table 2.1 provides an overview of
   6    I,     2.  4        |                 varying downward.~ ~Table 2.1. Growth rate of real gross
   7    I,     2.  5        |                    even taking into account 1.8 million immigrating into
   8    I,     2.  9        |                     land and oceans, and by 1.0 °C for land alone. Europe
   9    I,     2.  9        |                    than the global average (1.0 and 1.2 °C, respectively),
  10    I,     2.  9        |                     global average (1.0 and 1.2 °C, respectively), especially
  11    I,     2.  9        |                 increases in Europe between 1.05.5 °C by the end of the
  12    I,     2.  9        |                   projected global warming (1.84.0 °C).~ ~European glaciers
  13    I,     2.  9        |                 Snow cover has decreased by 1.3 % per decade during the
  14    I,     2.  9        |                     rise has increased to 3.1 mm/year in the past 15 years (
  15    I,     2.  9        |                    with a global average of 1.7 mm/year in the 20th century).
  16    I,     2.  9        |                     0.2 and 5.5 % for every 1 °C increase in temperature
  17    I,     2. 10.  1    |                                        2.10.1. Human genomics and other “
  18    I,     2. 10.  2    |                    dimensions range between 1 and 100 nm (0.001-0.1 μm),
  19    I,     2. 10.  2    |               between 1 and 100 nm (0.001-0.1 μm), are characterized by
  20    I,     2. 10.  2    |                Nanorods: nanoparticles with 1- 100 nm length, used in
  21    I,     2. 10.  4    |          counterfeiting~ ~In Europe, around 1% of pharmaceuticals are
  22    I,     2. 11        |                  affairs. Special Report  1/2006. Available at: htt ~ ~
  23    I,     2. 11        |                    Health Perspectives, 115(1), 5-12~Suhrcke M, McKee
  24    I,     3.  1        |                                           3.1. Fertility and marriage
  25    I,     3.  1        |               between 1975 (3.75) and 1994 (1.85), in the Netherlands
  26    I,     3.  1        |               between 1964 (3.17) and 1977 (1.58), and in Portugal between
  27    I,     3.  1        |               between 1968 (3.00) and 1993 (1.51). In Germany fertility
  28    I,     3.  1        |                     about 50%: from 2.51 to 1.25 (1963- 1995). Fertility
  29    I,     3.  1        |                 fertility history (Figure 3.1)~ ~Figure 3.1. Total Period
  30    I,     3.  1        |                      Figure 3.1)~ ~Figure 3.1. Total Period Fertility
  31    I,     3.  1        |                    the EU. In 2005 Ireland (1.88) and France (1.92) reported
  32    I,     3.  1        |                  Ireland (1.88) and France (1.92) reported the highest
  33    I,     3.  1        |                  while the Slovak Republic (1.25) and Poland (1.24) had
  34    I,     3.  1        |                 Republic (1.25) and Poland (1.24) had the lowest. As many
  35    I,     3.  1        |                   had fertility rates below 1.5 in 2005.~ ~The overall
  36    I,     3.  2        |                     and migration rate (per 1,000 population), 2005~ ~
  37    I,     3.  2        |                     10%) all have more than 1 million citizens born abroad.
  38    I,     3.  3        |                almost linearly. While about 1.6% of all EU citizens were
  39    I,     3.  3        |                    1963, this diminishes to 1.0% for those born in 2002,
  40    I,     3.  3        |               Sweden (26.4) and Belgium (26.1). In this group of countries
  41    I,     3.  3        |               within the European Union was 1.5% during the last 20 years.
  42    I,     3.  3        |                       followed by Portugal (1.6%) and Spain (1.5%).~ ~
  43    I,     3.  3        |                  Portugal (1.6%) and Spain (1.5%).~ ~Nevertheless, some
  44    I,     3.  3        |                  growth varied from 0.6% to 1.0% over the periods from
  45    I,     3.  3        |                     rates are again Sweden (1%) and Luxemburg (1.2%).~ ~
  46    I,     3.  3        |                  Sweden (1%) and Luxemburg (1.2%).~ ~With relation to
  47    I,     3.  3        |                  EU15 their share rose from 1.2% to the current 4.2%.
  48   II,     4.  1        |                                           4.1. Life expectancy and healthy
  49   II,     4.  1        |              different countries.~ ~Table 4.1.1 shows estimates for 2005
  50   II,     4.  1        |            different countries.~ ~Table 4.1.1 shows estimates for 2005
  51   II,     4.  1        |                  the gender gaps.~ ~Table 4.1.1. Life expectancy (LE)
  52   II,     4.  1        |                    gender gaps.~ ~Table 4.1.1. Life expectancy (LE) and
  53   II,     4.  1        |          inhabitants of the EU25 reached 61.1 years for men and 63.0 years
  54   II,     4.  1        |                women, respectively (Table 4.1.1). Although in 2005 the
  55   II,     4.  1        |                     respectively (Table 4.1.1). Although in 2005 the EU
  56   II,     4.  1        |                   17.6 years for men and 19.1 years for women representing
  57   II,     4.  1        |                  age of 50 is much smaller, 1.5 years, than the total
  58   II,     4.  1        |                   of likely trends. Table 4.1.2 gives estimates of life
  59   II,     4.  1        |                  the ECHP survey.~ ~Table 4.1.2. Life expectancy and Disability-free
  60   II,     4.  1        |                    Michel, 2004).~ ~Table 4.1.3 shows 10-year trends in
  61   II,     4.  1        |                level within EU27.~ ~Table 4.1.3. Life expectancy at birth (
  62   II,     4.  1        |                     longevity gender gap by 1 year (Table 4.1.3). Estimates
  63   II,     4.  1        |               gender gap by 1 year (Table 4.1.3). Estimates shown in Table
  64   II,     4.  1        |                  Estimates shown in Table 4.1.3 for LE only suggest a
  65   II,     4.  1        |                    MS since 1995.~ ~Table 4.1.4. Minimum and maximum values
  66   II,     4.  1        |                  2005, per gender~ ~Table 4.1.4 underlines the significant
  67   II,     4.  1        |                     gap) for women. Table 4.1.4 provides additional information
  68   II,     4.  1        |                   range respectively from 9.1 years to 23.6 years (14.
  69   II,     4.  1        |                   and from 10.4 years to 24.1 years (13.7 years gap) for
  70   II,     4.  1        |                  respectively, in Figures 4.1.1. and 4.1.2.~ ~Figure 4.
  71   II,     4.  1        |                respectively, in Figures 4.1.1. and 4.1.2.~ ~Figure 4.1.
  72   II,     4.  1        |                     in Figures 4.1.1. and 4.1.2.~ ~Figure 4.1.1. Life
  73   II,     4.  1        |                    1. and 4.1.2.~ ~Figure 4.1.1. Life Expectancy, broken
  74   II,     4.  1        |                     and 4.1.2.~ ~Figure 4.1.1. Life Expectancy, broken
  75   II,     4.  1        |                     in 2005, Men~ ~Figure 4.1.2. Life Expectancy, broken
  76   II,     4.  1        |                   17.6 years for men and 19.1 years for women, providing
  77   II,     4.  1        |            countries, LE does. Thus Table 4.1.7 presents the values of
  78   II,     4.  1        |                Welfare, 2006).5~ ~ ~Table 4.1.5. Life expectancy at birth (
  79   II,     4.  1        |                  2005, per gender~ ~Table 4.1.5 shows firstly that by
  80   II,     4.  2        |                     expectancy increased by 1.8 years in the 1970s, 2.
  81   II,     4.  2        |                     8 years in the 1970s, 2.1 years in the 1980s and 3.
  82   II,     4.  2        |                   of increase in the 1980s (1.9 years) was lower than
  83   II,     4.  2        |                     2.7 years).~ ~Table 4.2.1 shows the contribution of
  84   II,     4.  2        |                      for women.~ ~Table 4.2.1. Arriaga decomposition of
  85   II,     4.  2        |                  Infectious diseases (cause 1 in table 3) did not have
  86   II,     4.  2        |                     high ages.~ ~Figure 4.2.1. Standardized death rates
  87   II,     4.  3        |             Statistics Report 45(11-Sup 2): 1-80.~ ~Commission of the
  88   II,     4.  3        |               Journal of Women and Aging 14(1-2): 119-133.~ ~Robine, J.-
  89   II,     5.  1        |                                           5.1. Introduction~ ~
  90   II,     5.  1.  1    |                                           5.1.1. Main non-communicable
  91   II,     5.  1.  1    |                                         5.1.1. Main non-communicable diseases
  92   II,     5.  1.  1    |                     Member States (Figure 5.1.1). At individual level,
  93   II,     5.  1.  1    |                   Member States (Figure 5.1.1). At individual level, the
  94   II,     5.  1.  1    |          non-communicable diseases (Table 5.1.1). On the other hand, several
  95   II,     5.  1.  1    |        non-communicable diseases (Table 5.1.1). On the other hand, several
  96   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  all conditions.~ ~Figure 5.1.1a. Proportion of cardiovascular
  97   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  EU27 – A) Women~ ~Figure 5.1.1b. Proportion of cardiovascular
  98   II,     5.  1.  1    |                       B) Men.~ ~ ~ ~Table 5.1.1. Risk factors for non-communicable
  99   II,     5.  1.  1    |                     B) Men.~ ~ ~ ~Table 5.1.1. Risk factors for non-communicable
 100   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 only,) and~· old age.~ Type 1 diabetes genetic susceptibility
 101   II,     5.  1.  2    |                                           5.1.2. Patient centeredness~ ~
 102   II,     5.  1.  3    |                                           5.1.3. Therapeutic patient education~ ~
 103   II,     5.  1.  4    |                                           5.1.4. Participation of patients
 104   II,     5.  2.  1    |                                         5.2.1. Introduction~ ~Diseases
 105   II,     5.  2.  1    |              Council MeetingLuxembourg1 and 2 June 2006; Allender
 106   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                       5.2.2.1. Ischemic heart disease~ ~
 107   II,     5.  2.  3    |                                       5.2.3.1. Ischemic heart disease~ ~
 108   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   of deaths in EU (Figure 5.1.1). Around half of the deaths
 109   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    deaths in EU (Figure 5.1.1). Around half of the deaths
 110   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 Europe countries (Table 5.2.1). According to the most
 111   II,     5.  2.  3    |                     in Latvia).~ ~Table 5.2.1. Ischemic heart diseases (
 112   II,     5.  2.  3    |                     are shown in Figure 5.2.1: in all countries from 1994
 113   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  per 100.000).~ ~Figure 5.2.1. Age-standardized mortality
 114   II,     5.  2.  3    |                Table 5.2.3. Crude rates per 1 million population of revascularization
 115   II,     5.  2.  4    |                                       5.2.4.1. Risk factors in primary
 116   II,     5.  2.  4    |                    al, 2008) (see Chapter 5.1.4). Recent evidence suggests
 117   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  Heart Health Charter Annex 1). Interestingly, moderate
 118   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 been smokers (see Chapter 5.1.2.).~Unfortunately, despite
 119   II,     5.  2.  5    |                                       5.2.5.1. Prevention~ ~In 1982, the
 120   II,     5.  2.  5    |                  environment see Sections 5.1. or 5.2.; for diabetes mellitus
 121   II,     5.  2.  5    |             diabetes mellitus see Section 3.1.5. Annex 1 is also relevant
 122   II,     5.  2.  5    |                    see Section 3.1.5. Annex 1 is also relevant within
 123   II,     5.  2.  5    |                      2586 Council Meeting1 and 2 June 2004) on promoting
 124   II,     5.  2.  5    |                  Brussels30 November and 1 December 2006)~· The European
 125   II,     5.  2.  6    |                   LDL cholesterol levels by 1% will induce within 5 years
 126   II,     5.  2.  6    |                     induce within 5 years a 1% reduction of CVD incidence (
 127   II,     5.  2.  6    |                   salt) intake to less than 1,5 g (3,8 g) per day, an
 128   II,     5.  2.  6    |                   Acta Med Scand Suppl 460: 1-392.~Weijenberg MP, Feskens
 129   II,     5.  2.  7    |              Council MeetingLuxembourg1 and 2 June 2006. European
 130   II,     5.  2.  7    |                Project. Int J Epidemiol 30 (1):S35-S40.~Giampaoli S, Palmieri
 131   II,     5.  2.  7    |                    World Health Stat Q. 35 (1):1147.~Pol ): Non-pharmacological
 132   II,     5.  2.  7    |                      Am J Public Health 95 (1): 103-108.~WHO Expert Committee (
 133   II,     5.  3.  1    |                                         5.3.1 Introduction~ ~Cancer is
 134   II,     5.  3.  1    |                  the cancer diagnosis (i.e. 1-year, 3-years, 5-years after
 135   II,     5.  3.  1    |                 health relevance. Table 5.3.1 shows the burden of these
 136   II,     5.  3.  1    |              estimated in 2006.~ ~Table 5.3.1. Estimated incident cases
 137   II,     5.  3.  2    |                                       5.3.2.1 Cancer Registration~ ~Population-based
 138   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     3,200,000 new cases and 1,700,000 deaths were estimated
 139   II,     5.  3.  5    |                incidence rates (Figures 5.3.1) were estimated in Hungary
 140   II,     5.  3.  6    |                                       5.3.5.1 Childhood cancer survival~ ~
 141   II,     5.  3.  6    |               Figures 5.3.32). Estimates of 1-year relative survival are ~
 142   II,     5.  3.  6    |                     in 19921994 and from 8.1% to 9.8% in women (Sant
 143   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                       5.3.6.1 Primary prevention~ ~The
 144   II,     5.  3.  7    |                     colorectal cancer (with 1 or 2 years of interval).~ ~
 145   II,     5.  3.  7    |         introductions with a perspective of 12 years (as increases in
 146   II,     5.  3.  9    |                      N Engl J Med 350: 2010-1~ ~Verdecchia A, Francisci
 147   II,     5.  4.Acr    |              Surveillance Network~T1DM~Type 1 diabetes mellitus~T2DM~Type
 148   II,     5.  4.  1    |                                         5.4.1 Introduction~Diabetes mellitus
 149   II,     5.  4.  1    |                      or a hyperglycaemia 11.1 mmol/l (200mg/dl) in a random
 150   II,     5.  4.  1    |                     a postprandial value 11.1 mmol/l. (Report WHO/IDF
 151   II,     5.  4.  1    |                diabetic population:~ ~·Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)
 152   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 expected 21 % increase to 9.1% (about 58.6 million people)
 153   II,     5.  4.  1    |                  next 20 years. (Figure 5.4.1). The latest edition of
 154   II,     5.  4.  1    |                equivalent to an increase of 1.0% in only 3 years. Very
 155   II,     5.  4.  1    |                     rates with 11.8% and 11.1%, while the UK is the country
 156   II,     5.  4.  1    |                    Wild 2004).~ ~Figure 5.4.1. The Growing Diabetes Epidemic~ ~(
 157   II,     5.  4.  1    |                    expenditures ranged from 1.6% in the Netherlands to
 158   II,     5.  4.  1    |                   of hyperglycaemia in type 1 diabetes represents also
 159   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  recommendations (Table 5.4.1). The Declaration acknowledged
 160   II,     5.  4.  2    |            international level.~ ~Table 5.4.1. Recommendations St.Vincent
 161   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                       5.4.2.1. National and regional registries~ ~
 162   II,     5.  4.  2    |                    Annual incidence of Type 1 diabetes by age/100,000
 163   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   in patients with diabetes/1,000,000 general population~
 164   II,     5.  4.  2    |                     patients with diabetes /1,000,000 general population~
 165   II,     5.  4.  2    |             children (0-14 year), with type 1 and 2 not separated, is
 166   II,     5.  4.  2    |                     last 12 months with HDL<1.15 mmol/l (<1.0 mmol/l)~
 167   II,     5.  4.  2    |               months with HDL<1.15 mmol/l (<1.0 mmol/l)~11~Percent of
 168   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   proliferative retinopathy~1~Percent of diabetic subjects
 169   II,     5.  4.  2    |                    glucose equal or above 6.1 mmol/l and below 7.0 mmol/
 170   II,     5.  4.  2    |                    fasting plasma glucose 6,1 mmol/l and <7,0 mmol/l).~
 171   II,     5.  4.  2    |                      HDL cholesterol level <1.0 mmol/l for men and <1.
 172   II,     5.  4.  2    |                     1.0 mmol/l for men and <1.25 mmol/l for women is measured
 173   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   and HDL cholesterol below 1.0 for men and 1.25 mmol/
 174   II,     5.  4.  2    |           cholesterol below 1.0 for men and 1.25 mmol/l for women.~Measurement
 175   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  Romania). Relative to Type 1, other sources confirm the
 176   II,     5.  4.  3    |                    of increase were 6.3% (4.1-8.5%) for children aged
 177   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  children aged 0-4 years, 3.1% (1.5-4.8%) for 5-9 years,
 178   II,     5.  4.  3    |              children aged 0-4 years, 3.1% (1.5-4.8%) for 5-9 years, and
 179   II,     5.  4.  3    |                    for 5-9 years, and 2.4% (1.0-3.8%) for 10-14 years (
 180   II,     5.  4.  3    |               diagnosed with diabetes (type 1 and type 2).~Annual incidence
 181   II,     5.  4.  3    |                      HDL cholesterol level <1.0 mmol/l for men and <1.
 182   II,     5.  4.  3    |                     1.0 mmol/l for men and <1.25 mmol/l for women. Crude
 183   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 examination ranging from 45.1 (France) to 83.4% (UK).~
 184   II,     5.  4.  3    |           contributed data, ranging between 1% and 14%.~Indicator on timely
 185   II,     5.  4.  3    |                      with figures between 0.1% (Netherlands, Sweden) and
 186   II,     5.  4.  3    |                      Cyprus). The median is 1.2%.~The annual incidence
 187   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                       5.4.6.1. Surveillance~The development
 188   II,     5.  4.  6    |                 Primary prevention~For Type 1 diabetes, genetic susceptibility
 189   II,     5.  4.  6    |                 strategy at EU-level would:~1. create a framework for
 190   II,     5.  4.  6    |                 meeting held in Luxembourg, 1-2 June 2006 (see Table 5.
 191   II,     5.  4.  6    |                    June 2006 (see Table 5.4.1);~ ~Table 5.4.1. EU Council
 192   II,     5.  4.  6    |                   Table 5.4.1);~ ~Table 5.4.1. EU Council Recommendations~
 193   II,     5.  4.  8    |                Council meeting, Luxembourg, 1-2 June 2006~[http://www.
 194   II,     5.  4.  8    |                Excess costs of medical care 1 and 8 years after diagnosis
 195   II,     5.  4.  8    |                  Clin Pract, 2000; 50(Suppl 1):35-47.~ ~K H (1998): Global
 196   II,     5.  4.  8    |                   May;11(17):iii-iv, ix-xi, 1-125~WHO (2002), Fact sheet
 197   II,     5.  5.Int    |                 psychotic disorders is over 1%, corresponding to around
 198   II,     5.  5.Int    |                female subjects range from 0.1% to 5.7%, whilst for bulimia
 199   II,     5.  5.Int    |                    7.3% in women and from 0.1% to 2.1% in males. There
 200   II,     5.  5.Int    |                    women and from 0.1% to 2.1% in males. There is often
 201   II,     5.  5.Int    |                   has a prevalence of about 1% equivalent to some 3.7
 202   II,     5.  5.Int    |                  varies between 3 and 6 per 1.000 inhabitants. Data, though
 203   II,     5.  5.Int    |               prevalence 4.5-5.0 per 1000), 1.9 million aged 20-64 (prevalence
 204   II,     5.  5.Int(21)|                  1998, Official Journal L26/1 of 01.02.1999,.Sixth Framework
 205   II,     5.  5.Int(21)|                 2002, Official Journal L232/1 of 29.08.2002; Official
 206   II,     5.  5.Int(21)|                 2002; Official Journal L294/1 of 29.10.02.~
 207   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                         5.5.1. Depression, mood/anxiety
 208   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                         5.5.1.1. Introduction~ ~Mood disorders.
 209   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                       5.5.1.1. Introduction~ ~Mood disorders.
 210   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    2000s amounted to almost 1% of Gross National Product
 211   II,     5.  5.  1    |                     especially among women (1:9 for males, 1:42 for females) (
 212   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 among women (1:9 for males, 1:42 for females) (Schmidtke
 213   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                         5.5.1.2. Data sources~ ~ ~
 214   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                         5.5.1.2.1. Registers~ ~There are
 215   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                     5.5.1.2.1. Registers~ ~There are problems
 216   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    introductory Section 5.5.1.~ ~Mood and anxiety disorders.
 217   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                         5.5.1.2.2. Data from population
 218   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    presented in Chapter 5.5.1. Mental Disorders. The ESEMeD
 219   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    in detail in Chapter 5.5.1. Mental Disorders. Two Eurobarometer
 220   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  more detail in Chapter 5.5.1. Mood Disorders.~ ~ ~
 221   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                         5.5.1.3. Data description and
 222   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 disorder was 14%. Table 5.5.1.1 presents lifetime and
 223   II,     5.  5.  1    |               disorder was 14%. Table 5.5.1.1 presents lifetime and 12
 224   II,     5.  5.  1    |               ESEMeD countries.~ ~Table 5.5.1.1 Lifetime and 12 month
 225   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    countries.~ ~Table 5.5.1.1 Lifetime and 12 month prevalence
 226   II,     5.  5.  1    |        Practitioners (GP) only.~ ~Table 5.5.1.2. Level of care use (%)
 227   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  and diabetes.~ ~Figure 5.5.1.1. Relative burden of some
 228   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    diabetes.~ ~Figure 5.5.1.1. Relative burden of some
 229   II,     5.  5.  1    |               anxiety disorder.~ ~Table 5.5.1.3. Lifetime suicidal behaviour
 230   II,     5.  5.  1    |             increased with age.~ ~Table 5.5.1.4. Psychological distress
 231   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    thus be distinguished:~ ~1) those with a lower prevalence
 232   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  and Croatia).~ ~Figure 5.5.1.2. Odds ratio (with 95%
 233   II,     5.  5.  1    |         psychological distress.~ ~Table 5.5.1.5. Odds Ratio for a score
 234   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    and Latvia.~ ~Figure 5.5.1.3. Odds ratio (with 95%
 235   II,     5.  5.  1    |                younger adults.~ ~Figure 5.5.1.4. Odds ratio (with 95%
 236   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 Malta and Italy (Figure 5.5.1.5).~ ~Figure 5.5.1.5. Death
 237   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Figure 5.5.1.5).~ ~Figure 5.5.1.5. Death due to suicide
 238   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  are presented in Table 5.5.1.6.~ ~Table 5.5.1.6. Annually
 239   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  Table 5.5.1.6.~ ~Table 5.5.1.6. Annually age adjusted
 240   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 years is given in Table 5.5.1.7.~ ~Table 5.5.1.7. Age
 241   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  Table 5.5.1.7.~ ~Table 5.5.1.7. Age adjusted mortality
 242   II,     5.  5.  1    |               annual change estimated at -6.1%(P<0.0001), –5.4%(P<0.0001)
 243   II,     5.  5.  1    |                     14 age group (Table 5.5.1.8) the suicide rates were
 244   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    and Ireland.~ ~Table 5.5.1.8. Number of deaths (N)
 245   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                         5.5.1.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
 246   II,     5.  5.  1    |          Adolescents and Young People (2000-1) included also interventions
 247   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                         5.5.1.5. Future developments~ ~
 248   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                         5.5.1.6. References~ ~Alonso J,
 249   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc 17(1):14-9.~ ~S H et al. (2006).
 250   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                       5.5.2.1. Introduction~ ~The term “
 251   II,     5.  5.  2    |                    in EU is estimated to be 1.1-1.3%, and is constantly
 252   II,     5.  5.  2    |                     EU is estimated to be 1.1-1.3%, and is constantly
 253   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   EU is estimated to be 1.1-1.3%, and is constantly increasing.
 254   II,     5.  5.  2    |                     dementia.~ ~Table 5.5.2.1. EURODEM prevalence rates~ ~
 255   II,     5.  5.  2    |                     This represents between 1.13 and 1.25 percent of the
 256   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 represents between 1.13 and 1.25 percent of the total
 257   II,     5.  5.  2    |                Europe, 2006a). Figure 5.5.2.1.1 uses the statistics for
 258   II,     5.  5.  2    |                      2006a). Figure 5.5.2.1.1 uses the statistics for
 259   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  population.~ ~Figure 5.5.2.1. The number of people with
 260   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  increase was from 0.44% to 1.25% (using EURODEM rates).
 261   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 Review of Public Health 25: 1-24.~ ~Kurz A (2002): Dementia:
 262   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                       5.5.3.1. Eating Disorders~ ~
 263   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                       5.5.3.1.1. Introduction~ ~Eating
 264   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.1.1. Introduction~ ~Eating disorders
 265   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                       5.5.3.1.2. Data sources~ ~ ~Qualitative
 266   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     overview in table 5.5.3.1.2.1 illustrates the limited
 267   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 overview in table 5.5.3.1.2.1 illustrates the limited
 268   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  the project.~ ~Table 5.5.3.1.1 Overview of data availability
 269   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    project.~ ~Table 5.5.3.1.1 Overview of data availability
 270   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Turkey~ ~X~ ~ ~Table 5.5.3.1.2.1: Available data about
 271   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       X~ ~ ~Table 5.5.3.1.2.1: Available data about anorexia
 272   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                       5.5.3.1.3. Data description and
 273   II,     5.  5.  3    |              prevalence rate for bulimia is 1% for 15-24-year-old females.
 274   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   15-24-year-old females. 0.1% of young men are bulimic
 275   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     an incidence rate of 81,1 per 100.000 (Hoek and van
 276   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                       5.5.3.1.4. Risk factors and vulnerable
 277   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                       5.5.3.1.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
 278   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                       5.5.3.1.6. Future developments~ ~
 279   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                       5.5.3.1.7. References~Alexander
 280   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Children in Europe; Volume 1: The Public Health Challenge
 281   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Journal of Eating Disorder 41:1 92-95.~Hoek H W, van Hoeken
 282   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                       5.5.3.1.8 Acronyms~ ~DSMR-IV classification~
 283   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.2.1. Introduction~ ~Schizophrenia (
 284   II,     5.  5.  3    |              native-born individuals (ratio 1.84), and lower in the least
 285   II,     5.  5.  3    |               schizophrenia occurs in about 1% of the population, independent
 286   II,     5.  5.  3    |            populations (male:female ratio = 1.4); moreover, not only migrants
 287   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  risk over the life span of 1% of the population.~ ~In
 288   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    Incidence~Figure 5.5.3.2.1. Estimated prevalence of
 289   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 lifetime is about seven per 1 000 people. The latest available
 290   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 point prevalence of 4.6 per 1 000, 3.3 for period prevalence,
 291   II,     5.  5.  3    |               lifetime prevalence is 0.5 to 1.0%.~Worldwide, between 16
 292   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Considering in-patients per 1,000 populations (see Figure
 293   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     2% YLDs).~Table 5.5.3.2.1. DALYs due to schizophrenia~
 294   II,     5.  5.  3    |                tendency to be obese, i.e. a 1.5 to 4 times increased rate
 295   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   psychiatrists ranges from 1.8 to 25, of psychiatric
 296   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     of psychologists from 0.1 to 96 per 100 000 population (
 297   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Europe. Eur J Neurol 12 Suppl 1:1-27.~Andlin-Sobocki P,
 298   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     Eur J Neurol 12 Suppl 1:1-27.~Andlin-Sobocki P, Rössler
 299   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Europe. Eur J Neurol 12 Suppl 1:74-77.~Andrews G, Sandersson
 300   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Pract Epidemol Ment Health 3(1):23 [Epub ahead of print].~
 301   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     Neuroscience Research 3(1-2):23-33.~Häfner H and Maurer
 302   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Wirksamkeit. Psychiat Prax 34(1):S28-S32.~Priebe S (2007):
 303   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 25 (1):CD004838.~Regier DA, Farmer
 304   II,     5.  5.  3    |            perspective. World Psychiatry 5 (1):53-55.~Silverstone T, Smith
 305   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.3.1. Introduction~ ~Autism Spectrum
 306   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  finding of 6.6 and 6.7 per 1,000 eight-year-olds translates
 307   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.4.1. Introduction~ ~ ~Epilepsy
 308   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    continent (Table 5.5.3.4.1). The annual incidence of
 309   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     design.~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.1. Incidence of epilepsy in
 310   II,     5.  5.  3    | localization-related epilepsies (idiopathic 1.7; symptomatic 13.6), 6.
 311   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 idiopathic 5.6; symptomatic 1.1) and 1.9 per 100,000 for
 312   II,     5.  5.  3    |               idiopathic 5.6; symptomatic 1.1) and 1.9 per 100,000 for
 313   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     6; symptomatic 1.1) and 1.9 per 100,000 for undetermined
 314   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  ranges from 3.2 to 7.8 per 1,000 (Table 5.5.3.4.3). The
 315   II,     5.  5.  3    |                cases ~Prevalence ratio (per 1,000)~Reference(s), year~ ~
 316   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       199/235~ ~81/47~6.2/5.1~ ~3.9/5.2~ ~3.3/3.1~Granieri
 317   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     2/5.1~ ~3.9/5.2~ ~3.3/3.1~Granieri et al., 1989 (*) /
 318   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    across sectional ~405 ~4.1 ~Luengo et al., 2001 (*)~
 319   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   idiopathic epilepsies was 1.2 per 1,000, while that
 320   II,     5.  5.  3    |           idiopathic epilepsies was 1.2 per 1,000, while that of cryptogenic
 321   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  cryptogenic epilepsies was 1.0 per 1,000. In another
 322   II,     5.  5.  3    |          cryptogenic epilepsies was 1.0 per 1,000. In another study of
 323   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  common syndromic category (1.5 per 1,000) followed by
 324   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 syndromic category (1.5 per 1,000) followed by generalized
 325   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     generalized epilepsies (1.3 per 1,000) and undetermined
 326   II,     5.  5.  3    |             generalized epilepsies (1.3 per 1,000) and undetermined epilepsies (
 327   II,     5.  5.  3    |            undetermined epilepsies (0.6 per 1,000). Localization-related
 328   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 juvenile myoclonic epilepsy 1-5%, West syndrome 0.5-8%,
 329   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     to epilepsy ranges from 1 to 8 per 100,000 population
 330   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   annual mortality rates at 1-2 per 100,000 (Massey et
 331   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  mortality rate of 6.23 per 1,000 person-years was reported (
 332   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     was found to range from 1.6 to 9.3 in community-based
 333   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 community-based studies and 1.9-8.7 in institutionalised
 334   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    for epilepsy ranges from 1.6 to 5.3 in children and
 335   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   MF~Incident cohort~149~16.1~9.3~Loiseau et al., 1999~
 336   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     Incident cohort~45~28.0~1.6~Olafsson et al., 1998~
 337   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Prevalent cohort~218~121.0~1.8~Zielinski, 1974~Sweden~
 338   II,     5.  5.  3    |       Accident-related deaths range between 1 and 6% of all deaths, with
 339   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    to 20% and the SMRs from 1 and 5.8. The wide difference
 340   II,     5.  5.  3    |              incidence of SUDEP ranges from 1 per 1,000 in prevalence
 341   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     SUDEP ranges from 1 per 1,000 in prevalence studies (
 342   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    Sander, 1997) to 3.5 per 1,000 in incidence studies (
 343   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   SUDEP was 2.5 vs. 6.3 per 1,000 (Nilsson et al, 2003).
 344   II,     5.  5.  3    |                medical event occurring in a 1-2 year period in a large
 345   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     comorbid disorder (PR 6.1) followed by schizophrenia (
 346   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   accidents (rate ratio, RR 1.8)(Vaa, 2005) and the risk
 347   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    of serious accidents (RR 1.4)(Taylor et al, 1996) may
 348   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 during sleep (license valid 1 year;~ 2 years if seizure
 349   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 during sleep established by 1 year~Italy I 24 months -~
 350   II,     5.  5.  3    |      community-based survey. Epilepsy Behav 1:S9-S14.~Forsgren L, Bucht
 351   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 prevention. Epilepsy Res 60:1-16.~Vaa T (2005): Impairments,
 352   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.5.1. Introduction~ ~Multiple
 353   II,     5.  5.  3    |             summarised here. Tables 5.5.3.5.1-5.5.3.5.4 provide further
 354   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  available.~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.1. Prevalence of Multiple
 355   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  female:male ratios between 1.1 and 3.4. Mean total prevalence
 356   II,     5.  5.  3    |                female:male ratios between 1.1 and 3.4. Mean total prevalence
 357   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    3.5.5 and Figure 5.5.3.5.1. RR-MS ranged from 24% (
 358   II,     5.  5.  3    |               mortality ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 per 100 000 as reported
 359   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    living.~ ~Figure 5.5.3.5.1. Distribution of total cost
 360   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  the 20 categories (0, 0.5, 1, etc. to 10) which indicate
 361   II,     5.  5.  3    |             employment prospects.~Paragraph 1 of the substantive resolution
 362   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Oslo, Norway: prevalence on 1 January 1995 and incidence
 363   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 study. Neuroepidemiology 11:1-10.~Koch-Henriksen N (1999):
 364   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.6.1. Introduction~ ~Parkinson’
 365   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  much lower prevalence (MSA:1.86 to 4.9/100.000, PSP:
 366   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    number of PD patients at 1.2 million within the European
 367   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   community (Figure 5.5.3.6.1. Estimated total number
 368   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     Europe~ ~Figure 5.5.3.6.1. Estimated total number
 369   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  shown in Table 5. 5. 3. 6. 1.~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.1. Incidence
 370   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    3. 6. 1.~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.1. Incidence studies of Parkinson’
 371   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 incidence were much higher: 1,280 to 1,500/100,000 and
 372   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  were much higher: 1,280 to 1,500/100,000 and 346/100,
 373   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   men: some studies found a 1.5-2-fold increase, but these
 374   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   reports that SMR is about 1.8 (Hely et al, 2005; Hely
 375   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  cost category totalling €6.1 billion, constituting 57%
 376   II,     5.  5.  3    |              healthcare cost, estimated at €1.9 billion. However, these
 377   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    50 with PD was between 4.1 and 4.6 million and the
 378   II,     5.  5.  3    |               specific foods. Mov Disord 14(1):21-27.~Andlin-Sobocki P,
 379   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Europe. Eur J Neurol 12 Suppl 1:1-27.~Baldereschi M, Di
 380   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     Eur J Neurol 12 Suppl 1:1-27.~Baldereschi M, Di Carlo
 381   II,     5.  5.  3    |             neurosurgery, and psychiatry 62(1):10-15.~Dodel RC, Singer
 382   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    Disease. Moving Along 5 (1): 6. Available at http://
 383   II,     5.  5.  3    |         international survey. Mov Disord 17(1):60-67.~Goetz CG, Stebbins
 384   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  relationship. Neurology 52(1):115-119.~Gorell JM, Peterson
 385   II,     5.  5.  3    |               disease. Pharmacoeconomics 16(1):59-69.~Lindgren P, von
 386   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Europe. Eur J Neurol 12 Suppl 1:68-73.~Logroscino G (2005):
 387   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Parkinsonism Relat Disord 10(1):19-21.~Orphanet (2007):
 388   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Sardinia). Acta neurologica 1(4):303-308.~Rosati G, Granieri
 389   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    s disease. Mov Disord 18(1):19-31.~Uitti RJ, Ahlskog
 390   II,     5.  6.  1    |                                         5.6.1. Introduction~ ~Musculoskeletal
 391   II,     5.  6.  1    |                    and conditions include: (1) joint conditions e.g. rheumatoid
 392   II,     5.  6.  3    |                      are given in table 5.6.1.~ ~Table 5.6.1. General
 393   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    table 5.6.1.~ ~Table 5.6.1. General Incidence and Prevalence
 394   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    et al, 1997) (Figure 5.6.1), explained partly by a
 395   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 working place.~ ~Figure 5.6.1. The age and sex-specific
 396   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    care costs compared to 8.1% for mental retardation.
 397   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    and 5.6.4 and Tables 5.6.1-5.6.3) and this is where
 398   II,     5.  6.  3    |                     for OA: 4.5 for farming 1-9 years and 9.3 for farming
 399   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   from national data were 0.1% of 1991 GNP, of which almost
 400   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 prevalence of RA range from 1-6 per 1000 for men and 3-
 401   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  men (the ratio varied from 1.7 to 4.0) .~ ~The incidence
 402   II,     5.  6.  3    |                     same three countries is 1%, 0.86% and 0.51%. These
 403   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  mass): a BMD value between 1 and 2.5 standard deviations
 404   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    women (–2.5 BMD Tscore1).~ ~Clinically, osteoporosis
 405   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    ratio of approximately 2:1 (EULAR Online Course, 2008).
 406   II,     5.  6.  3    |                female to male ratio being 4:1), and around 50% occur in
 407   II,     5.  6.  3    |                     vertebral deformity are 1% per year among women and
 408   II,     5.  6.  3    |                replacement of the joint. At 1 year, hip fracture is associated
 409   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   affecting 2044% within 1 year in the working population
 410   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  Most return to work within 1 week with 90% returning
 411   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    persisting for more than 1 month. In cases with chronic
 412   II,     5.  6.  4    |                 sickness absence (less than 1-2 weeks), musculoskeletal
 413   II,     5.  6.  6    |                  ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis 66(1):34-45~Cooper C (1997):
 414   II,     5.  6.  6    |                     in Great Britain Report 1: The prevalence of disability
 415   II,     5.  6.  6    |                  community. Eur J Gen Pract 1:25-28~Naz SM and Symmons
 416   II,     5.  6.  6    |                     in Great Britain Report 1: Prevalence of disability
 417   II,     5.  6.  6    |                    a prospective study over 1 year. Osteoporos Int 3:148-
 418   II,     5.  6.  6    |          Mosby-Elsevier; Section C, Chapter 1.~Zollman C, Vickers A (1999):
 419   II,     5.  7.  1    |                                         5.7.1. Introduction~ ~Chronic
 420   II,     5.  7.  1    |                 NHANES III) show that about 1 out 10 adult Americans exhibit
 421   II,     5.  7.  1    |              population level.~ ~Figure 5.7.1. Development and progression
 422   II,     5.  7.  1    |                     estimated that in Italy 1.8% of the total health care
 423   II,     5.  7.  1    |                      initiative (Tables 5.7.1 and 5.7.2). Data about CKD
 424   II,     5.  7.  1    |                   GFR cut-offs.~ ~Table 5.7.1. KDIGO Definition of Chronic
 425   II,     5.  7.  1    |                   months, as manifested by:~1. Kidney damage, with or
 426   II,     5.  7.  1    |           transplantation~2. GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 , with or without
 427   II,     5.  7.  1    |                Description~GFR*~(mL/min per 1.73 m2 )~ICD 9 CM Code~ ~
 428   II,     5.  7.  1    |                     9 CM Code~ ~Treatment~ ~1~Kidney damage~with normal
 429   II,     5.  7.  1    |               normal or higher GFR*~>90~585.1~1-5 T if kidney transplant
 430   II,     5.  7.  1    |                    or higher GFR*~>90~585.1~1-5 T if kidney transplant
 431   II,     5.  7.  2    |                   prevalence of CKD (stages 1-5) in EU countries were
 432   II,     5.  7.  3    |                     as a GFR <75 ml/min per 1.74 m2 ) of 12.1 cases per
 433   II,     5.  7.  3    |                     min per 1.74 m2 ) of 12.1 cases per million of the
 434   II,     5.  7.  3    |                  year pmarp (<30 ml/min per 1.74 m2 ) (Esbjorner et al,
 435   II,     5.  7.  3    |                    children aged 0-14 was 7.1 patients pmarp (Table 5.
 436   II,     5.  7.  3    |                    in Norway. Prevalence of 1-5 CKD in Norway was 10.2%
 437   II,     5.  7.  3    |                    System, USRDS, 2007) are 1.5-3 times as high as in
 438   II,     5.  7.  3    |            prevalence of stages 3-5 CKD was 1.3 to 1.5 times higher in
 439   II,     5.  7.  3    |                   stages 3-5 CKD was 1.3 to 1.5 times higher in medical
 440   II,     5.  7.  3    |                     as a GFR <75 ml/min per 1.74 m2) of 74.7 cases pmarp (
 441   II,     5.  7.  3    |                defining CKD (<30 ml/min per 1.74 m2 ), the corresponding
 442   II,     5.  7.  3    |                   as defined in Tables 5.7..1 and 5.7..2) in The Netherlands (
 443   II,     5.  7.  3    |                     the prevalence of stage 1-5 CKD rose from 14.5% (NHANES
 444   II,     5.  7.  3    |             prevalence of stage 3-5 CKD was 1.3 to 1.5 times higher in
 445   II,     5.  7.  3    |                    stage 3-5 CKD was 1.3 to 1.5 times higher in medical
 446   II,     5.  7.  5    |                     chronic renal failure: (1) to stabilize (or decrease)
 447   II,     5.  7.  5    |                   was in operation, roughly 1.5 million people were diagnosed
 448   II,     5.  7.  7    |                Pediatrics 2003 Apr;111(4 Pt 1):e382-e387.~Atthobari J,
 449   II,     5.  7.  7    |                     Soc Nephrol 2005 Jan;16(1):180-8.~de Zeeuw D, Hillege
 450   II,     5.  7.  7    |                   Semin Nephrol 2006 Jan;26(1):68-79.~Kurella M, Lo JC,
 451   II,     5.  7.  7    |                   Ann Epidemiol 2007 Jan;17(1):19-26.~Lysaght MJ (2002)
 452   II,     5.  7.  7    |                   Soc Nephrol 2002;13(Suppl 1):S37-S40.~McKenna AM, Keating
 453   II,     5.  7.  7    |                   Kidney Dis 2002;39(Supple 1):S1-S266.~National Kidney
 454   II,     5.  7.  7    |                    Kidney Dis 2004;43(Suppl 1):S1-S290.~Obrador GT, Pereira
 455   II,     5.  7.  7    |                     Disease study. PLoS Med 1:e27.~Sarnak MJ, Levey AS,
 456   II,     5.  7.  7    |                      Kidney Int 2007 Jul;72(1):92-9.~Stewart JH, McCredie
 457   II,     5.  8.  1    |                                         5.8.1. Introduction~ ~The term
 458   II,     5.  8.  2    |                     al 2004).~ ~Table 5.8.2.1. ICD10 Codes for pulmonary
 459   II,     5.  8.  2    |                    transparency of lung~J43.1~ ~Panlobular emphysema~ ~ ~
 460   II,     5.  8.  2    |                   with influenza ( J9 )~J44.1~ ~Chronic obstructive pulmonary
 461   II,     5.  8.  3    |                     of GOLD-defined COPD of 1.8% in never smokers, in
 462   II,     5.  8.  3    |                moderate and severe COPD was 1% in never smokers, with
 463   II,     5.  8.  3    |                   four estimates (Table 5.8.1)~ ~Table 5.8.1. Prevalence
 464   II,     5.  8.  3    |                    Table 5.8.1)~ ~Table 5.8.1. Prevalence estimates for
 465   II,     5.  8.  3    |                between 40 and 69 years is 9.1% (Sobradillo Pena et al,
 466   II,     5.  8.  3    |                Romania, Hungary (Figure 5.8.1).~ ~ ~ ~In two model studies
 467   II,     5.  8.  3    |                      2001) and by 50% (from 1.9 to 2.9 per 1 000) in males
 468   II,     5.  8.  3    |                    50% (from 1.9 to 2.9 per 1 000) in males and by 90%
 469   II,     5.  8.  3    |                     by 90% in females (from 1.0 to 2.9 per 1 000) from
 470   II,     5.  8.  3    |                females (from 1.0 to 2.9 per 1 000) from 2000 to 2025 (
 471   II,     5.  8.  3    |                   COPD GOLD stage II was 10.1% overall, 11.8% for men,
 472   II,     5.  8.  3    |                  higher was estimated at 26.1%, regardless of gender,
 473   II,     5.  8.  3    |                     0.7%, and very severe 0.1%) (Lindberg et al 2006).
 474   II,     5.  8.  3    |              symptomatic.~ ~Prevalence (per 1 000 in Dutch population)
 475   II,     5.  8.  3    |                  2005) in males and 3..9, 8.1, 2.3, 0.4, respectively,
 476   II,     5.  8.  3    |                   higher, and a frequency > 1% within the first year after
 477   II,     5.  8.  3    |                    0), osteoporosis (RR = 3.1), RI (RR = 2.2), MI (RR =
 478   II,     5.  8.  3    |                     RI (RR = 2.2), MI (RR = 1.7), angina (RR = 1.7), fractures (
 479   II,     5.  8.  3    |                     RR = 1.7), angina (RR = 1.7), fractures (RR = 1.6),
 480   II,     5.  8.  3    |                       1.7), fractures (RR = 1.6), and glaucoma (RR = 1.
 481   II,     5.  8.  3    |                    1.6), and glaucoma (RR = 1.3) [all p <0.05].~ ~The
 482   II,     5.  8.  3    |                costs per patient were about 1 200, 1 600 and 2 300 € in
 483   II,     5.  8.  3    |                   patient were about 1 200, 1 600 and 2 300 € in Spain
 484   II,     5.  8.  3    |                Spain (Masa et al, 2004) and 1 261€ in Italy.~ ~An analysis
 485   II,     5.  8.  3    |                   treatment per patient was 1.017 Euro. It was found that
 486   II,     5.  8.  4    |             continuous smokers, compared to 1% in never smokers, with
 487   II,     5.  8.  4    |                cough and phlegm (odds ratio 1.22 compared to males) (Cerveri
 488   II,     5.  8.  4    |                      GOLD stage 0), 2.5 and 1.1% for GOLD stages I and
 489   II,     5.  8.  4    |                    GOLD stage 0), 2.5 and 1.1% for GOLD stages I and II+,
 490   II,     5.  8.  5    |                    were current smokers, 25.1% former smokers and 10.9%
 491   II,     5.  8.  6    |                     in hospital (47.6% vs 5.1%, p<0.001) or at home (37.
 492   II,     5.  8.  7    |                   Guidelineitem.asp?l1=2&l2=1&intId=989] (on-line publication,
 493   II,     5.  8.  7    |                     Monograph 38, 2006; 11: 1-6.~ ~Sidney S, Sorel M,
 494   II,     5.  9. FB    |                                        5.FB.1. Introduction~ ~An allergy
 495   II,     5.  9. FB    |         spontaneously with age (Figure 5.FB.1).~ ~Figure 5.FB.1. Symptoms
 496   II,     5.  9. FB    |               Figure 5.FB.1).~ ~Figure 5.FB.1. Symptoms of allergic march~ ~
 497   II,     5.  9. FB    |               increase in relative risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8). The
 498   II,     5.  9. FB    |               relative risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8). The combined
 499   II,     5.  9. FB    |                 risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8). The combined results
 500   II,     5.  9. FB    |                   asthma had a pooled RR of 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3) and