Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    I,     2.  7        |                Marrone, 2007; Arcury et al, 2005).~ ~Human settlements
   2    I,     2. 10.  2    |                 NIOSH, 2006; Schulte et al, 2007; Nel et al, 2006;
   3    I,     2. 10.  2    |             Schulte et al, 2007; Nel et al, 2006; Medina et al, 2007).~ ~
   4    I,     2. 10.  2    |              Nel et al, 2006; Medina et al, 2007).~ ~The nanoparticles
   5    I,     2. 10.  2    |              other uses include (Nel et al, 2006); (Medina et al, 2007).~ ~-
   6    I,     2. 10.  2    |                et al, 2006); (Medina et al, 2007).~ ~- Carbon nanoparticles:
   7    I,     2. 10.  3    |                 adaptation (Freeman, et al, 1995) 7.The process of
   8    I,     2. 11        |                 3):188-98.~Medina c. et al. (2007): Nanoparticles:
   9    I,     2. 11        |                  150, 552-558.~Nel A et al. (2006): Toxic potential
  10    I,     2. 11        |                       Oberdörster G. et al., (2005): Nanotoxicology:
  11    I,     2. 11        |                11.06):.~Schulte P.A. et al. (2007): Ethical and Scientific
  12    I,     3.  1        |               the Netherlands (Beets et al, 2001).~ ~The trend towards
  13    I,     3.  1        |                educated women (Beets et al, 2001; Esveldt et al, 2001).~ ~
  14    I,     3.  1        |                 et al, 2001; Esveldt et al, 2001).~ ~Increasingly,
  15   II,     4.  1        |             Euro-REVES, 2003; Robine et al, 2003).~ ~Following the
  16   II,     4.  1        |                of the GALI (van Oyen et al, 2006). The HLY is based
  17   II,     4.  1        |          country to the next (Robine et al 2005).~ ~One of the main
  18   II,     4.  1        |                 Statistics (Anderson et al, 1997; Kung et al, 2007)4
  19   II,     4.  1        |           Anderson et al, 1997; Kung et al, 2007)4 and the Japanese
  20   II,     4.  1        |                 expectancies (Robine et al, 2003), on both sides of
  21   II,     4.  3        |              Anderson R, Kochanek K, et al. (1997): Report of Final
  22   II,     4.  3        |                 Kung, H., D. Hoyert, et al. (2007): Deaths: Preliminary
  23   II,     4.  3        |            Robine, J.-M., C. Jagger, et al. (2002): European perspectives
  24   II,     4.  3        |            Robine, J.-M., C. Jagger, et al. (2003): Creating a coherent
  25   II,     4.  3        |            Robine, J.-M., C. Jagger, et al., Eds. (2003): Determining
  26   II,     4.  3        |            Robine, J.-M., C. Jagger, et al. (2001): Disability-free
  27   II,     4.  3        |            Robine, J.-M., S. Le Roy, et al. (2005): Changes in life
  28   II,     4.  3        |                   J. van der Heyden, et al. (2006): Monitoring population
  29   II,     5.  1.  1    |               compare to men (Parkin et al, 2005). Although male lung
  30   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 of sex hormones (Key et al, 2002). Physical activity
  31   II,     5.  2.  1    |                 Union (EU) (Allender et al, 2008). CVD is also a major
  32   II,     5.  2.  1    |                2 June 2006; Allender et al, 2008) and a higher mortality
  33   II,     5.  2.  1    |           non-fatal events (Allender et al, 2008; Petersen et al, 2005).~
  34   II,     5.  2.  1    |                et al, 2008; Petersen et al, 2005).~Even though clinical
  35   II,     5.  2.  1    |                 increased (Kesteloot et al, 2006). Despite the decline
  36   II,     5.  2.  2    |          variations [Muller-Nordhorn et al, 2007; Muller-Nordhorn et
  37   II,     5.  2.  2    |                2007; Muller-Nordhorn et al, 2004] were published by
  38   II,     5.  2.  2    |               1988; Thom, 1989; Thom et al, 1985), European Society
  39   II,     5.  2.  2    |          Society of Cardiology (Sans et al, 1997) and Kesteloot (Kesteloot
  40   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 Kesteloot (Kesteloot et al, 2006). Trends over time
  41   II,     5.  2.  2    |              risk factors (Kuulasmaa et al, 2000) and CVD medical care (
  42   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 care (Tunstall-Pedoe et al, 2000)~ ~
  43   II,     5.  2.  2    |                1988; Thom 1989; Thom et al, 1985; Sans et al, 1997;
  44   II,     5.  2.  2    |               Thom et al, 1985; Sans et al, 1997; Kesteloot et al,
  45   II,     5.  2.  2    |               et al, 1997; Kesteloot et al, 2006). For the 27 EU member
  46   II,     5.  2.  2    |               of countries (Allender et al, 2008).~From the mid 1980s
  47   II,     5.  2.  2    |              Project (Tunstall-Pedoe et al, 1999) are reported for
  48   II,     5.  2.  2    |          reported as well (Kuulasmaa et al, 2000).~ ~ ~
  49   II,     5.  2.  3    |               die from IHD (Allender et al, 2008). Even below the age
  50   II,     5.  2.  3    |               1988; Thom, 1989; Thom et al, 1985; Sans et al, 1997;
  51   II,     5.  2.  3    |               Thom et al, 1985; Sans et al, 1997; Kesteloot et al,
  52   II,     5.  2.  3    |               et al, 1997; Kesteloot et al, 2006).~In the 35-74 age-range,
  53   II,     5.  2.  3    |                Table 5.2.3 (Allender et al, 2008). The data vary widely
  54   II,     5.  2.  3    |               ESC) in 2004 (Allender et al, 2008). Most AMI patients
  55   II,     5.  2.  3    |             reported (Tunstall-Pedoe et al, 1999). Attack rate, which
  56   II,     5.  2.  3    |            countries (Tunstall-Pedoe et al, 1999). Following the MONICA
  57   II,     5.  2.  3    |               this disease (Allender et al, 2008). Stroke mortality
  58   II,     5.  2.  3    |              disease severity (Sarti et al, 2003).~ ~Table 5.2.6. WHO-MONICA
  59   II,     5.  2.  4    |                and glycaemia (Panico et al, 2008) (see Chapter 5.1.
  60   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 circumference (Yusuf et al, 2004) may play a more significant
  61   II,     5.  2.  4    |      standardized methods (Kuulasmaa et al, 2000; Tolonen et al, 2002).
  62   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 et al, 2000; Tolonen et al, 2002). Trends data show
  63   II,     5.  2.  4    |             change in CVD (Kuulasmaa et al. 2000).~Both decreasing
  64   II,     5.  2.  4    |                the INTERHEART (Yusuf et al, 2004) case-control study,
  65   II,     5.  2.  5    |              mortality decline (Unal et al, 2005).~The falling rates
  66   II,     5.  2.  5    |              risk factors (Greenland et al, 2003), and optimal levels
  67   II,     5.  2.  5    |               low CVD risk (Palmieri et al, 2006; Giampaoli et al,
  68   II,     5.  2.  5    |               et al, 2006; Giampaoli et al, 2006; Hozawa et al, 2007;
  69   II,     5.  2.  5    |        Giampaoli et al, 2006; Hozawa et al, 2007; Daviglus et al, 2007).
  70   II,     5.  2.  5    |                et al, 2007; Daviglus et al, 2007). Low risk individuals
  71   II,     5.  2.  5    |              years of life (Daviglus et al, 2005). It is commonly believed
  72   II,     5.  2.  5    |                guidelines (Grundy SM et al, 2004, Graham I et al, 2007)~
  73   II,     5.  2.  5    |                et al, 2004, Graham I et al, 2007)~Within this context,
  74   II,     5.  2.  5    |                 risk factors (Poli A et al, 2008; Sacks F et al, 2001);
  75   II,     5.  2.  5    |                 et al, 2008; Sacks F et al, 2001); the hypolipidemic
  76   II,     5.  2.  5    |              protein, fibres (Poli A et al, 2008). In high risk subjects,
  77   II,     5.  2.  5    |                to the Project (Puska et al, 1998).~Experience in CVD
  78   II,     5.  2.  6    |                Disease (CHD) (Keys A et al, 1966). Subsequently, the
  79   II,     5.  2.  6    |   epidemiological studies (Stamler J et al, 1986). The association
  80   II,     5.  2.  6    |                 mortality (Baigent C et al, 2005). The available information,
  81   II,     5.  2.  6    |               incidence (Robinson JG et al, 2006). The ischemic stroke
  82   II,     5.  2.  6    |   epidemiological studies (Lewington et al, 2007). From a mechanistic
  83   II,     5.  2.  6    |          pressure (DBP) (Lewington S et al, 2002). The CVD risk associated
  84   II,     5.  2.  6    |                 120/80 mmHg (Vasan R et al, 2001). Also an isolated
  85   II,     5.  2.  6    |              subjects (Weijenberg MP et al, 1996). A number of well
  86   II,     5.  2.  6    |              significant (Turnbull S et al, 2003). Lifestyle improvement
  87   II,     5.  2.  6    |              desired range (Sacks FM et al, 2001). If the result achieved
  88   II,     5.  2.  6    |           established CVD) (Graham I et al, 2007).~ ~Focus Box References (
  89   II,     5.  2.  7    |                 Stamler J, Pirzada A et al (2004): Favorable Cardiovascular
  90   II,     5.  2.  7    |                 AR, Wang R, Lubitz J et al (2005): Cardiovascular risk
  91   II,     5.  2.  7    |                 Palmieri L, Panico S et al (2006): Favorable cardiovascular
  92   II,     5.  2.  7    |                H, Vanuzzo D, Hobbs M et al for the WHO MONICA Project (
  93   II,     5.  3.  1    |                 2003; Micheli, Baili et al, 2003).~ ~Main indicators
  94   II,     5.  3.  1    |                  Micheli, Capocaccia et al, 2003), in this chapter
  95   II,     5.  3.  2    |         EUROCARE project (Capocaccia et al, 2003; Sant et al, 2003;
  96   II,     5.  3.  2    |         Capocaccia et al, 2003; Sant et al, 2003; Berrino et al, 2007)~ ~·
  97   II,     5.  3.  2    |                 et al, 2003; Berrino et al, 2007)~ ~· Contributing
  98   II,     5.  3.  3    |                the year 2006 (Ferlay et al, 2007).~- Cancer incidence
  99   II,     5.  3.  3    |            estimates in 2006 (Ferlay et al, 2007). The WHO Database
 100   II,     5.  3.  3    |               EUROCARE project (Sant et al, 2003; Berrino et al, 2007;
 101   II,     5.  3.  3    |                 et al, 2003; Berrino et al, 2007; Verdecchia et al,
 102   II,     5.  3.  3    |                 al, 2007; Verdecchia et al, 2007). In the case of Czech Republic,
 103   II,     5.  3.  4    |              compared to men (Parkin et al, 2005). Although male lung
 104   II,     5.  3.  4    |                 of sex hormones (Key et al, 2002). Physical activity
 105   II,     5.  3.  5    |                around Europe (Ferlay et al, 2007). Maximum incidence
 106   II,     5.  3.  5    |               stomach cancer (Ferlay et al, 2007). In 2006 maximum
 107   II,     5.  3.  5    |             cancer in Europe (Ferlay et al, 2007). Figures 5.3.9 show
 108   II,     5.  3.  5    |             estimated deaths (Ferlay et al, 2007). Worldwide, it is
 109   II,     5.  3.  5    |                entire Europe (Ferlay et al, 2007). The high incidence
 110   II,     5.  3.  5    |             invasive cancers (Parkin et al, 2005). The screening effect
 111   II,     5.  3.  5    |                entire Europe (Parkin et al, 2005). The risk of developing
 112   II,     5.  3.  5    |             cancer in Europe (Ferlay et al, 2007). Comparison of prostate
 113   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   In EUROCARE, Gatta et al (2005) analyzed survival
 114   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 Eastern Europe (Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.29a.
 115   II,     5.  3.  6    |       post-operative mortality (Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.30a.
 116   II,     5.  3.  6    |             colon cancer sites (Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.31a.
 117   II,     5.  3.  6    |               to 9.8% in women (Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.32a.
 118   II,     5.  3.  6    |             between 60 and 67% (Sant et al, 2003).~Relative survival
 119   II,     5.  3.  6    |               has increased (Coleman et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.33.
 120   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 Figure 5.3.34) (Sant et al, 2003). Survival has improved
 121   II,     5.  3.  6    |         effective treatment (Coleman et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.34.
 122   II,     5.  3.  6    |                survival (<55%) (Sant et al, 2003). European 5-year
 123   II,     5.  3.  6    |               incidence levels (Sant et al, 2003; Coleman et al, 2003).~ ~
 124   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 et al, 2003; Coleman et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.35.
 125   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 in 1995-1999~Berrino et al (2007) analysed data from
 126   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 2000-2002~Verdecchia et al (2007) analysed survival
 127   II,     5.  3.  7    |             avoid the disease (Boyle et al, 2003).~ ~See Chapter 10
 128   II,     5.  3.  7    |                 was stopped (Tsubono et al, 2004).~Ideally, an organised
 129   II,     5.  3.  7    |                 health care (Coleman et al, 2003).~Estimating the range
 130   II,     5.  3.  7    |                 health care (Coleman et al, 2003). Therefore, it is
 131   II,     5.  3.  7    |               cancer drugs” (Jonsson et al, 2007) highlights the inequities
 132   II,     5.  3.  8    |                recent years (Coleman et al, 2003). Cancer prevalence,
 133   II,     5.  3.  8    |               been outlined (Micheli et al, 2007). Moreover, the successful
 134   II,     5.  3.  9    |               Autier P, Bartelink H, et al (2003): European Code Against
 135   II,     5.  4.  1    |           Sweden and the UK (Jonsson et al 2002). For these 8 countries,
 136   II,     5.  4.  1    |               Swedish study (Jonsson et al 2000) observed that the
 137   II,     5.  4.  2    |              Sweden (Gudbjörnsdottir et al. 2003) and Denmark (Carstersen
 138   II,     5.  4.  2    |              and Denmark (Carstersen et al. 2008), while at the regional
 139   II,     5.  4.  2    |            Tayside, Scotland (Morris et al 1997; Boyle et al 2001),
 140   II,     5.  4.  2    |             Morris et al 1997; Boyle et al 2001), followed by others
 141   II,     5.  4.  2    |               Italy (Massi Benedetti et al. 2006) has played a role
 142   II,     5.  4.  2    |         registers in Europe (Carinci et al 2006).~In other cases, registers
 143   II,     5.  4.  2    |            specialist clinics (Pruna et al. 2002; Azzopardi et al.
 144   II,     5.  4.  2    |               et al. 2002; Azzopardi et al. 1995; Beck et al. 2001),
 145   II,     5.  4.  2    |          Azzopardi et al. 1995; Beck et al. 2001), or by extracting
 146   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 feasible (Greenfield et al 2004, see Table 5.4.2),
 147   II,     5.  4.  2    |        HaemoglobinHbA1c, see Armesto et al. 2006) due to problems in
 148   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 by the OECD (Armesto et al 2006) as fit for international
 149   II,     5.  4.  3    |           months. OECD data (Armesto et al, 2006) show results for
 150   II,     5.  4.  6    |          present.~According to Waugh et al (2007), the scope for screening
 151   II,     5.  4.  6    |                recent paper (Jessani et al. 2007) investigated patients
 152   II,     5.  5.Int    |                  According to Makino et al18, the prevalence rates
 153   II,     5.  5.  1    |                Member States (Alonso et al, 2004a). Major depression
 154   II,     5.  5.  1    |              for adult women (Alonso et al., 2004a). Depression is
 155   II,     5.  5.  1    |             young age groups (Alonso et al, 2004a). Major depression
 156   II,     5.  5.  1    |           anxiety disorders (Kessler et al 1996) and alcohol misuse (
 157   II,     5.  5.  1    |             alcohol misuse (Sullivan et al, 2005), but is also associated
 158   II,     5.  5.  1    |                Fryers, 2007, Blakely et al, 2003) although there are
 159   II,     5.  5.  1    |             physical illness (Saarni et al, 2006). In addition, depression
 160   II,     5.  5.  1    |            chronic conditions (Ormel et al, 2008).~ ~Most the costs
 161   II,     5.  5.  1    |              EFTA countries (Sobocki et al 2006). The total costs of
 162   II,     5.  5.  1    |              indirect costs (Sobocki et al, 2007).~ ~Undertreatment
 163   II,     5.  5.  1    |                previous year (Alonso et al, 2004b). Of these, only
 164   II,     5.  5.  1    |           adequate treatment (Alonso et al., 2004b). the reasons for
 165   II,     5.  5.  1    |               member States (Kessler et al., 2007). The onset of anxiety
 166   II,     5.  5.  1    |                in adulthood (Kessler et al., 2007). Anxiety disorders
 167   II,     5.  5.  1    |              health services (Alonso et al., 2004b).~ ~Psychological
 168   II,     5.  5.  1    |               substance misuse (Mann et al., 2005). Major depression
 169   II,     5.  5.  1    |             individual (e.g. Blakely et al 2003) and even at community
 170   II,     5.  5.  1    |                community level (Berk et al., 2006) and genetic factors (
 171   II,     5.  5.  1    |                suicide means (Värnik et al., 2008).~ ~Mental disorders
 172   II,     5.  5.  1    |                to their death (Luoma et al., 2002).~ ~The economic
 173   II,     5.  5.  1    |        completed suicide (e.g. Owens et al, 2002). The incidence of
 174   II,     5.  5.  1    |              for females) (Schmidtke et al, 2004).~ ~
 175   II,     5.  5.  1    |        psychiatric beds ( Katschhnig ET AL., 2006).~ ~ WHO databases~ ~
 176   II,     5.  5.  1    |                Soc 17(1):14-9.~ ~S H et al. (2006). The impact of 29
 177   II,     5.  5.  1    |              Bille-Brahe U, De Leo D et al. (2004). Suicidal behaviour
 178   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Econ 9(2):87-98.~ ~S F et al. (2007). The economic burden
 179   II,     5.  5.  2    |                dementia.~ ~The Ferri et al study~ ~A second, more recent
 180   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 carried out by Ferri et al (2005) on behalf of Alzheimer’
 181   II,     5.  5.  2    |           peer-group pressure. Ferri et al analysed the 14 WHO worlds
 182   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 whereas in the Ferri et al study, this was not the
 183   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 of 99, whereas Ferri et al reported a prevalence rate
 184   II,     5.  5.  2    |              aged 85 and over. Ferri et al separated Europe into Western
 185   II,     5.  5.  2    |                the EURODEM and Ferri et al (2005) studies are as follows.
 186   II,     5.  5.  2    |              rates reported by Ferri et al (2005)~ ~Using these prevalence
 187   II,     5.  5.  2    |                upward trend.~ ~Ferri et al (2005) made estimates of
 188   II,     5.  5.  2    |               years. Therefore Ferri et al predict that there will
 189   II,     5.  5.  2    |        associated with them (Godfrey et al, 2005). It is becoming increasingly
 190   II,     5.  5.  2    |                inconclusive (Godfrey et al, 2005).~ ~Secondary Prevention~
 191   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   Ferri CL, Prince M et al (2005): Global prevalence
 192   II,     5.  5.  3    |          abnormal attitudes (Berkman et al, 2007). An anorectic or
 193   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 6% per decade (Misra et al, 2004; Gupta, 1995). Anorexia
 194   II,     5.  5.  3    |           behavioural features (Luce et al, 2008). Finally, qualitative
 195   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 of articles (Berkman et al, 2007; Hoek and van Hoeken,
 196   II,     5.  5.  3    |              sufficient yet (Berkman et al, 2007). Alexander and Rigby (
 197   II,     5.  5.  3    |       international level (Alexander et al, in press).~ ~HBSC (Health
 198   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 written by Alexander et al (in press) deals with eating
 199   II,     5.  5.  3    |             published yet (De Henauw et al, 2007). ~ ~ ~
 200   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  WHO, 2004).~Berkman et al (2007) reviewed various
 201   II,     5.  5.  3    |        individual resources (Berkman et al, 2007). Social pressure
 202   II,     5.  5.  3    |              and weight loss (Harper et al, 2008). Websites publishing
 203   II,     5.  5.  3    |        professional websites (Harper et al, 2008). This emphasises
 204   II,     5.  5.  3    |              systematic review (Saha et al, 2005) of prevalence data
 205   II,     5.  5.  3    |           metabolic syndrome) (Brown et al, 1997; Saha et al, 2007).~
 206   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Brown et al, 1997; Saha et al, 2007).~AetiologySymptoms –
 207   II,     5.  5.  3    |             acute episodes (Marneros et al, 1991). This can lead to
 208   II,     5.  5.  3    |              based knowledge (Lehman et al, 1998). According to calculated
 209   II,     5.  5.  3    |                European Region (Kohn et al, 2004). Evidence indicates
 210   II,     5.  5.  3    |   pharmacological treatments (Lehman et al, 2003). Apart from the inadequacy
 211   II,     5.  5.  3    |               schizophrenia (Wrigley et al, 2005). The quality of psychiatric
 212   II,     5.  5.  3    |              support (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005).~Schizophrenia belongs
 213   II,     5.  5.  3    |               prevalence data (Lange et al, 2002). A certain degree
 214   II,     5.  5.  3    |          disorders and suicide (Saha et al, 2007). Databases on suicides
 215   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 morbidity risk (Saha et al, 2005). These findings are
 216   II,     5.  5.  3    |            increased over time (Saha et al, 2007). A recent epidemiological
 217   II,     5.  5.  3    |       pronounced in middle age (Fors et al, 2007).~Thus, mortality
 218   II,     5.  5.  3    |          contradictory: While Palmer et al quote “that 4.9% of schizophrenics
 219   II,     5.  5.  3    |               illness onset” (Palmer et al, 2005), a comparison of
 220   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 other factors (Healy et al, 2006).~Currently available
 221   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 for females (Mathers et al, 2006).~Deficits in social
 222   II,     5.  5.  3    |           general population (Leucht et al, 2007).~Available statistics
 223   II,     5.  5.  3    |         nicotine or cannabis (Regier et al, 1990). Compared to typical
 224   II,     5.  5.  3    |               pathomechanism (Prince et al, 2007). In addition, people
 225   II,     5.  5.  3    |         metabolic side effects (Engl et al, 2006) the increased rate
 226   II,     5.  5.  3    |       antipsychotic medication (Holt et al, 2005).~A great deal of
 227   II,     5.  5.  3    |          treatment installed (Häfner et al, 2004). During that time,
 228   II,     5.  5.  3    |            psychosis. (Klosterkötter et al, 2005; Klosterkötter, 2007).~
 229   II,     5.  5.  3    |          surveys was 12 months (Kohn et al, 2004).~The percentage difference
 230   II,     5.  5.  3    | affective-psychoses) was 32.2% (Kohn et al, 2004) worldwide; selected
 231   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Glynn, 2003; Pilling et al, 2002) – with a varying
 232   II,     5.  5.  3    |               this drug class (Knapp et al, 2007). According to NOMESCO
 233   II,     5.  5.  3    |              countries (e.g. Hovatta et al, 1997); more recent evidence
 234   II,     5.  5.  3    |           prevalence (e.g. Suvisaari et al, 1999), but even higher
 235   II,     5.  5.  3    |         prescribing atypicals (Knapp et al, 2007) (Figure 5.5.3.3.5).~
 236   II,     5.  5.  3    |          evaluation; 24 - 88% (Lacro et al, 2002). According to the
 237   II,     5.  5.  3    |            antipsychotic drugs (Kahn et al, 2008). Non-compliance does
 238   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 consequences (Byerly et al, 2007). A substantial proportion
 239   II,     5.  5.  3    |          development process (Leucht et al, 2006; Gaebel et al, 2005;
 240   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Leucht et al, 2006; Gaebel et al, 2005; AGREE Collaboration,
 241   II,     5.  5.  3    |                ESEMeD) (Demyttenaere et al, 2004). The authors concluded
 242   II,     5.  5.  3    |               functioning (Middelboe et al, 2001)~Stigma and discrimination~
 243   II,     5.  5.  3    |           published in Italy (Buizza et al, 2007) evaluated four dimensions
 244   II,     5.  5.  3    |             social contacts (Lysaker et al, 2007) – factors associated
 245   II,     5.  5.  3    |             their diagnosis (Baumann et al, 2007).~As stated in the
 246   II,     5.  5.  3    |              social distance (Gaebel et al, 2005).~Direct and indirect
 247   II,     5.  5.  3    |             these 5 years (Lindström et al, 2007)~Table 5.5.3.2.6.
 248   II,     5.  5.  3    |               schizophrenia (Andrews et al, 2003). Their findings –
 249   II,     5.  5.  3    |         concerted EU strategy (Knapp et al, 2007).~Database~Since strategies
 250   II,     5.  5.  3    |         economic backgrounds (Gaebel et al, 2005). Another solution,
 251   II,     5.  5.  3    |               most desirable (Wölwer et al, 2003)~Prevention~The WHO
 252   II,     5.  5.  3    |                194-200.~Marneros, A. et al,: Affektive, schizoaffektive
 253   II,     5.  5.  3    |            disability (Sanchéz-Valle et al, 2007).~ ~ ~ ~
 254   II,     5.  5.  3    |             project partners, (Knapp et al, 2007). The findings reveal
 255   II,     5.  5.  3    |              London.~Sánchez-Valle E et al (2007): Estimating the Burden
 256   II,     5.  5.  3    |       childhood-onset epilepsy (Berg et al, 2001), intractability was
 257   II,     5.  5.  3    |             were conducted (Forsgren et al, 2005). In these studies,
 258   II,     5.  5.  3    |                per 100,000 (Forsgren et al, 2005; Olafsson et al, 2005).
 259   II,     5.  5.  3    |                et al, 2005; Olafsson et al, 2005). The incidence is
 260   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 exception (Cockerell et al, 1995), the incidence of
 261   II,     5.  5.  3    |             from 31 to 56% (Forsgren et al, 2005). The differences
 262   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 one study (Cockerell et al, 1995) age-specific incidence
 263   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 from Italy (Granieri et al, 1983) and Sweden (Blom
 264   II,     5.  5.  3    |               1983) and Sweden (Blom et al, 1978; Sidenvall et al,
 265   II,     5.  5.  3    |               et al, 1978; Sidenvall et al, 1993), which showed a decrease
 266   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 In Iceland (Olafsson et al, 2005), the incidence of
 267   II,     5.  5.  3    |     undetermined epilepsies (Loiseau et al, 1990). Some of the differences
 268   II,     5.  5.  3    |         epilepsy in Europe (Forsgren et al, 2005). The overall prevalence
 269   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Forsgren, 2004 and Forsgren et al., 2005~ ~Country ~Population ~
 270   II,     5.  5.  3    |       Prospective~560 ~3.6 ~Beilmann et al., 1999~Estonia ~Adults ~
 271   II,     5.  5.  3    |            examination~396 ~5.3 ~Oun et al., 2003 (*)~Finland~Adults ~
 272   II,     5.  5.  3    |       examination~1233 ~6.3 ~Keranen et al., 1989 (*)~Finland~Children ~
 273   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 2~ ~3.3/3.1~Granieri et al., 1989 (*) /Maremmani et
 274   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  1989 (*) /Maremmani et al., 1991 (*) /~Beghi et al.,
 275   II,     5.  5.  3    |                al., 1991 (*) /~Beghi et al., 1991 (*) /Giuliani et
 276   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   1991 (*) /Giuliani et al., 1992 (*)~Rocca et al.,
 277   II,     5.  5.  3    |               et al., 1992 (*)~Rocca et al., 2001(*)/Gallitto et al,
 278   II,     5.  5.  3    |                al., 2001(*)/Gallitto et al, 2005~Italy ~Children ~MR
 279   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 378 ~4.3 ~Endziniene et al., 1997~Norway ~Children ~
 280   II,     5.  5.  3    |        examination~198 ~5.3 -~Waaler et al., 2000 (*)~Norway ~All ages? ~
 281   II,     5.  5.  3    |          sectional ~405 ~4.1 ~Luengo et al., 2001 (*)~Sweden~Adults ~
 282   II,     5.  5.  3    |               195 ~4.2/3.5~Sidenvall et al., 1996/Bronson, 1970 (*)~
 283   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 43 ~7.7 ~de la Court et al., 1996 (*)~U.K. ~All ages ~
 284   II,     5.  5.  3    |                GP files~? ~6.2 ~Pond et al., 1960 (*)~U.K. ~Children
 285   II,     5.  5.  3    |              review ~69 ~4.3 ~Tidman et al., 2003 (*)~+ = 5-14 years - =
 286   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 in Estonia (Beilmann et al, 1999), the prevalence of
 287   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Lithuania (Endziniene et al, 1997), localization-related
 288   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Koivikko, 1997; Sidenvall et al, 1993; Waaler et al, 2000).
 289   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Sidenvall et al, 1993; Waaler et al, 2000). The prevalence of
 290   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 by the owner (Morgan et al, 2000).~ ~Mortality~The
 291   II,     5.  5.  3    |                2 per 100,000 (Massey et al, 1985).~In a population-based
 292   II,     5.  5.  3    |              was reported (Sillanpaa et al, 1998). In this cohort,
 293   II,     5.  5.  3    |              populations (Shackleton et al, 2002). In prospective and
 294   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Modified from Shackleton et al, 2002~ ~Country~Source~Design~
 295   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 149~16.1~9.3~Loiseau et al., 1999~Iceland~GP/MF~Incident
 296   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 45~28.0~1.6~Olafsson et al., 1998~Poland~Insurance
 297   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 39~15.7~2.5~Lindsten et al., 2000~ ~Mental institution~
 298   II,     5.  5.  3    |              4001~1109.0~3.6~Nilsson et al, 1997~U.K.~GP/MF~Incident
 299   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 149~58.3~2.6~Lhathoo et al., 2001~ GP: General practitioner;
 300   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 adulthood (Sillanpaa et al, 1998), patients not in
 301   II,     5.  5.  3    |              reached 39% (Vignatelli et al, 2003). Although the idiosyncratic
 302   II,     5.  5.  3    |          case-control study (Nilsson et al, 2002), after adjusting
 303   II,     5.  5.  3    |              seizure-related (Tomson et al, 2004). In these populations,
 304   II,     5.  5.  3    |            incidence studies (Nashef et al, 1995). The patient at risk
 305   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 epilepsy (Callenbach et al, 2001). In most cases, SUDEP
 306   II,     5.  5.  3    |         plausible hypothesis (Nashef et al, 1996).~In patients undergoing
 307   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 3 per 1,000 (Nilsson et al, 2003). There is some indication
 308   II,     5.  5.  3    |             with epilepsy (Gaitatzis et al, 2004). Records were taken
 309   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Research Database (Gaitatzis et al, 2004). The ICD-9 coding
 310   II,     5.  5.  3    |              years of age (Cockerell et al, 1995). The 5-year remission
 311   II,     5.  5.  3    |               61% in adults (Lindsen et al, 2001) and the 3 to 5-year
 312   II,     5.  5.  3    |               medications (Sillanpaa et al, 1998).~ ~Epilepsy and learning
 313   II,     5.  5.  3    |               reading skills (Rutter et al, 1970). A more recent UK
 314   II,     5.  5.  3    |           general population (Smeets et al, 2007). However, most studies
 315   II,     5.  5.  3    |                with epilepsy (Jacoby et al, 2004). In addition, unemployment
 316   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 unemployment (Smeets et al, 2007). Psychosocial factors
 317   II,     5.  5.  3    | neuropsychiatric functioning (Batzel et al, 1980; Fraser et al, 1983).
 318   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Batzel et al, 1980; Fraser et al, 1983). Job restrictions
 319   II,     5.  5.  3    |            virtually unknown (Smeets et al, 2007).~ ~Epilepsy and driving~
 320   II,     5.  5.  3    |            accidents (RR 1.4)(Taylor et al, 1996) may be too high.
 321   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 and Lay, 1997; Sheth et al, 2004). In addition, mandatory
 322   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Beilmann A, Napa A, Soot A, et al (1999): Prevalence of childhood
 323   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Shinnar S, Levy SR, et al (2001): Early development
 324   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Westendorp RG, Geertz AT, et al (2001): Mortality risk in
 325   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Eckle I, Goodridge DM, et al (1995): Epilepsy in a population
 326   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Serra S, La Spina P, et al (2005): Prevalence and characteristics
 327   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Merode T, Kessels FGH, et al (2002): Systematic review
 328   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Loiseau P, Guyot M, et al (1990): Survey of seizure
 329   II,     5.  5.  3    |                L, Fish DR, Garner S, et al (1995): Sudden death in
 330   II,     5.  5.  3    |                L, Walker F, Allen P, et al (1996): Apnoea and bradycardia
 331   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Tomson T, Farahmand BY, et al (1997): Cause-specific mortality
 332   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Ahlbom A, Farahmand BY, et al (2002): Risk factors for
 333   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Ludvigsson P, Gudmundsson G, et al (2005): Incidence of unprovoked
 334   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Kastelejin-Nolst Trenite DGA, et al (2002): Survival of patients
 335   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 BAG, Vanhoutvin JPG, et al (2007): Epilepsy and employment:
 336   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Dreifuss F, Renier O, et al) Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press;
 337   II,     5.  5.  3    |           axonal degeneration (Trapp et al, 1998). MS etiology is unknown.
 338   II,     5.  5.  3    |               pathology (Lucchinetti et al, 1996).~ ~MS clinically
 339   II,     5.  5.  3    |              and productivity (Freal et al, 1984; Krupp et al, 1988).~ ~
 340   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Freal et al, 1984; Krupp et al, 1988).~ ~
 341   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Rosati, 2001; Pugliatti et al, 2002; Pugliatti et al,
 342   II,     5.  5.  3    |               et al, 2002; Pugliatti et al, 2006; Pugliatti and Rosati,
 343   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 elsewhere (Pugliatti et al, 2006).~When feasible, the
 344   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Registry (Koch-Henriksen et al, 2001). The Registry is
 345   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 1988; Koch-Henriksen et al, 1992; Brønnum-Hansen et
 346   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 1992; Brønnum-Hansen et al, 1994; Koch-Henriksen, 1999).~ ~
 347   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Commission (Confavreux et al, 1992; Confavreux, 1994; www g)
 348   II,     5.  5.  3    |    physiopathology of MS (Confavreux et al, 2000; 2003).~ ~The Norwegian
 349   II,     5.  5.  3    |             patients in Norway (Myhr et al, 2006; www ). In 2007, a
 350   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Society (Flachenecker et al, 2005; www ). This project
 351   II,     5.  5.  3    |                centers (Flachenecker et al, 2007).~ ~ ~
 352   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Sweden (Brønnum-Hansen et al, 2006) probably indicating
 353   II,     5.  5.  3    |                83 and 127 (Pugliatti et al, 2006) and an estimated
 354   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 per 100 000 (Vukusic et al, 2007), and a northeast-to-southwest
 355   II,     5.  5.  3    |           mortality studies (Vukusic et al, 2007). Further studies
 356   II,     5.  5.  3    |                and Cyprus (Pugliatti et al, 2006), with a mean annual
 357   II,     5.  5.  3    |               is not mentioned (Ford et al, 2002).~MS is associated
 358   II,     5.  5.  3    |              and Portugal (Pugliatti et al, 2006), increasing trends
 359   II,     5.  5.  3    |                considered (Zivadinov et al, 2003). However, for prevalence
 360   II,     5.  5.  3    |           between countries (Sobocki et al, 2007). Costs, retrospectively
 361   II,     5.  5.  3    |              individuals (Noseworthy et al, 2000). The most influential
 362   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Committee criteria (Poser et al, 1983), consisting of two
 363   II,     5.  5.  3    |                possible MS (McDonald et al, 2001). According to these
 364   II,     5.  5.  3    |               populations, the Poser et al criteria still comprise
 365   II,     5.  5.  3    |            according to the McDonald et al criteria than to the Poser
 366   II,     5.  5.  3    |           criteria than to the Poser et al one CDMS (52% vs 38%) (Fangerau
 367   II,     5.  5.  3    |                52% vs 38%) (Fangerau et al, 2004).~Lastly, the lack
 368   II,     5.  5.  3    |    rehabilitation programmes (Miller et al, 2006). Also, home-based
 369   II,     5.  5.  3    |                and analysis (Sobocki et al, 2007) revealed the positive
 370   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Sclerosis (Battaglia et al, 2004).~These recommendations
 371   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Therapie bei MS”. (Henze et al, 2006).~Although there is
 372   II,     5.  5.  3    |                sclerosis ( Haffenden et al, 2006).~This position paper
 373   II,     5.  5.  3    |            people with MS (Trisolini et al, 2002)~These 10 principles
 374   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Ketelaer P, Thompson A et al; (2004): Recommendations
 375   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Eibl G, Ganzinger U, et al (2002): Prevalence of multiple
 376   II,     5.  5.  3    |                K, Rajda C, Füvesi J, et al (2001): The prevalence of
 377   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Magnus S, Guðmundsson J et al (2002): The natural history
 378   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Benito-Léon J, Martín E, Vela L et al (1998): Multiple sclerosis
 379   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Compston DA, Hommes OR, et al (1992): EDMUS, a European
 380   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Vukusic S, Moreau T, et al (2000): Relapses and progression
 381   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Paulos A, Mendes H, et al (2006): The prevalence of
 382   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Elian M, Galea de Bono A, et al (2002): Multiple sclerosis
 383   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Schimrigk S, Haupts M, et al (2004): Diagnosis of multiple
 384   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Zettl UK , Götze U, et al (2005): [MS registry in
 385   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Zettl UK, Elias WG, et al (2007): MS Register in Germany –
 386   II,     5.  5.  3    |               HL, Gerry E, Airey CM, et al (1998): The prevalence of
 387   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Malagú S, Casetta I, et al (1996): Multiple sclerosis
 388   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Glad SB, Aarseth JH, et al (2006): A 50-year follow-up
 389   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Myrvoll E, Hansen G, et al (2000): Multiple sclerosis
 390   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Rasmussen S, Stenager E, et al (2001). The Danish Multiple
 391   II,     5.  5.  3    |                33:1444-1452.~Larocca et al. Factors associated with
 392   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Compston A, Edan G, et al (2001): Recommended diagnostic
 393   II,     5.  5.  3    |               McCarthy A, Quigley C, et al (2004): Latitudinal variation
 394   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Bartolo ML, Lo Fermo S, et al (2001): Prevalence and incidence
 395   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Ristic S, Sepcic J, et al (2006): Region with persistent
 396   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Paty DW, Scheinberg L, et al (1983): New diagnostic criteria
 397   II,     5.  5.  3    |                AJA, Lauer K, Poser S et al (1986): Epidemiological
 398   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Sotgiu S, Solinas G et al (2001): Multiple sclerosis
 399   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Riise T, Sotgiu MA, et al (2005): Increasing incidence
 400   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Rosati G, Carton H, et al (2006): The epidemiology
 401   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Perini P, Tzintzeva E et al (2003): Increasing frequency
 402   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Wikström J, Paltamaa J, et al (2004): Occurrence of multiple
 403   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Svenningsson A, Nyström L, et al (2004): Clinical characteristics
 404   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Marini C, Cialfi A, et al (2000): Prevalence of multiple
 405   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Peterson J, Ransohoff RM, et al (1998): Axonal transection
 406   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 L, Monti-Bragadin L, et al (2003): The use of standardized
 407   II,     5.  5.  3    |          disorders (von Campenhausen et al, 2005). It mainly affects
 408   II,     5.  5.  3    |              000, respectively (Nath et al, 2005; Orphanet, 2007; Vanacore,
 409   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Committee, 2002; Hely et al, 2005).~PD mainly affects
 410   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 disability (Horstink et al, 2006). This considerably
 411   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Europe (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005).~
 412   II,     5.  5.  3    |            available (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005; Dowding et al, 2006;
 413   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 et al, 2005; Dowding et al, 2006; Lindgren et al, 2005;
 414   II,     5.  5.  3    |                et al, 2006; Lindgren et al, 2005; von Campenhausen
 415   II,     5.  5.  3    |               2005; von Campenhausen et al, 2005).~ ~ ~ ~
 416   II,     5.  5.  3    |           ageing (ILSA) (Baldereschi et al, 2000).~Country-specific
 417   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 2..(von Campenhausen et al, 2005).~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.
 418   II,     5.  5.  3    |              000 in Sardinia (Rosati et al, 1980) to 12,500/100,000
 419   II,     5.  5.  3    |                six studies (Claveria et al, 2002; de Rijk et al, 1995;
 420   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 et al, 2002; de Rijk et al, 1995; Granieri et al, 1991;
 421   II,     5.  5.  3    |                et al, 1995; Granieri et al, 1991; Schrag and Quinn,
 422   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Quinn, 2000; Sutcliffe et al, 1985; van de Vijver et
 423   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  1985; van de Vijver et al, 2001), the crude prevalence
 424   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 studies (Benito-Leon et al, 2003; Bergareche et al,
 425   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 al, 2003; Bergareche et al, 2004; Chio et al, 1998;
 426   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Bergareche et al, 2004; Chio et al, 1998; DAlessandro et al,
 427   II,     5.  5.  3    |               al, 1998; DAlessandro et al, 1987; Errea et al, 1999;
 428   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Alessandro et al, 1987; Errea et al, 1999; Rosati et al, 1979)
 429   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Errea et al, 1999; Rosati et al, 1979) the crude prevalence
 430   II,     5.  5.  3    |              has been shown (de Rijk et al, 1997) that a change in
 431   II,     5.  5.  3    |            estimated rates (Anderson et al, 1998); moreover, also screening
 432   II,     5.  5.  3    |              made by experts (Hughes et al, 1992), a considerable uncertainty
 433   II,     5.  5.  3    |              underestimated (Bermejo et al, 2001).~We found conflicting
 434   II,     5.  5.  3    |              other studies (Granieri et al, 1991).~PD progresses relentlessly
 435   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 the disease (Findley et al, 2003; Spottke et al, 2005).
 436   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 et al, 2003; Spottke et al, 2005). A generally accepted
 437   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 The results by Evers et al and Mutch et al (in which
 438   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Evers et al and Mutch et al (in which 10.2% of the study
 439   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Obladen, 1994; Mutch et al, 1986).~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.
 440   II,     5.  5.  3    |                studies. Baldareschi, et al, estimated an average annual
 441   II,     5.  5.  3    |              aged 65-84 (Baldereschi et al, 2000). Similar to the limitations
 442   II,     5.  5.  3    |       illustrated in detail (Twelves et al, 2003). Methodological differences
 443   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 of diagnosis (Brewis et al, 1966; Granieri et al, 1991)).
 444   II,     5.  5.  3    |                et al, 1966; Granieri et al, 1991)). Standardisation
 445   II,     5.  5.  3    |               SMR is about 1.8 (Hely et al, 2005; Hely et al, 1999).
 446   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Hely et al, 2005; Hely et al, 1999). The 5-year survival
 447   II,     5.  5.  3    |            levodopa treatment (Uitti et al, 1993).~ ~Comorbidity~Comorbidity
 448   II,     5.  5.  3    |               advanced stage (Riedel et al, 2008). Especially psychiatric
 449   II,     5.  5.  3    |                PD patients (Aarsland et al, 2000; Goetz and Stebbins,
 450   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 6.2) (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005). The cost per case
 451   II,     5.  5.  3    |             literature (Chrischilles et al, 1998; Dodel et al, 1998;
 452   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Chrischilles et al, 1998; Dodel et al, 1998; LePen et al, 1999;
 453   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Dodel et al, 1998; LePen et al, 1999; Lindgren et al, 2005;
 454   II,     5.  5.  3    |                et al, 1999; Lindgren et al, 2005; McCrone et al, 2007;
 455   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 et al, 2005; McCrone et al, 2007; Spottke et al, 2005).
 456   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 et al, 2007; Spottke et al, 2005). Direct cost only
 457   II,     5.  5.  3    |       substantial (Whetten-Goldstein et al, 1997). This burden of informal
 458   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 other authors (LePen et al, 1999; Spottke et al, 2005).
 459   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 et al, 1999; Spottke et al, 2005). Nevertheless, also
 460   II,     5.  5.  3    |                study (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005) also demonstrate
 461   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Democratic Republic (Späte et al, 1988). In patients with
 462   II,     5.  5.  3    |            working due to PD (Clarke et al, 1995).~ ~
 463   II,     5.  5.  3    |       consistently implicated (Chade et al, 2006). Fall et al (1999)
 464   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Chade et al, 2006). Fall et al (1999) found people handling
 465   II,     5.  5.  3    |           increased risk of PD. Tsui et al, (1999) investigated a 2-
 466   II,     5.  5.  3    |                of developing PD (Lai et al, 2002; Logroscino, 2005;
 467   II,     5.  5.  3    |              2007; Quik, 2004; Chade et al 2006). However, whether
 468   II,     5.  5.  3    |               American study, Gorell et al (1999) investigated the
 469   II,     5.  5.  3    |               inconsistent (Anderson et al, 1999; Gorell et al, 2004).~ ~
 470   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Anderson et al, 1999; Gorell et al, 2004).~ ~
 471   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Europe (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005). Parkinson’s disease
 472   II,     5.  5.  3    |               to 9.3 million (Dorsey et al, 2007). The burden of PD
 473   II,     5.  6.  3    |               previous year ( Natvig et al, 1995). They were the most
 474   II,     5.  6.  3    |              years of age (Andersson et al, 1993; Bergman et al, 2001;
 475   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 et al, 1993; Bergman et al, 2001; Hagen et al, 1997) (
 476   II,     5.  6.  3    |           Bergman et al, 2001; Hagen et al, 1997) (Figure 5.6.1), explained
 477   II,     5.  6.  3    |                conditions (Sprangers et al, 2000), in particular related
 478   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 and knee pain (Urwin et al, 1998). In the Eurobarometer
 479   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 population (Reynolds et al, 1992). The prevalence is
 480   II,     5.  6.  3    |         high-income countries (Lopez et al, 2006).~ ~Health care utilization~ ~
 481   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 care physician (Lock et al, 1999; Woolf et al, 2004).
 482   II,     5.  6.  3    |              Lock et al, 1999; Woolf et al, 2004). Musculoskeletal
 483   II,     5.  6.  3    |             expert referral for (Lin et al, 2000), see physiotherapists
 484   II,     5.  6.  3    |               cost in 1994 (Meerding et al, 1998), accounting for 6%
 485   II,     5.  6.  3    |               pain most days (Altman et al, 1986).~ ~Natural history~ ~
 486   II,     5.  6.  3    |                in the hands (Kallman et al, 1990), knees (Dougados
 487   II,     5.  6.  3    |               1990), knees (Dougados et al, 1992), and hips (Danielsson,
 488   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 disability (Dougados et al, 1992). Progression of OA
 489   II,     5.  6.  3    |              the prevalence (Symmons et al, 2003). For example, a study
 490   II,     5.  6.  3    |             defined knee OA (Spector et al, 1991).~ ~The prevalence
 491   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 age of 70 (van Saase et al, 1989). For example, in
 492   II,     5.  6.  3    |              and hip OA 3% (Lawrence et al, 1998).~ ~Men are affected
 493   II,     5.  6.  3    |            attributed to OA (Symmons et al, 2003).~ ~Table 5.6.2. Osteoarthritis
 494   II,     5.  6.  3    |            developing OA knee (Davis et al, 1990). It is estimated
 495   II,     5.  6.  3    |         sedentary occupations (Croft et al, 1992).~ ~There is a negative
 496   II,     5.  6.  3    |   osteoarthritis and smoking (Felson et al, 1996).~ ~These risk factors
 497   II,     5.  6.  3    |                of medical care (Levy et al, 1993). OA is a major cause
 498   II,     5.  6.  3    |           procedures / 100,000 (Merx et al, 2003). The estimated requirement
 499   II,     5.  6.  3    |                of knee disease (Juni et al, 2003).~ ~Future trends~ ~
 500   II,     5.  6.  3    |           preferred criteria (Arnett et al, 1988).~ ~However, it is