Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

 1   II,     5.  3.  7|            able to detect cervical anomalies before becoming cancer:
 2   II,     5. 11.  3|           birth marks or cutaneous anomalies have a high impact on wellness
 3   II,     8.  1.  1|       those affected by congenital anomalies as well as hearing and vision
 4   II,     9        |      largely unknown.~ ~Congenital anomalies~ ~In the majority of individual
 5   II,     9        |       early pregnancy). Congenital anomalies are usually grouped under “
 6   II,     9        |          probably a range of other anomalies (Botto et al, 2006). Other
 7   II,     9        |           prevention of congenital anomalies. Some dietary elements in
 8   II,     9        |           the burden of congenital anomalies in the population.~ ~Rubella
 9   II,     9        |        risk factor for chromosomal anomalies such as Down syndrome. Trends
10   II,     9        |          the section on congenital anomalies are listed in Chapter 9.
11   II,     9.  1.  1|           today include congenital anomalies, very preterm birth, and
12   II,     9.  1.  1|  Prevalence of selected congenital anomalies~R: Distribution of APGAR
13   II,     9.  1.  1|           deaths due to congenital anomalies~F: Prevalence of cerebral
14   II,     9.  1.  1|         prematurity and congenital anomalies. Data on congenital anomalies
15   II,     9.  1.  1|      anomalies. Data on congenital anomalies are presented elsewhere
16   II,     9.  1.  2|           Collectively, congenital anomalies represent an important public
17   II,     9.  1.  2|  Congenital (“present from birth”) anomalies which involve structural
18   II,     9.  1.  2|      childhood. “Majorcongenital anomalies are those with serious medical
19   II,     9.  1.  2|           prevalence of congenital anomalies. These are now of two main
20   II,     9.  1.  2|           inequalities, congenital anomalies are often ignored in the
21   II,     9.  1.  2|    inequalities between congenital anomalies and more common diseases
22   II,     9.  1.  2|         Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) is the principal source
23   II,     9.  1.  2|         epidemiology of congenital anomalies in Europe. EUROCAT is a
24   II,     9.  1.  2|            registers of congenital anomalies not participating in EUROCAT
25   II,     9.  1.  2|            minor or poorly defined anomalies are excluded (EUROCAT, 2005a),
26   II,     9.  1.  2|           postneonatally diagnosed anomalies among livebirths).~ ~Other
27   II,     9.  1.  2|       information about congenital anomalies in Europe include the following:~ ~
28   II,     9.  1.  2|        mortality due to congenital anomalies. Their data can be seen
29   II,     9.  1.  2|           treatment for congenital anomalies (e.g. surgery for congenital
30   II,     9.  1.  2|        useful for major congenital anomalies where livebirth is the most
31   II,     9.  1.  2|           Prevalence of congenital anomalies~ ~EUROCAT records a total
32   II,     9.  1.  2|     prevalence of major congenital anomalies of 23.8 per 1 000 births
33   II,     9.  1.  2|          prevalence of chromosomal anomalies is 3.4 per 1 000 births.
34   II,     9.  1.  2|    recorded only under chromosomal anomalies). Congenital heart disease
35   II,     9.  1.  2|           prevalence of congenital anomalies (followed by the usual dip
36   II,     9.  1.  2|            per 1 000 births of All Anomalies and Cardiac Anomalies, 1992-
37   II,     9.  1.  2|          All Anomalies and Cardiac Anomalies, 1992-2004.~ ~Perinatal
38   II,     9.  1.  2|            pregnancy.~ ~Congenital anomalies are an important contributor
39   II,     9.  1.  2|           anomaly), nervous system anomalies (19% of perinatal deaths
40   II,     9.  1.  2|          anomaly), and chromosomal anomalies (21%) (Table 9.1.2.2).~ ~
41   II,     9.  1.  2|            9.1.2.2).~ ~Chromosomal anomalies contribute more to stillbirths
42   II,     9.  1.  2|        mortality due to congenital anomalies, 2000-2004.~ ~Perinatal
43   II,     9.  1.  2|         but allow TOPFA for lethal anomalies beyond this limit (Netherlands,
44   II,     9.  1.  2|         carried out for non-lethal anomalies, but is also influenced
45   II,     9.  1.  2|     countries in the prevalence of anomalies such as neural tube defects
46   II,     9.  1.  2|        largest group of congenital anomalies. This average figure is
47   II,     9.  1.  2|   associated with other congenital anomalies or is lethal.~ ~Down Syndrome~ ~
48   II,     9.  1.  2|      largely unknown.~ ~Congenital anomalies~In the majority of individual
49   II,     9.  1.  2|       early pregnancy). Congenital anomalies are usually grouped under “
50   II,     9.  1.  2|          probably a range of other anomalies (Botto et al, 2006). Other
51   II,     9.  1.  2|           prevention of congenital anomalies. Some dietary elements in
52   II,     9.  1.  2|           the burden of congenital anomalies in the population~ ~Rubella
53   II,     9.  1.  2|        risk factor for chromosomal anomalies such as Down syndrome. Trends
54   II,     9.  1.  2|          the section on congenital anomalies are listed in Chapter 9.
55   II,     9.  1.  2|           prevention of congenital anomalies has not been an area of
56   II,     9.  1.  2|        defects, and possibly other anomalies also (Botto et al, 2006)
57   II,     9.  1.  2|         particularly high for some anomalies as presented in section
58   II,     9.  1.  2|    necessitates decisions on which anomalies justify this and how late
59   II,     9.  1.  2|            available for many rare anomalies. Inevitably, screening involves
60   II,     9.  1.  2|          and policies~ ~Congenital anomalies straddle different public
61   II,     9.  1.  2|  particularly great for congenital anomalies, coming from the opportunity
62   II,     9.  1.  2|   opportunity to pool data on rare anomalies and/or exposures, compare
63   II,     9.  1.  2|         The majority of congenital anomalies are rare (as defined by
64   II,     9.  1.  2|        risk factors for congenital anomalies, and to further development
65   II,     9.  1.  2|           children with congenital anomalies need support. There has
66   II,     9.  1.  2|         the “burden” of congenital anomalies in Europe. Such an evaluation
67   II,     9.  1.  2|        Risk factors for congenital anomalies amenable to primary prevention
68   II,     9.  1.  2|        risk factors for congenital anomalies. Any strategy to tackle
69   II,     9.  1.  2|            attention to congenital anomalies as part of a range of outcomes
70   II,     9.  1.  2|            However, for congenital anomalies a system of pre-conceptional
71   II,     9.  1.  2| environmental causes of congenital anomalies.~ ~
72   II,     9.  1.  2|           the causes of congenital anomalies, have the potential to change
73   II,     9.  1.  2|           detection of chromosomal anomalies, and greater sensitivity
74   II,     9.  1.  2|        specificity of diagnosis of anomalies. Variation in the quality
75   II,     9.  1.  2|         Registration of Congenital Anomalies in Europe", British Medical
76   II,     9.  1.  2|            Pollution on Congenital Anomalies". In 'The Impact of Environmental
77   II,     9.  1.  2|         Registration of Congenital Anomalies", EUROCAT Central Registry,
78   II,     9.  1.  2|        Risk Factors for Congenital Anomalies", EUROCAT Central Registry,
79   II,     9.  1.  2|         Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in Europe 1980-1999”, University
80   II,     9.  1.  2|           mortality and congenital anomalies in babies of women with
81   II,     9.  2.  6|            research, can highlight anomalies.~ ~Moreover, and importantly,
82   II,     9.  3.  2|       preterm birth and congenital anomalies (Hansen et al, 2002; Jackson
83  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|      aneurysm~angina~angiosarcomas~anomalies~anomaly~anorexia~anthrax~