Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    I,     2.  7        |          services (Marrone, 2007; Arcury et al, 2005).~ ~Human settlements
   2    I,     2. 10.  2    |               2004; NIOSH, 2006; Schulte et al, 2007; Nel et al, 2006;
   3    I,     2. 10.  2    |                 Schulte et al, 2007; Nel et al, 2006; Medina et al,
   4    I,     2. 10.  2    |                  Nel et al, 2006; Medina et al, 2007).~ ~The nanoparticles
   5    I,     2. 10.  2    |                  other uses include (Nel et al, 2006); (Medina et al,
   6    I,     2. 10.  2    |                Nel et al, 2006); (Medina et al, 2007).~ ~- Carbon nanoparticles:
   7    I,     2. 10.  3    |      organisational adaptation (Freeman, et al, 1995) 7.The process
   8    I,     2. 11        |                  66(3):188-98.~Medina c. et al. (2007): Nanoparticles:
   9    I,     2. 11        |        Pharmacology, 150, 552-558.~Nel A et al. (2006): Toxic potential
  10    I,     2. 11        |    Nanotechnology. htt ch~Oberdörster G. et al., (2005): Nanotoxicology:
  11    I,     2. 11        |                 15.11.06):.~Schulte P.A. et al. (2007): Ethical and
  12    I,     3.  1        |                in the Netherlands (Beets et al, 2001).~ ~The trend towards
  13    I,     3.  1        |              lower educated women (Beets et al, 2001; Esveldt et al,
  14    I,     3.  1        |               Beets et al, 2001; Esveldt et al, 2001).~ ~Increasingly,
  15   II,     4.  1        |                 Euro-REVES, 2003; Robine et al, 2003).~ ~Following the
  16   II,     4.  1        |              means of the GALI (van Oyen et al, 2006). The HLY is based
  17   II,     4.  1        |              country to the next (Robine et al 2005).~ ~One of the main
  18   II,     4.  1        |               Heath Statistics (Anderson et al, 1997; Kung et al, 2007)4
  19   II,     4.  1        |               Anderson et al, 1997; Kung et al, 2007)4 and the Japanese
  20   II,     4.  1        |              health expectancies (Robine et al, 2003), on both sides
  21   II,     4.  3        |                  Anderson R, Kochanek K, et al. (1997): Report of Final
  22   II,     4.  3        |                     Kung, H., D. Hoyert, et al. (2007): Deaths: Preliminary
  23   II,     4.  3        |                Robine, J.-M., C. Jagger, et al. (2002): European perspectives
  24   II,     4.  3        |                Robine, J.-M., C. Jagger, et al. (2003): Creating a coherent
  25   II,     4.  3        |                Robine, J.-M., C. Jagger, et al., Eds. (2003): Determining
  26   II,     4.  3        |                Robine, J.-M., C. Jagger, et al. (2001): Disability-free
  27   II,     4.  3        |                Robine, J.-M., S. Le Roy, et al. (2005): Changes in life
  28   II,     4.  3        |                   H., J. van der Heyden, et al. (2006): Monitoring population
  29   II,     5.  1.  1    |                as compare to men (Parkin et al, 2005). Although male
  30   II,     5.  1.  1    |              levels of sex hormones (Key et al, 2002). Physical activity
  31   II,     5.  2.  1    |            European Union (EU) (Allender et al, 2008). CVD is also a
  32   II,     5.  2.  1    |                and 2 June 2006; Allender et al, 2008) and a higher mortality
  33   II,     5.  2.  1    |               non-fatal events (Allender et al, 2008; Petersen et al,
  34   II,     5.  2.  1    |           Allender et al, 2008; Petersen et al, 2005).~Even though clinical
  35   II,     5.  2.  1    |            slightly increased (Kesteloot et al, 2006). Despite the decline
  36   II,     5.  2.  2    |              variations [Muller-Nordhorn et al, 2007; Muller-Nordhorn
  37   II,     5.  2.  2    |                al, 2007; Muller-Nordhorn et al, 2004] were published
  38   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   1988; Thom, 1989; Thom et al, 1985), European Society
  39   II,     5.  2.  2    |              Society of Cardiology (Sans et al, 1997) and Kesteloot (
  40   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 and Kesteloot (Kesteloot et al, 2006). Trends over time
  41   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  risk factors (Kuulasmaa et al, 2000) and CVD medical
  42   II,     5.  2.  2    |             medical care (Tunstall-Pedoe et al, 2000)~ ~
  43   II,     5.  2.  2    |               Pisa 1988; Thom 1989; Thom et al, 1985; Sans et al, 1997;
  44   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   Thom et al, 1985; Sans et al, 1997; Kesteloot et al,
  45   II,     5.  2.  2    |              Sans et al, 1997; Kesteloot et al, 2006). For the 27 EU
  46   II,     5.  2.  2    |          majority of countries (Allender et al, 2008).~From the mid
  47   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  Project (Tunstall-Pedoe et al, 1999) are reported for
  48   II,     5.  2.  2    |              reported as well (Kuulasmaa et al, 2000).~ ~ ~
  49   II,     5.  2.  3    |             women die from IHD (Allender et al, 2008). Even below the
  50   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   1988; Thom, 1989; Thom et al, 1985; Sans et al, 1997;
  51   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   Thom et al, 1985; Sans et al, 1997; Kesteloot et al,
  52   II,     5.  2.  3    |              Sans et al, 1997; Kesteloot et al, 2006).~In the 35-74
  53   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 in Table 5.2.3 (Allender et al, 2008). The data vary
  54   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   ESC) in 2004 (Allender et al, 2008). Most AMI patients
  55   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 reported (Tunstall-Pedoe et al, 1999). Attack rate,
  56   II,     5.  2.  3    |                countries (Tunstall-Pedoe et al, 1999). Following the
  57   II,     5.  2.  3    |              from this disease (Allender et al, 2008). Stroke mortality
  58   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  disease severity (Sarti et al, 2003).~ ~Table 5.2.6.
  59   II,     5.  2.  4    |        cholesterol and glycaemia (Panico et al, 2008) (see Chapter 5.
  60   II,     5.  2.  4    |           abdominal circumference (Yusuf et al, 2004) may play a more
  61   II,     5.  2.  4    |          standardized methods (Kuulasmaa et al, 2000; Tolonen et al,
  62   II,     5.  2.  4    |           Kuulasmaa et al, 2000; Tolonen et al, 2002). Trends data show
  63   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 change in CVD (Kuulasmaa et al. 2000).~Both decreasing
  64   II,     5.  2.  4    |               Also the INTERHEART (Yusuf et al, 2004) case-control study,
  65   II,     5.  2.  5    |                  mortality decline (Unal et al, 2005).~The falling rates
  66   II,     5.  2.  5    |                  risk factors (Greenland et al, 2003), and optimal levels
  67   II,     5.  2.  5    |              very low CVD risk (Palmieri et al, 2006; Giampaoli et al,
  68   II,     5.  2.  5    |          Palmieri et al, 2006; Giampaoli et al, 2006; Hozawa et al,
  69   II,     5.  2.  5    |            Giampaoli et al, 2006; Hozawa et al, 2007; Daviglus et al,
  70   II,     5.  2.  5    |             Hozawa et al, 2007; Daviglus et al, 2007). Low risk individuals
  71   II,     5.  2.  5    |                  years of life (Daviglus et al, 2005). It is commonly
  72   II,     5.  2.  5    |      international guidelines (Grundy SM et al, 2004, Graham I et al,
  73   II,     5.  2.  5    |                 SM et al, 2004, Graham I et al, 2007)~Within this context,
  74   II,     5.  2.  5    |               these risk factors (Poli A et al, 2008; Sacks F et al,
  75   II,     5.  2.  5    |              Poli A et al, 2008; Sacks F et al, 2001); the hypolipidemic
  76   II,     5.  2.  5    |                  protein, fibres (Poli A et al, 2008). In high risk
  77   II,     5.  2.  5    |         attributed to the Project (Puska et al, 1998).~Experience in
  78   II,     5.  2.  6    |              Heart Disease (CHD) (Keys A et al, 1966). Subsequently,
  79   II,     5.  2.  6    |       epidemiological studies (Stamler J et al, 1986). The association
  80   II,     5.  2.  6    |                 and mortality (Baigent C et al, 2005). The available
  81   II,     5.  2.  6    |               CVD incidence (Robinson JG et al, 2006). The ischemic
  82   II,     5.  2.  6    |       epidemiological studies (Lewington et al, 2007). From a mechanistic
  83   II,     5.  2.  6    |              pressure (DBP) (Lewington S et al, 2002). The CVD risk
  84   II,     5.  2.  6    |             values <120/80 mmHg (Vasan R et al, 2001). Also an isolated
  85   II,     5.  2.  6    |                  subjects (Weijenberg MP et al, 1996). A number of well
  86   II,     5.  2.  6    |                  significant (Turnbull S et al, 2003). Lifestyle improvement
  87   II,     5.  2.  6    |                  desired range (Sacks FM et al, 2001). If the result
  88   II,     5.  2.  6    |               established CVD) (Graham I et al, 2007).~ ~Focus Box References (
  89   II,     5.  2.  7    |                 ML, Stamler J, Pirzada A et al (2004): Favorable Cardiovascular
  90   II,     5.  2.  7    |                Dyer AR, Wang R, Lubitz J et al (2005): Cardiovascular
  91   II,     5.  2.  7    |                  S, Palmieri L, Panico S et al (2006): Favorable cardiovascular
  92   II,     5.  2.  7    |     Tunstall-Pedoe H, Vanuzzo D, Hobbs M et al for the WHO MONICA Project (
  93   II,     5.  3.  1    |                WHO, 2003; Micheli, Baili et al, 2003).~ ~Main indicators
  94   II,     5.  3.  1    |          lifestyles (Micheli, Capocaccia et al, 2003), in this chapter
  95   II,     5.  3.  2    |             EUROCARE project (Capocaccia et al, 2003; Sant et al, 2003;
  96   II,     5.  3.  2    |             Capocaccia et al, 2003; Sant et al, 2003; Berrino et al,
  97   II,     5.  3.  2    |                Sant et al, 2003; Berrino et al, 2007)~ ~· Contributing
  98   II,     5.  3.  3    |                for the year 2006 (Ferlay et al, 2007).~- Cancer incidence
  99   II,     5.  3.  3    |                estimates in 2006 (Ferlay et al, 2007). The WHO Database
 100   II,     5.  3.  3    |               the EUROCARE project (Sant et al, 2003; Berrino et al,
 101   II,     5.  3.  3    |                Sant et al, 2003; Berrino et al, 2007; Verdecchia et
 102   II,     5.  3.  3    |                  et al, 2007; Verdecchia et al, 2007). In the case of
 103   II,     5.  3.  4    |                  compared to men (Parkin et al, 2005). Although male
 104   II,     5.  3.  4    |              levels of sex hormones (Key et al, 2002). Physical activity
 105   II,     5.  3.  5    |                all around Europe (Ferlay et al, 2007). Maximum incidence
 106   II,     5.  3.  5    |               for stomach cancer (Ferlay et al, 2007). In 2006 maximum
 107   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 cancer in Europe (Ferlay et al, 2007). Figures 5.3.9
 108   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 estimated deaths (Ferlay et al, 2007). Worldwide, it
 109   II,     5.  3.  5    |                the entire Europe (Ferlay et al, 2007). The high incidence
 110   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 invasive cancers (Parkin et al, 2005). The screening
 111   II,     5.  3.  5    |                the entire Europe (Parkin et al, 2005). The risk of developing
 112   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 cancer in Europe (Ferlay et al, 2007). Comparison of
 113   II,     5.  3.  6    |            survival~ ~In EUROCARE, Gatta et al (2005) analyzed survival
 114   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  in Eastern Europe (Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.
 115   II,     5.  3.  6    |           post-operative mortality (Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.
 116   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 colon cancer sites (Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.
 117   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   to 9.8% in women (Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.
 118   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 between 60 and 67% (Sant et al, 2003).~Relative survival
 119   II,     5.  3.  6    |         countries has increased (Coleman et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.
 120   II,     5.  3.  6    |                     Figure 5.3.34) (Sant et al, 2003). Survival has
 121   II,     5.  3.  6    |             effective treatment (Coleman et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.
 122   II,     5.  3.  6    |                low survival (<55%) (Sant et al, 2003). European 5-year
 123   II,     5.  3.  6    |              high incidence levels (Sant et al, 2003; Coleman et al,
 124   II,     5.  3.  6    |                Sant et al, 2003; Coleman et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.
 125   II,     5.  3.  6    |           diagnosed in 1995-1999~Berrino et al (2007) analysed data
 126   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  in 2000-2002~Verdecchia et al (2007) analysed survival
 127   II,     5.  3.  7    |                 avoid the disease (Boyle et al, 2003).~ ~See Chapter
 128   II,     5.  3.  7    |                  it was stopped (Tsubono et al, 2004).~Ideally, an organised
 129   II,     5.  3.  7    |                  in health care (Coleman et al, 2003).~Estimating the
 130   II,     5.  3.  7    |                  in health care (Coleman et al, 2003). Therefore, it
 131   II,     5.  3.  7    |                to cancer drugs” (Jonsson et al, 2007) highlights the
 132   II,     5.  3.  8    |                 in recent years (Coleman et al, 2003). Cancer prevalence,
 133   II,     5.  3.  8    |              have been outlined (Micheli et al, 2007). Moreover, the
 134   II,     5.  3.  9    |                   Autier P, Bartelink H, et al (2003): European Code
 135   II,     5.  4.  1    |               Sweden and the UK (Jonsson et al 2002). For these 8 countries,
 136   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 A Swedish study (Jonsson et al 2000) observed that the
 137   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  Sweden (Gudbjörnsdottir et al. 2003) and Denmark (Carstersen
 138   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  and Denmark (Carstersen et al. 2008), while at the
 139   II,     5.  4.  2    |                Tayside, Scotland (Morris et al 1997; Boyle et al 2001),
 140   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 Morris et al 1997; Boyle et al 2001), followed by others
 141   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   Italy (Massi Benedetti et al. 2006) has played a role
 142   II,     5.  4.  2    |             registers in Europe (Carinci et al 2006).~In other cases,
 143   II,     5.  4.  2    |                specialist clinics (Pruna et al. 2002; Azzopardi et al.
 144   II,     5.  4.  2    |             Pruna et al. 2002; Azzopardi et al. 1995; Beck et al. 2001),
 145   II,     5.  4.  2    |              Azzopardi et al. 1995; Beck et al. 2001), or by extracting
 146   II,     5.  4.  2    |         immediately feasible (Greenfield et al 2004, see Table 5.4.2),
 147   II,     5.  4.  2    |            HaemoglobinHbA1c, see Armesto et al. 2006) due to problems
 148   II,     5.  4.  2    |            reported by the OECD (Armesto et al 2006) as fit for international
 149   II,     5.  4.  3    |               months. OECD data (Armesto et al, 2006) show results for
 150   II,     5.  4.  6    |              present.~According to Waugh et al (2007), the scope for
 151   II,     5.  4.  6    |                  A recent paper (Jessani et al. 2007) investigated patients
 152   II,     5.  5.Int    |             perfect. According to Makino et al18, the prevalence rates
 153   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 EU Member States (Alonso et al, 2004a). Major depression
 154   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  for adult women (Alonso et al., 2004a). Depression
 155   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 young age groups (Alonso et al, 2004a). Major depression
 156   II,     5.  5.  1    |               anxiety disorders (Kessler et al 1996) and alcohol misuse (
 157   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 alcohol misuse (Sullivan et al, 2005), but is also associated
 158   II,     5.  5.  1    |         threefold (Fryers, 2007, Blakely et al, 2003) although there
 159   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 physical illness (Saarni et al, 2006). In addition,
 160   II,     5.  5.  1    |                chronic conditions (Ormel et al, 2008).~ ~Most the costs
 161   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  EFTA countries (Sobocki et al 2006). The total costs
 162   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  indirect costs (Sobocki et al, 2007).~ ~Undertreatment
 163   II,     5.  5.  1    |                the previous year (Alonso et al, 2004b). Of these, only
 164   II,     5.  5.  1    |               adequate treatment (Alonso et al., 2004b). the reasons
 165   II,     5.  5.  1    |                EU member States (Kessler et al., 2007). The onset of
 166   II,     5.  5.  1    |              onset in adulthood (Kessler et al., 2007). Anxiety disorders
 167   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  health services (Alonso et al., 2004b).~ ~Psychological
 168   II,     5.  5.  1    |              with substance misuse (Mann et al., 2005). Major depression
 169   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 individual (e.g. Blakely et al 2003) and even at community
 170   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 at community level (Berk et al., 2006) and genetic factors (
 171   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 genetic factors (Currier et Mann, 2008).~ ~Across the
 172   II,     5.  5.  1    |               used suicide means (Värnik et al., 2008).~ ~Mental disorders
 173   II,     5.  5.  1    |              prior to their death (Luoma et al., 2002).~ ~The economic
 174   II,     5.  5.  1    |            completed suicide (e.g. Owens et al, 2002). The incidence
 175   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  for females) (Schmidtke et al, 2004).~ ~
 176   II,     5.  5.  1    |            psychiatric beds ( Katschhnig ET AL., 2006).~ ~ WHO databases~ ~
 177   II,     5.  5.  1    |          Psichiatr Soc 17(1):14-9.~ ~S H et al. (2006). The impact of
 178   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  Bille-Brahe U, De Leo D et al. (2004). Suicidal behaviour
 179   II,     5.  5.  1    |            Policy Econ 9(2):87-98.~ ~S F et al. (2007). The economic
 180   II,     5.  5.  2    |               with dementia.~ ~The Ferri et al study~ ~A second, more
 181   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 was carried out by Ferri et al (2005) on behalf of Alzheimer’
 182   II,     5.  5.  2    |               peer-group pressure. Ferri et al analysed the 14 WHO worlds
 183   II,     5.  5.  2    |         separately, whereas in the Ferri et al study, this was not the
 184   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 age of 99, whereas Ferri et al reported a prevalence
 185   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  aged 85 and over. Ferri et al separated Europe into
 186   II,     5.  5.  2    |                for the EURODEM and Ferri et al (2005) studies are as
 187   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  rates reported by Ferri et al (2005)~ ~Using these
 188   II,     5.  5.  2    |               same upward trend.~ ~Ferri et al (2005) made estimates
 189   II,     5.  5.  2    |            twenty years. Therefore Ferri et al predict that there will
 190   II,     5.  5.  2    |            associated with them (Godfrey et al, 2005). It is becoming
 191   II,     5.  5.  2    |                and inconclusive (Godfrey et al, 2005).~ ~Secondary Prevention~
 192   II,     5.  5.  2    |               2008)~ ~Ferri CL, Prince M et al (2005): Global prevalence
 193   II,     5.  5.  3    |              abnormal attitudes (Berkman et al, 2007). An anorectic
 194   II,     5.  5.  3    |                of 5,6% per decade (Misra et al, 2004; Gupta, 1995).
 195   II,     5.  5.  3    |               behavioural features (Luce et al, 2008). Finally, qualitative
 196   II,     5.  5.  3    |                list of articles (Berkman et al, 2007; Hoek and van Hoeken,
 197   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  sufficient yet (Berkman et al, 2007). Alexander and
 198   II,     5.  5.  3    |           international level (Alexander et al, in press).~ ~HBSC (Health
 199   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Europewritten by Alexander et al (in press) deals with
 200   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 published yet (De Henauw et al, 2007). ~ ~ ~
 201   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 age (WHO, 2004).~Berkman et al (2007) reviewed various
 202   II,     5.  5.  3    |            individual resources (Berkman et al, 2007). Social pressure
 203   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  and weight loss (Harper et al, 2008). Websites publishing
 204   II,     5.  5.  3    |            professional websites (Harper et al, 2008). This emphasises
 205   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  systematic review (Saha et al, 2005) of prevalence
 206   II,     5.  5.  3    |               metabolic syndrome) (Brown et al, 1997; Saha et al, 2007).~
 207   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Brown et al, 1997; Saha et al, 2007).~AetiologySymptoms –
 208   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 acute episodes (Marneros et al, 1991). This can lead
 209   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  based knowledge (Lehman et al, 1998). According to
 210   II,     5.  5.  3    |                WHO European Region (Kohn et al, 2004). Evidence indicates
 211   II,     5.  5.  3    |       pharmacological treatments (Lehman et al, 2003). Apart from the
 212   II,     5.  5.  3    |              with schizophrenia (Wrigley et al, 2005). The quality of
 213   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  support (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005).~Schizophrenia
 214   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and prevalence data (Lange et al, 2002). A certain degree
 215   II,     5.  5.  3    |              disorders and suicide (Saha et al, 2007). Databases on
 216   II,     5.  5.  3    |            lifetime morbidity risk (Saha et al, 2005). These findings
 217   II,     5.  5.  3    |                increased over time (Saha et al, 2007). A recent epidemiological
 218   II,     5.  5.  3    |           pronounced in middle age (Fors et al, 2007).~Thus, mortality
 219   II,     5.  5.  3    |              contradictory: While Palmer et al quote “that 4.9% of schizophrenics
 220   II,     5.  5.  3    |              near illness onset” (Palmer et al, 2005), a comparison
 221   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 and other factors (Healy et al, 2006).~Currently available
 222   II,     5.  5.  3    |              579006 for females (Mathers et al, 2006).~Deficits in social
 223   II,     5.  5.  3    |               general population (Leucht et al, 2007).~Available statistics
 224   II,     5.  5.  3    |             nicotine or cannabis (Regier et al, 1990). Compared to typical
 225   II,     5.  5.  3    |            common pathomechanism (Prince et al, 2007). In addition,
 226   II,     5.  5.  3    |             metabolic side effects (Engl et al, 2006) the increased
 227   II,     5.  5.  3    |           antipsychotic medication (Holt et al, 2005).~A great deal
 228   II,     5.  5.  3    |              treatment installed (Häfner et al, 2004). During that time,
 229   II,     5.  5.  3    |                psychosis. (Klosterkötter et al, 2005; Klosterkötter,
 230   II,     5.  5.  3    |              surveys was 12 months (Kohn et al, 2004).~The percentage
 231   II,     5.  5.  3    |     affective-psychoses) was 32.2% (Kohn et al, 2004) worldwide; selected
 232   II,     5.  5.  3    |              2006,; Glynn, 2003; Pilling et al, 2002) – with a varying
 233   II,     5.  5.  3    |                of this drug class (Knapp et al, 2007). According to
 234   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  countries (e.g. Hovatta et al, 1997); more recent evidence
 235   II,     5.  5.  3    |               prevalence (e.g. Suvisaari et al, 1999), but even higher
 236   II,     5.  5.  3    |             prescribing atypicals (Knapp et al, 2007) (Figure 5.5.3.
 237   II,     5.  5.  3    |              evaluation; 24 - 88% (Lacro et al, 2002). According to
 238   II,     5.  5.  3    |                antipsychotic drugs (Kahn et al, 2008). Non-compliance
 239   II,     5.  5.  3    |             serious consequences (Byerly et al, 2007). A substantial
 240   II,     5.  5.  3    |              development process (Leucht et al, 2006; Gaebel et al,
 241   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Leucht et al, 2006; Gaebel et al, 2005; AGREE Collaboration,
 242   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Disorders (ESEMeD) (Demyttenaere et al, 2004). The authors concluded
 243   II,     5.  5.  3    |     interpersonal functioning (Middelboe et al, 2001)~Stigma and discrimination~
 244   II,     5.  5.  3    |               published in Italy (Buizza et al, 2007) evaluated four
 245   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 social contacts (Lysaker et al, 2007) – factors associated
 246   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 their diagnosis (Baumann et al, 2007).~As stated in
 247   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  social distance (Gaebel et al, 2005).~Direct and indirect
 248   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 these 5 years (Lindström et al, 2007)~Table 5.5.3.2.
 249   II,     5.  5.  3    |               for schizophrenia (Andrews et al, 2003). Their findings 250   II,     5.  5.  3    |             concerted EU strategy (Knapp et al, 2007).~Database~Since
 251   II,     5.  5.  3    |             economic backgrounds (Gaebel et al, 2005). Another solution,
 252   II,     5.  5.  3    |                is most desirable (Wölwer et al, 2003)~Prevention~The
 253   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 98:194-200.~Marneros, A. et al,: Affektive, schizoaffektive
 254   II,     5.  5.  3    |                disability (Sanchéz-Valle et al, 2007).~ ~ ~ ~
 255   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 project partners, (Knapp et al, 2007). The findings
 256   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  London.~Sánchez-Valle E et al (2007): Estimating the
 257   II,     5.  5.  3    |           childhood-onset epilepsy (Berg et al, 2001), intractability
 258   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 were conducted (Forsgren et al, 2005). In these studies,
 259   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 57 per 100,000 (Forsgren et al, 2005; Olafsson et al,
 260   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Forsgren et al, 2005; Olafsson et al, 2005). The incidence
 261   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 one exception (Cockerell et al, 1995), the incidence
 262   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 from 31 to 56% (Forsgren et al, 2005). The differences
 263   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  In one study (Cockerell et al, 1995) age-specific incidence
 264   II,     5.  5.  3    |             reports from Italy (Granieri et al, 1983) and Sweden (Blom
 265   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   1983) and Sweden (Blom et al, 1978; Sidenvall et al,
 266   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Blom et al, 1978; Sidenvall et al, 1993), which showed
 267   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Europe. In Iceland (Olafsson et al, 2005), the incidence
 268   II,     5.  5.  3    |         undetermined epilepsies (Loiseau et al, 1990). Some of the differences
 269   II,     5.  5.  3    |             epilepsy in Europe (Forsgren et al, 2005). The overall prevalence
 270   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Forsgren, 2004 and Forsgren et al., 2005~ ~Country ~Population ~
 271   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Prospective~560 ~3.6 ~Beilmann et al., 1999~Estonia ~Adults ~
 272   II,     5.  5.  3    |                examination~396 ~5.3 ~Oun et al., 2003 (*)~Finland~Adults ~
 273   II,     5.  5.  3    |           examination~1233 ~6.3 ~Keranen et al., 1989 (*)~Finland~Children ~
 274   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 9/5.2~ ~3.3/3.1~Granieri et al., 1989 (*) /Maremmani
 275   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 al., 1989 (*) /Maremmani et al., 1991 (*) /~Beghi et
 276   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 et al., 1991 (*) /~Beghi et al., 1991 (*) /Giuliani
 277   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  al., 1991 (*) /Giuliani et al., 1992 (*)~Rocca et al.,
 278   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Giuliani et al., 1992 (*)~Rocca et al., 2001(*)/Gallitto et
 279   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 et al., 2001(*)/Gallitto et al, 2005~Italy ~Children ~
 280   II,     5.  5.  3    |              review~378 ~4.3 ~Endziniene et al., 1997~Norway ~Children ~
 281   II,     5.  5.  3    |            examination~198 ~5.3 -~Waaler et al., 2000 (*)~Norway ~All
 282   II,     5.  5.  3    |              sectional ~405 ~4.1 ~Luengo et al., 2001 (*)~Sweden~Adults ~
 283   II,     5.  5.  3    |               155/195 ~4.2/3.5~Sidenvall et al., 1996/Bronson, 1970 (*)~
 284   II,     5.  5.  3    |             survey ~43 ~7.7 ~de la Court et al., 1996 (*)~U.K. ~All
 285   II,     5.  5.  3    |              ages ~GP files~? ~6.2 ~Pond et al., 1960 (*)~U.K. ~Children
 286   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  review ~69 ~4.3 ~Tidman et al., 2003 (*)~+ = 5-14 years - =
 287   II,     5.  5.  3    |            children in Estonia (Beilmann et al, 1999), the prevalence
 288   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 in Lithuania (Endziniene et al, 1997), localization-related
 289   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Koivikko, 1997; Sidenvall et al, 1993; Waaler et al,
 290   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Sidenvall et al, 1993; Waaler et al, 2000). The prevalence
 291   II,     5.  5.  3    |            occupied by the owner (Morgan et al, 2000).~ ~Mortality~The
 292   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  1-2 per 100,000 (Massey et al, 1985).~In a population-based
 293   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  was reported (Sillanpaa et al, 1998). In this cohort,
 294   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  populations (Shackleton et al, 2002). In prospective
 295   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Modified from Shackleton et al, 2002~ ~Country~Source~
 296   II,     5.  5.  3    |              cohort~149~16.1~9.3~Loiseau et al., 1999~Iceland~GP/MF~
 297   II,     5.  5.  3    |              cohort~45~28.0~1.6~Olafsson et al., 1998~Poland~Insurance
 298   II,     5.  5.  3    |              cohort~39~15.7~2.5~Lindsten et al., 2000~ ~Mental institution~
 299   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  4001~1109.0~3.6~Nilsson et al, 1997~U.K.~GP/MF~Incident
 300   II,     5.  5.  3    |              cohort~149~58.3~2.6~Lhathoo et al., 2001~ GP: General practitioner;
 301   II,     5.  5.  3    |                into adulthood (Sillanpaa et al, 1998), patients not
 302   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  reached 39% (Vignatelli et al, 2003). Although the
 303   II,     5.  5.  3    |              case-control study (Nilsson et al, 2002), after adjusting
 304   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  seizure-related (Tomson et al, 2004). In these populations,
 305   II,     5.  5.  3    |                incidence studies (Nashef et al, 1995). The patient at
 306   II,     5.  5.  3    |           childhood epilepsy (Callenbach et al, 2001). In most cases,
 307   II,     5.  5.  3    |             plausible hypothesis (Nashef et al, 1996).~In patients undergoing
 308   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   6.3 per 1,000 (Nilsson et al, 2003). There is some
 309   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 with epilepsy (Gaitatzis et al, 2004). Records were
 310   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Research Database (Gaitatzis et al, 2004). The ICD-9 coding
 311   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  years of age (Cockerell et al, 1995). The 5-year remission
 312   II,     5.  5.  3    |               was 61% in adults (Lindsen et al, 2001) and the 3 to 5-
 313   II,     5.  5.  3    |               off medications (Sillanpaa et al, 1998).~ ~Epilepsy and
 314   II,     5.  5.  3    |                in reading skills (Rutter et al, 1970). A more recent
 315   II,     5.  5.  3    |               general population (Smeets et al, 2007). However, most
 316   II,     5.  5.  3    |             people with epilepsy (Jacoby et al, 2004). In addition,
 317   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  of unemployment (Smeets et al, 2007). Psychosocial
 318   II,     5.  5.  3    |     neuropsychiatric functioning (Batzel et al, 1980; Fraser et al,
 319   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Batzel et al, 1980; Fraser et al, 1983). Job restrictions
 320   II,     5.  5.  3    |                virtually unknown (Smeets et al, 2007).~ ~Epilepsy and
 321   II,     5.  5.  3    |                accidents (RR 1.4)(Taylor et al, 1996) may be too high.
 322   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Black and Lay, 1997; Sheth et al, 2004). In addition,
 323   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Beilmann A, Napa A, Soot A, et al (1999): Prevalence of
 324   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  AT, Shinnar S, Levy SR, et al (2001): Early development
 325   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Westendorp RG, Geertz AT, et al (2001): Mortality risk
 326   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Eckle I, Goodridge DM, et al (1995): Epilepsy in a
 327   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  G, Serra S, La Spina P, et al (2005): Prevalence and
 328   II,     5.  5.  3    |               van Merode T, Kessels FGH, et al (2002): Systematic review
 329   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Loiseau J, Loiseau P, Guyot M, et al (1990): Survey of seizure
 330   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Nashef L, Fish DR, Garner S, et al (1995): Sudden death
 331   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Nashef L, Walker F, Allen P, et al (1996): Apnoea and bradycardia
 332   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Tomson T, Farahmand BY, et al (1997): Cause-specific
 333   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Ahlbom A, Farahmand BY, et al (2002): Risk factors
 334   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Ludvigsson P, Gudmundsson G, et al (2005): Incidence of
 335   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Kastelejin-Nolst Trenite DGA, et al (2002): Survival of patients
 336   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Lierop BAG, Vanhoutvin JPG, et al (2007): Epilepsy and
 337   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 A, Dreifuss F, Renier O, et al) Boca Raton, FL: CRC
 338   II,     5.  5.  3    |               axonal degeneration (Trapp et al, 1998). MS etiology is
 339   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and pathology (Lucchinetti et al, 1996).~ ~MS clinically
 340   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  and productivity (Freal et al, 1984; Krupp et al, 1988).~ ~
 341   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Freal et al, 1984; Krupp et al, 1988).~ ~
 342   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Rosati, 2001; Pugliatti et al, 2002; Pugliatti et al,
 343   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Pugliatti et al, 2002; Pugliatti et al, 2006; Pugliatti and
 344   II,     5.  5.  3    |           published elsewhere (Pugliatti et al, 2006).~When feasible,
 345   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Registry (Koch-Henriksen et al, 2001). The Registry
 346   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Hyllested, 1988; Koch-Henriksen et al, 1992; Brønnum-Hansen
 347   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 al, 1992; Brønnum-Hansen et al, 1994; Koch-Henriksen,
 348   II,     5.  5.  3    |          European Commission (Confavreux et al, 1992; Confavreux, 1994; www g)
 349   II,     5.  5.  3    |        physiopathology of MS (Confavreux et al, 2000; 2003).~ ~The Norwegian
 350   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 patients in Norway (Myhr et al, 2006; www ). In 2007,
 351   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 MS Society (Flachenecker et al, 2005; www ). This project
 352   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 82 centers (Flachenecker et al, 2007).~ ~ ~
 353   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and Sweden (Brønnum-Hansen et al, 2006) probably indicating
 354   II,     5.  5.  3    |            between 83 and 127 (Pugliatti et al, 2006) and an estimated
 355   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  65 per 100 000 (Vukusic et al, 2007), and a northeast-to-southwest
 356   II,     5.  5.  3    |               mortality studies (Vukusic et al, 2007). Further studies
 357   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Greece and Cyprus (Pugliatti et al, 2006), with a mean annual
 358   II,     5.  5.  3    |                MS is not mentioned (Ford et al, 2002).~MS is associated
 359   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  and Portugal (Pugliatti et al, 2006), increasing trends
 360   II,     5.  5.  3    |               were considered (Zivadinov et al, 2003). However, for
 361   II,     5.  5.  3    |               between countries (Sobocki et al, 2007). Costs, retrospectively
 362   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  individuals (Noseworthy et al, 2000). The most influential
 363   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Committee criteria (Poser et al, 1983), consisting of
 364   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 of possible MS (McDonald et al, 2001). According to
 365   II,     5.  5.  3    |              some populations, the Poser et al criteria still comprise
 366   II,     5.  5.  3    |                according to the McDonald et al criteria than to the
 367   II,     5.  5.  3    |               criteria than to the Poser et al one CDMS (52% vs 38%) (
 368   II,     5.  5.  3    |              CDMS (52% vs 38%) (Fangerau et al, 2004).~Lastly, the lack
 369   II,     5.  5.  3    |        rehabilitation programmes (Miller et al, 2006). Also, home-based
 370   II,     5.  5.  3    |             survey and analysis (Sobocki et al, 2007) revealed the positive
 371   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Multiple Sclerosis (Battaglia et al, 2004).~These recommendations
 372   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Therapie bei MS”. (Henze et al, 2006).~Although there
 373   II,     5.  5.  3    |           multiple sclerosis ( Haffenden et al, 2006).~This position
 374   II,     5.  5.  3    |                people with MS (Trisolini et al, 2002)~These 10 principles
 375   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Ketelaer P, Thompson A et al; (2004): Recommendations
 376   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  U, Eibl G, Ganzinger U, et al (2002): Prevalence of
 377   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Bencsik K, Rajda C, Füvesi J, et al (2001): The prevalence
 378   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Magnus S, Guðmundsson J et al (2002): The natural history
 379   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Benito-Léon J, Martín E, Vela L et al (1998): Multiple sclerosis
 380   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Compston DA, Hommes OR, et al (1992): EDMUS, a European
 381   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  C, Vukusic S, Moreau T, et al (2000): Relapses and
 382   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Sã J, Paulos A, Mendes H, et al (2006): The prevalence
 383   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Elian M, Galea de Bono A, et al (2002): Multiple sclerosis
 384   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Schimrigk S, Haupts M, et al (2004): Diagnosis of
 385   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Flachenecker P, Zettl UK , Götze U, et al (2005): [MS registry
 386   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Flachenecker P, Zettl UK, Elias WG, et al (2007): MS Register in
 387   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Ford HL, Gerry E, Airey CM, et al (1998): The prevalence
 388   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  E, Malagú S, Casetta I, et al (1996): Multiple sclerosis
 389   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  N, Glad SB, Aarseth JH, et al (2006): A 50-year follow-up
 390   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 SA, Myrvoll E, Hansen G, et al (2000): Multiple sclerosis
 391   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Rasmussen S, Stenager E, et al (2001). The Danish Multiple
 392   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Neurology 33:1444-1452.~Larocca et al. Factors associated with
 393   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  WI, Compston A, Edan G, et al (2001): Recommended diagnostic
 394   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   McCarthy A, Quigley C, et al (2004): Latitudinal variation
 395   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Bartolo ML, Lo Fermo S, et al (2001): Prevalence and
 396   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Peterlin B, Ristic S, Sepcic J, et al (2006): Region with persistent
 397   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Paty DW, Scheinberg L, et al (1983): New diagnostic
 398   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Prange AJA, Lauer K, Poser S et al (1986): Epidemiological
 399   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Pugliatti M, Sotgiu S, Solinas G et al (2001): Multiple sclerosis
 400   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Pugliatti M, Riise T, Sotgiu MA, et al (2005): Increasing incidence
 401   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Pugliatti M, Rosati G, Carton H, et al (2006): The epidemiology
 402   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 F, Perini P, Tzintzeva E et al (2003): Increasing frequency
 403   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Wikström J, Paltamaa J, et al (2004): Occurrence of
 404   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Svenningsson A, Nyström L, et al (2004): Clinical characteristics
 405   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Totaro R, Marini C, Cialfi A, et al (2000): Prevalence of
 406   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Peterson J, Ransohoff RM, et al (1998): Axonal transection
 407   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Iona L, Monti-Bragadin L, et al (2003): The use of standardized
 408   II,     5.  5.  3    |              disorders (von Campenhausen et al, 2005). It mainly affects
 409   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  000, respectively (Nath et al, 2005; Orphanet, 2007;
 410   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Steering Committee, 2002; Hely et al, 2005).~PD mainly affects
 411   II,     5.  5.  3    |              severe disability (Horstink et al, 2006). This considerably
 412   II,     5.  5.  3    |                in Europe (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005).~
 413   II,     5.  5.  3    |                available (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005; Dowding et al,
 414   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005; Dowding et al, 2006; Lindgren et al,
 415   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Dowding et al, 2006; Lindgren et al, 2005; von Campenhausen
 416   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   2005; von Campenhausen et al, 2005).~ ~ ~ ~
 417   II,     5.  5.  3    |               ageing (ILSA) (Baldereschi et al, 2000).~Country-specific
 418   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 3.6.2..(von Campenhausen et al, 2005).~ ~Table 5.5.3.
 419   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  000 in Sardinia (Rosati et al, 1980) to 12,500/100,
 420   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 In six studies (Claveria et al, 2002; de Rijk et al,
 421   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Claveria et al, 2002; de Rijk et al, 1995; Granieri et al,
 422   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Rijk et al, 1995; Granieri et al, 1991; Schrag and Quinn,
 423   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and Quinn, 2000; Sutcliffe et al, 1985; van de Vijver
 424   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  al, 1985; van de Vijver et al, 2001), the crude prevalence
 425   II,     5.  5.  3    |               other studies (Benito-Leon et al, 2003; Bergareche et
 426   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  et al, 2003; Bergareche et al, 2004; Chio et al, 1998;
 427   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Bergareche et al, 2004; Chio et al, 1998; DAlessandro et
 428   II,     5.  5.  3    |                et al, 1998; DAlessandro et al, 1987; Errea et al, 1999;
 429   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Alessandro et al, 1987; Errea et al, 1999; Rosati et al,
 430   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Errea et al, 1999; Rosati et al, 1979) the crude prevalence
 431   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  has been shown (de Rijk et al, 1997) that a change
 432   II,     5.  5.  3    |                estimated rates (Anderson et al, 1998); moreover, also
 433   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  made by experts (Hughes et al, 1992), a considerable
 434   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  underestimated (Bermejo et al, 2001).~We found conflicting
 435   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  other studies (Granieri et al, 1991).~PD progresses
 436   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  of the disease (Findley et al, 2003; Spottke et al,
 437   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Findley et al, 2003; Spottke et al, 2005). A generally accepted
 438   II,     5.  5.  3    |              homes. The results by Evers et al and Mutch et al (in which
 439   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 by Evers et al and Mutch et al (in which 10.2% of the
 440   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 and Obladen, 1994; Mutch et al, 1986).~ ~Table 5.5.3.
 441   II,     5.  5.  3    |         identified studies. Baldareschi, et al, estimated an average
 442   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  aged 65-84 (Baldereschi et al, 2000). Similar to the
 443   II,     5.  5.  3    |           illustrated in detail (Twelves et al, 2003). Methodological
 444   II,     5.  5.  3    |                date of diagnosis (Brewis et al, 1966; Granieri et al,
 445   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Brewis et al, 1966; Granieri et al, 1991)). Standardisation
 446   II,     5.  5.  3    |              that SMR is about 1.8 (Hely et al, 2005; Hely et al, 1999).
 447   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Hely et al, 2005; Hely et al, 1999). The 5-year survival
 448   II,     5.  5.  3    |                levodopa treatment (Uitti et al, 1993).~ ~Comorbidity~
 449   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the advanced stage (Riedel et al, 2008). Especially psychiatric
 450   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 in PD patients (Aarsland et al, 2000; Goetz and Stebbins,
 451   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 5.3.6.2) (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005). The cost per
 452   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 literature (Chrischilles et al, 1998; Dodel et al, 1998;
 453   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Chrischilles et al, 1998; Dodel et al, 1998; LePen et al, 1999;
 454   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Dodel et al, 1998; LePen et al, 1999; Lindgren et al,
 455   II,     5.  5.  3    |              LePen et al, 1999; Lindgren et al, 2005; McCrone et al,
 456   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Lindgren et al, 2005; McCrone et al, 2007; Spottke et al,
 457   II,     5.  5.  3    |             McCrone et al, 2007; Spottke et al, 2005). Direct cost only
 458   II,     5.  5.  3    |           substantial (Whetten-Goldstein et al, 1997). This burden of
 459   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  by other authors (LePen et al, 1999; Spottke et al,
 460   II,     5.  5.  3    |               LePen et al, 1999; Spottke et al, 2005). Nevertheless,
 461   II,     5.  5.  3    |       pan-European study (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005) also demonstrate
 462   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Democratic Republic (Späte et al, 1988). In patients with
 463   II,     5.  5.  3    |                working due to PD (Clarke et al, 1995).~ ~
 464   II,     5.  5.  3    |           consistently implicated (Chade et al, 2006). Fall et al (1999)
 465   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Chade et al, 2006). Fall et al (1999) found people handling
 466   II,     5.  5.  3    |               increased risk of PD. Tsui et al, (1999) investigated
 467   II,     5.  5.  3    |               risk of developing PD (Lai et al, 2002; Logroscino, 2005;
 468   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  2007; Quik, 2004; Chade et al 2006). However, whether
 469   II,     5.  5.  3    |                an American study, Gorell et al (1999) investigated the
 470   II,     5.  5.  3    |               are inconsistent (Anderson et al, 1999; Gorell et al,
 471   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Anderson et al, 1999; Gorell et al, 2004).~ ~
 472   II,     5.  5.  3    |                in Europe (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005). Parkinson’s disease
 473   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 7 to 9.3 million (Dorsey et al, 2007). The burden of
 474   II,     5.  6.  3    |               the previous year ( Natvig et al, 1995). They were the
 475   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  years of age (Andersson et al, 1993; Bergman et al,
 476   II,     5.  6.  3    |           Andersson et al, 1993; Bergman et al, 2001; Hagen et al, 1997) (
 477   II,     5.  6.  3    |               Bergman et al, 2001; Hagen et al, 1997) (Figure 5.6.1),
 478   II,     5.  6.  3    |            chronic conditions (Sprangers et al, 2000), in particular
 479   II,     5.  6.  3    |                pain and knee pain (Urwin et al, 1998). In the Eurobarometer
 480   II,     5.  6.  3    |               adult population (Reynolds et al, 1992). The prevalence
 481   II,     5.  6.  3    |             high-income countries (Lopez et al, 2006).~ ~Health care
 482   II,     5.  6.  3    |             primary care physician (Lock et al, 1999; Woolf et al, 2004).
 483   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  Lock et al, 1999; Woolf et al, 2004). Musculoskeletal
 484   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 expert referral for (Lin et al, 2000), see physiotherapists
 485   II,     5.  6.  3    |              care cost in 1994 (Meerding et al, 1998), accounting for
 486   II,     5.  6.  3    |             joint pain most days (Altman et al, 1986).~ ~Natural history~ ~
 487   II,     5.  6.  3    |      deteriorating in the hands (Kallman et al, 1990), knees (Dougados
 488   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   1990), knees (Dougados et al, 1992), and hips (Danielsson,
 489   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 and disability (Dougados et al, 1992). Progression of
 490   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  the prevalence (Symmons et al, 2003). For example,
 491   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 defined knee OA (Spector et al, 1991).~ ~The prevalence
 492   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 the age of 70 (van Saase et al, 1989). For example,
 493   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  and hip OA 3% (Lawrence et al, 1998).~ ~Men are affected
 494   II,     5.  6.  3    |                attributed to OA (Symmons et al, 2003).~ ~Table 5.6.2.
 495   II,     5.  6.  3    |                developing OA knee (Davis et al, 1990). It is estimated
 496   II,     5.  6.  3    |             sedentary occupations (Croft et al, 1992).~ ~There is a
 497   II,     5.  6.  3    |       osteoarthritis and smoking (Felson et al, 1996).~ ~These risk
 498   II,     5.  6.  3    |              costs of medical care (Levy et al, 1993). OA is a major
 499   II,     5.  6.  3    |               procedures / 100,000 (Merx et al, 2003). The estimated
 500   II,     5.  6.  3    |           severity of knee disease (Juni et al, 2003).~ ~Future trends~ ~