Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    -,     1            |                  policies;~· Provision of data and information to facilitate
   2    -,     1            |         measurement of key indicators and data coverage inevitably vary
   3    -,     1            |                 collect all the available data (see Appendix 5) for preparing
   4    -,     1            |              optimal use of the available data previously collected by
   5    -,     1            |                  how to obtain additional data and information from Member
   6    -,     1            |                     i) Introduction; (ii) Data sources; (iii) Data description
   7    -,     1            |                   ii) Data sources; (iii) Data description and analysis; (
   8    -,     1            |               analyzing and disseminating data and information related
   9    I,     2.  2        |                  of people older than 65. Data show that, without significant
  10    I,     2.  2        |                 the relevant surveillance data. Of particular concern is
  11    I,     2.  4        |               Gross Domestic Product. The data reported in Figure 2.2 clearly
  12    I,     2.  4        |                  countries with available data, rates of premature mortality
  13    I,     2.  4        |                  countries with available data, mortality rates have generally
  14    I,     2.  4        |               aged 25-79 during the ’90s. Data indicate that most chronic
  15    I,     2.  5        |                  studies and quantitative data show that employees with
  16    I,     2.  6        |                   all countries for which data are available for both years.
  17    I,     2.  7        |                  to catch up by providing data on these neglected settlements
  18    I,     2. 10.  1    |               needed for secondary health data such as the exposure to
  19    I,     2. 10.  1    |               huge amount of quantitative data generated by high-throughput
  20    I,     2. 10.  1    |                  to develop more sequence data, ‘single nucleotide polymorphism’ (
  21    I,     2. 10.  1    |                  duration of the genomics data to make sure that it remains
  22    I,     2. 10.  1    |             global body of bioinformatics data is an increasingly critical
  23    I,     2. 10.  1    |                 period of high-throughput data collection and due to the
  24    I,     2. 10.  2    |              target tissue.~ ~For Europe, data on the actual use and market
  25    I,     2. 10.  3    |                 such as medical emergency data and secure access to personal
  26    I,     2. 10.  3    |                 networks of public health data and co-ordinate actions
  27    I,     2. 10.  4    |              automatic identification and data capture of pharmaceutical
  28    I,     2. 10.  4    |                 scanning to match product data to patient data, verification
  29    I,     2. 10.  4    |                   product data to patient data, verification of patient
  30    I,     2. 10.  5    |                   both at the methods and data used for the assessment,
  31    I,     2. 11        |                statistical yearbook 2005. Data 1999-2003. [on-line publication
  32    I,     3.Acr        |          Population Projections, EUROSTAT data~GCIM Global Commission on
  33    I,     3.  1        |              women that remain childless. Data show that childlessness
  34   II,     4.Acr        |          Population Projections, EUROSTAT data~GALI~Global Activity Limitation
  35   II,     4.  1        |                and Euro-REVES, 2003). All data (death counts, population
  36   II,     4.  1        |           expectancy from cross-sectional data (Sullivan, 1971). Details
  37   II,     4.  1        |                   Indicator, using survey data coming from the ECHP and
  38   II,     4.  1        |                2005 and by gender. The US data come from the National Center
  39   II,     4.  1        |                   2007)4 and the Japanese data from the Ministry of Health
  40   II,     4.  1        |            required harmonized disability data for the HLY, thus addressing
  41   II,     4.  1        |                  the HLY, thus addressing data availability across all
  42   II,     4.  2        |                method has been applied to data from the EUROSTAT database
  43   II,     4.  2        |                due to the availability of data for the analysed decades.~ ~ ~
  44   II,     4.  2        |                  basis of availability of data on causes of death for both
  45   II,     4.  2        |             countries for which there was data on the change in life expectancy
  46   II,     4.  3        |                2007): Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2005, U.S. National
  47   II,     5.  1.  1    |                   methodology adopted for data collection (self reported
  48   II,     5.  1.  2    |                  bound to epidemiological data and medical education which
  49   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                    5.2.2. Data sources~The magnitude of
  50   II,     5.  2.  2    |              quality and comparability of data available on CVD beyond
  51   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   mortality and morbidity data were taken from several
  52   II,     5.  2.  2    |                       2007) for mortality data; WHO-HFA database (htt b,
  53   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   registers for morbidity data; WHO-HFA database and WHO
  54   II,     5.  2.  2    |        Surveillance Set - (h p, 2007) IHD data available from different
  55   II,     5.  2.  2    |                co-morbidities, which make data validation and prevention
  56   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   to realize. For stroke, data were age-standardized for
  57   II,     5.  2.  2    |               skew results and complicate data validation.~The most effective
  58   II,     5.  2.  2    |              disease~ ~Mortality~EUROSTAT data were analyzed to obtain
  59   II,     5.  2.  2    |              trends. Thus, we present the data for the three year period
  60   II,     5.  2.  2    |                    AMI) and stroke; these data are scarce, therefore it
  61   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 2003) are reported. Other data, such as on heart failure
  62   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  EUROSTAT, HFA-WHO, OCSE) data for aggregated groups of
  63   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 CABG]) are also reported. Data are published by the European
  64   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   year for which accurate data is available for the majority
  65   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 decline in CVD mortality. Data from the WHO MONICA Project (
  66   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  of the treatments. These data, although collected several
  67   II,     5.  2.  2    |                Set - (h p, 2007) EUROSTAT data were analyzed to obtain
  68   II,     5.  2.  2    |               were used for stroke; these data are scarce, therefore temporal
  69   II,     5.  2.  2    |             hospital discharge diagnosis.~Data from the WHO MONICA Project (htt /,
  70   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 already explained, MONICA data, although collected several
  71   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   for CVD.~Last available data on risk factors were taken
  72   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   methodology adopted for data collection (self reported
  73   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  was not possible to pool data and then give a more complete
  74   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 overview.~Therefore, some data from the WHO MONICA Project,
  75   II,     5.  2.  3    |                                    5.2.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
  76   II,     5.  2.  3    |               explained in chapter 5.2.2Data sources’, it was decided
  77   II,     5.  2.  3    |              According to the most recent data (2001-2003), the rates vary
  78   II,     5.  2.  3    |                2007). Unfortunately these data are scarce and not validated,
  79   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  within the same country, data on IHD, AMI and stroke hospital
  80   II,     5.  2.  3    |                reported together with the data on all CVD hospital discharges.
  81   II,     5.  2.  3    |                    Future availability of data on hospital discharges for
  82   II,     5.  2.  3    |                Allender et al, 2008). The data vary widely across Europe
  83   II,     5.  2.  3    |              Southern countries. The only data available are those collected
  84   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 hospital for surgery, the data refer to two separate cases
  85   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  The best source of valid data on surgical procedures is
  86   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  available and comparable data on morbidity of acute coronary
  87   II,     5.  2.  3    |                   According to the MONICA data, this was higher in populations
  88   II,     5.  2.  3    |            countries continued to collect data every year while others
  89   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 in Europe adopt different data collection procedures cover
  90   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  risk factors.~Comparable data on morbidity are more difficult
  91   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  sources of CVD morbidity data in EU.~ ~
  92   II,     5.  2.  3    |                           5.2.3.2. Stroke~Data on morbidity and mortality
  93   II,     5.  2.  3    |               explained in chapter 4.2.2Data sources’, it was decided
  94   II,     5.  2.  3    |               2007). Unfortunately, these data are not validated and cannot
  95   II,     5.  2.  3    |              location and type of lesion. Data on hospital discharges separated
  96   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  available and comparable data, although seldom representative
  97   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 WHO MONICA Project. These data are reported in Table 5.
  98   II,     5.  2.  4    |                well known, national level data are difficult to obtain
  99   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 the most recent available data on hypertension prevalence
 100   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  women than in men. These data have been collected using
 101   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  mmHg).~Table 5.2.8 shows data on total cholesterol: prevalence
 102   II,     5.  2.  4    |                     Due to differences in data collection methodology (
 103   II,     5.  2.  4    |                  was not possible to pool data, provide trends overview
 104   II,     5.  2.  4    |                   into consideration some data from the WHO-MONICA Project (
 105   II,     5.  2.  4    |              Tolonen et al, 2002). Trends data show a decrease in systolic
 106   II,     5.  2.  6    |               population.~Epidemiological data show that strategies to
 107   II,     5.  2.  6    |              prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants
 108   II,     5.  2.  6    |               meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in
 109   II,     5.  2.  6    |               meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies
 110   II,     5.  3.  2    |                                     5.3.2 Data sources~ ~
 111   II,     5.  3.  2    |                   registries (CR) collect data on all new cases of cancer
 112   II,     5.  3.  2    |                  and death certificates). Data refer to entire population
 113   II,     5.  3.  2    |           population level cancer patient data are becoming more and more
 114   II,     5.  3.  2    |            provision of timely and robust data on cancer incidence, survival (
 115   II,     5.  3.  2    |          recommendations for the standard data set to be routinely recorded
 116   II,     5.  3.  2    |                   providing the following data:~- early indicators: screen-detected
 117   II,     5.  3.  2    |                  by providing comparative data about treatment patterns
 118   II,     5.  3.  2    |                  these studies additional data, such as details on treatment,
 119   II,     5.  3.  2    |                 Hungary (1992); moreover, data protection issues impacted
 120   II,     5.  3.  2    |                   impacted on the flow of data to cancer registries also
 121   II,     5.  3.  2    |             registry provide standardized data comparable across Europe;~·
 122   II,     5.  3.  2    |                unique providers of cancer data at population level;~· cancer
 123   II,     5.  3.  2    |                                   5.3.2.2 Data from European networks and
 124   II,     5.  3.  2    |              projects~ ~This chapter uses data, information and results
 125   II,     5.  3.  2    |                 guidelines, collection of data on defined indicators, developing
 126   II,     5.  3.  2    |                the end of 2005, collected data from 34 European countries
 127   II,     5.  3.  3    |                                     5.3.3 Data presentation~ ~Cancer is
 128   II,     5.  3.  3    |                  provides annual reported data on mortality statistics
 129   II,     5.  3.  3    |                 systems in countries. The data available comprise deaths
 130   II,     5.  3.  3    |              relevant national authority. Data are included only for countries
 131   II,     5.  3.  3    |                   for countries reporting data properly coded according
 132   II,     5.  3.  3    |                 historically only partial data exports from the Czech National
 133   II,     5.  3.  3    |           mortality and relative survival data presented in the following
 134   II,     5.  3.  5    |                   Mortality and incidence data discussion~ ~All cancers (
 135   II,     5.  3.  6    |                            5.3.5 Survival data discussion~ ~EUROCARE is
 136   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  report presents survival data in adult in 199094, whilst
 137   II,     5.  3.  6    |              EUROCARE-4 presents survival data in 1995-1999 and 2000-2002.
 138   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 in men in most countries.~Data on survival trends (not
 139   II,     5.  3.  6    |               intermediate at around 45%.~Data on survival trends (not
 140   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  are ~30% for both sexes (data not shown). Data on survival
 141   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   sexes (data not shown). Data on survival trends (not
 142   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   but at different rates (data not showed). Improvements
 143   II,     5.  3.  6    |                where it has remained low (data not showed). Even though
 144   II,     5.  3.  6    |               observed in most countries (data not showed). The main exceptions
 145   II,     5.  3.  6    |             Berrino et al (2007) analysed data from 83 cancer registries
 146   II,     5.  3.  6    |              survival, but moderate TNEH. Data for 199094 and 199599
 147   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   2007) analysed survival data for patients diagnosed with
 148   II,     5.  3.  7    |                 to analyze, due to scarce data in some national settings;
 149   II,     5.  3.  9    |             period analysis of EUROCARE-4 data. Lancet Oncology 8 (9):
 150   II,     5.  4.  1    |           continuously; this because this data is difficult to collect
 151   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 accounting systems. Thus, data mostly relies on the conduction
 152   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                     5.4.2 Data sources~ ~ ~
 153   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                     5.4.2 Data sources~ ~The different
 154   II,     5.  4.  2    |              States for the collection of data on chronic diseases hamper
 155   II,     5.  4.  2    |               measuring and exchanging of data on a large scale in a timely
 156   II,     5.  4.  2    |               standardized and comparable data across countries remains
 157   II,     5.  4.  2    |                solution to the problem of data collection to fulfil precise
 158   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  linked to administrative data including hospital discharges,
 159   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   approach as a basis for data exchange across collaborating
 160   II,     5.  4.  2    |            required, either by collecting data in a disease management
 161   II,     5.  4.  2    |               impaired glucose tolerance. Data of health expenditure are
 162   II,     5.  4.  2    |            national representativeness of data and other comparability
 163   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 for budgeting. In the UK, data collection on a range of
 164   II,     5.  4.  2    |            interesting but not an optimal data source.~ ~
 165   II,     5.  4.  2    |                the definition of national data formats that have been fairly
 166   II,     5.  4.  2    |       reimbursement for the hospital, and data are generally accessible
 167   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 harmonisation of hospital data is still to be realised
 168   II,     5.  4.  2    |                    Conclusion~ ~Different data sources provide very different
 169   II,     5.  4.  2    |                     Countries with recent data~Data sources~ ~I Risk factors
 170   II,     5.  4.  2    |                Countries with recent data~Data sources~ ~I Risk factors
 171   II,     5.  4.  2    |              countries that could provide data.~Annual incidence of dyalisis
 172   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 such condition, mortality data in diabetes are not very
 173   II,     5.  4.  2    |                     Countries with~recent data~II Epidemiology of diabetes~ ~
 174   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   value (9.5%) that makes data less comparable and applicable
 175   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   of countries submitting data (N=2).~Fundus inspection
 176   II,     5.  4.  3    |                                     5.4.3 Data description and analysis~ ~
 177   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 and analysis~ ~Comparable data on the human and economic
 178   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  will present EU diabetes data mainly referring to the
 179   II,     5.  4.  3    |           countries (Lancet, 2000). These data allowed further hypotheses
 180   II,     5.  4.  3    |                1000.~According to the IDF data 2006, the absolute number
 181   II,     5.  4.  3    |              countries that could provide data.~Annual incidence of dyalisis
 182   II,     5.  4.  3    |          According to EUCID, standardised data show that mortality ranges
 183   II,     5.  4.  3    |             countries delivering accurate data. The median value is 31/
 184   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  the last 12 months. OECD data (Armesto et al, 2006) show
 185   II,     5.  4.  3    |               last 12 months. EUCID crude data from 12 countries are consistent
 186   II,     5.  4.  3    |               last 12 months. EUCID crude data from 11 countries present
 187   II,     5.  4.  3    |              EUCID, 11 countries provided data with a percentage varying
 188   II,     5.  4.  3    |               EUCID 12 countries provided data; the percentage of people
 189   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 10 countries contributing data, showing a variation between
 190   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 age bands. OECD collected data on 7 EU countries, with
 191   II,     5.  4.  3    |                four countries contributed data, ranging between 1% and
 192   II,     5.  4.  3    |          retinopathy. For this indicator, data is even more scarce than
 193   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 only 8 countries provided data, with figures between 0.
 194   II,     5.  4.  4    |                                    5.4.4. Data discussion~ ~Information
 195   II,     5.  4.  4    |                  collecting and analysing data at EU level. There are very
 196   II,     5.  4.  4    |                   way to start collecting data for an analysis of the current
 197   II,     5.  4.  4    |             future collection of complete data.~It has been demonstrated
 198   II,     5.  4.  4    |             available for EUCID. However, data are based upon BMI; on the
 199   II,     5.  4.  4    |                 cannot provide consistent data. The emergency dictated
 200   II,     5.  4.  4    |                 the type of diabetes, the data may become more alarming,
 201   II,     5.  4.  4    |                     and IDF (median=8.7%) data is difficult to explain.
 202   II,     5.  4.  4    |                 to enhance the quality of data, with the adoption of standardised
 203   II,     5.  4.  4    |                   regular basis. Complete data in this area will remain
 204   II,     5.  4.  4    |             extremely important, but this data also is more biases related
 205   II,     5.  4.  4    |                   the large variations in data between countries, which
 206   II,     5.  4.  4    |                   of countries submitting data, with information on retinopathy
 207   II,     5.  4.  4    |                   complete and consistent data are necessary to confirm
 208   II,     5.  4.  6    |                   the previous section on data presentation, the project
 209   II,     5.  4.  6    |              epidemiological and economic data as well as data on the underlying
 210   II,     5.  4.  6    |                  economic data as well as data on the underlying factors;~·
 211   II,     5.  4.  6    |                 morbidity and risk factor data across Member States;~·
 212   II,     5.  4.  7    |                 to automated standardized data collection by developing
 213   II,     5.  4.  7    |                       Although individual data will never be exchanged
 214   II,     5.  4.  7    |                 an increasing barrier for data systems, has been thoroughly
 215   II,     5.  4.  7    |                  validity and accuracy of data residing in individual regions/
 216   II,     5.  4.  8    |             Expert GroupOECD (2006), 2006 Data Collection Update Report,
 217   II,     5.  4.  8    |            consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/lsa/89847.
 218   II,     5.  4.  8    |                 Utilization of drug sales data for the epidemiology of
 219   II,     5.  5.Int    |                  about the reliability of data on eating disorders, particularly
 220   II,     5.  5.Int    |               health care resources. More data on this condition are not
 221   II,     5.  5.Int    |                  6 per 1.000 inhabitants. Data, though limited, suggest
 222   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                  5.5.1.2. Data sources~ ~ ~
 223   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   health related register data. Problems include comparability
 224   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  prevalence and incidence data when derived from hospital
 225   II,     5.  5.  1    |               coverage of hospitalisation data vary, but also because of
 226   II,     5.  5.  1    |       hospitalised. Consequently, routine data cannot be used to compare
 227   II,     5.  5.  1    |              information on mental health data in HfA, see also the introductory
 228   II,     5.  5.  1    |          disorders. There are no specific data in HfA addressing mood or
 229   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   mental disorders. These data have been obtained from
 230   II,     5.  5.  1    |             health establishments, annual data collections on mental health
 231   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 and from health insurance data. In addition, the HfA includes
 232   II,     5.  5.  1    |             registered by ICD-9/10. These data has been derived nationally
 233   II,     5.  5.  1    |            discharge registers and annual data collections on mental health
 234   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 mental health or relevant data sources. The incidence and
 235   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  incidence and prevalence data are available in HfA for
 236   II,     5.  5.  1    |      international comparability of these data is heavily compromised.~ ~
 237   II,     5.  5.  1    |        compromised.~ ~Suicide. HfA offers data on age-standardised death
 238   II,     5.  5.  1    |          standardised population. The HfA data is derived from national
 239   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   years and all ages. The data availability from the 27
 240   II,     5.  5.  1    |            intentional self-harm. Suicide data is available for five year
 241   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   region. Annual national data are presented as absolute
 242   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 standardised death rates. Data is available in principle
 243   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   Most available national data is from late 1990s and beginning
 244   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 Development’s OECD Health Data 2008 offers some mental
 245   II,     5.  5.  1    |                some mental health-related data for OECD Member States.
 246   II,     5.  5.  1    |              Member States. These include data on causes of mortality and
 247   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  self-harm.~ ~OECD Health Data 2008 includes also general
 248   II,     5.  5.  1    |        pharmaceuticals. However, specific data concerning mood and anxiety
 249   II,     5.  5.  1    |               cannot be derived from this data.~ ~ ~Lastly, it should also
 250   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                5.5.1.2.2. Data from population surveys~ ~ ~
 251   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 The ESEMeD output include data on mood and anxiety disorders,
 252   II,     5.  5.  1    |           healthcare services. The survey data were gathered during 2001-
 253   II,     5.  5.  1    |             care-seeking behaviour.~ ~The data derived from Eurobarometer
 254   II,     5.  5.  1    |             respect to the strengths, the data come from large randomly-selected
 255   II,     5.  5.  1    |              disorders. The Eurobarometer data do not include institutionalised
 256   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  do not provide morbidity data derived from validated mental
 257   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 and interpretation of the data in terms of psychiatric
 258   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                  5.5.1.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 259   II,     5.  5.  1    |             differences in presenting the data.~ ~The mortality rate for
 260   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Member States. The Eurostat data indicate that the highest
 261   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  derived from statistical data and population surveys,
 262   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   the quality of existing data and epidemiological trends.~
 263   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 to analyse and report all data.~ ~EU activities other than
 264   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 It is evident that better data should be offered for the
 265   II,     5.  5.  1    |               High quality and comparable data need to be collected on
 266   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    2007). Overview of key data from the European Study
 267   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                  5.5.2.2. Data sources~ ~The data presented
 268   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   2.2. Data sources~ ~The data presented here is taken
 269   II,     5.  5.  2    |              EURODEM working group pooled data on the prevalence of moderate
 270   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 can make inferences using data from comparable contexts
 271   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                  5.5.2.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 272   II,     5.  5.  2    |               changes in mortality.~ ~The data clearly suggest that the
 273   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.1.2. Data sources~ ~ ~Qualitative
 274   II,     5.  5.  3    |                methods survey qualitative data, in doing so the Eating
 275   II,     5.  5.  3    |               2008). Finally, qualitative data and qualitative measurement
 276   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   to provide a satisfying data basis, is a systematic review
 277   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   international published data source or reference list
 278   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Rigby (in press) noticed data inconsistencies among research
 279   II,     5.  5.  3    |           measurement methods. Therefore, data resulted from literature
 280   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 carefully used to compare data and the state-of-art between
 281   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   national level, limited data are mostly available from
 282   II,     5.  5.  3    |        practitioners, however, consist of data for persons with a diagnosed
 283   II,     5.  5.  3    |              press). Because of it, these data sources are unlikely to
 284   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  disorders. Some national data are surveyed in certain
 285   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 but a European Union-wide data analysis and comparison
 286   II,     5.  5.  3    |                analysis and comparison of data is currently not available.
 287   II,     5.  5.  3    |              there is really a paucity of data on national as well as at
 288   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   and therefore collected data in participated European
 289   II,     5.  5.  3    |         illustrates the limited number of data, surveys and treatments
 290   II,     5.  5.  3    |            obvious that in some countries data were measured within national
 291   II,     5.  5.  3    |               whereas for other countries data do not exist allowing statements
 292   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Table 5.5.3.1.1 Overview of data availability in Europe~ ~ ~
 293   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Measure~Availability of data item?~ ~ Yes No~Comments~
 294   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 anorexia nervosa but some data are available in the frame
 295   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  children and unpublished data from the National Health
 296   II,     5.  5.  3    |               There are no representative data about prevalence of Bulimia
 297   II,     5.  5.  3    |               report treatment attendance data (number of children for
 298   II,     5.  5.  3    |               There are no representative data about the prevalence of
 299   II,     5.  5.  3    |             University of Athens has some data on anorexia and bulimia ~
 300   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    National epidemiologic data on anorexia and bulimia
 301   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  disorders. However, some data are available in Health
 302   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Centre (treatment attendance data) and in specialized Center
 303   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  reliable epidemiological data concerning prevalence of
 304   II,     5.  5.  3    |                nervosa. However there are data related to the hospitalization
 305   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Romania~X~ ~At national level data about the general morbidity
 306   II,     5.  5.  3    |              disorders are collected. The data collection starts from county
 307   II,     5.  5.  3    |             starts from county level; the data are generally presented
 308   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 anorexia nervosa but some data are available in the frame
 309   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Table 5.5.3.1.2.1: Available data about anorexia and bulimia
 310   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.1.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 311   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Norway and Denmark). Thus, data from 62 articles (out of
 312   II,     5.  5.  3    |           overview on the availability of data as well as about lack of
 313   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  as well as about lack of data. From this survey, it appears
 314   II,     5.  5.  3    |                needed to regularly update data regarding eating disorders.
 315   II,     5.  5.  3    |             disorders. Routinely analysed data are of particular importance,
 316   II,     5.  5.  3    |               bulimia. Routinely analysed data are essential for policy
 317   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Cataloguing-in-Publication Data. WHO Regional Office for
 318   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   al, 2005) of prevalence data evaluated in 188 epidemiological
 319   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   a higher incidence. The data on fluctuation across time
 320   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.2.2. Data Sources~ ~There are no comprehensive
 321   II,     5.  5.  3    |        comprehensive national or European data available focusing on the
 322   II,     5.  5.  3    |               single diagnosis. Available data summarize prevalence and
 323   II,     5.  5.  3    |              incidence rates are based on data of first admission to or
 324   II,     5.  5.  3    |            countries, the first admission data may underestimate the need
 325   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  incidence and prevalence data (Lange et al, 2002). A certain
 326   II,     5.  5.  3    |             diagnosis (Sato, 2006).~ ~The data concerning morbidity rates (
 327   II,     5.  5.  3    |           classification (the majority of data is derived from the year
 328   II,     5.  5.  3    |              derived from the year 2005), data from countries like France
 329   II,     5.  5.  3    |            morbidity tabulation). The WHO data cover more European countries
 330   II,     5.  5.  3    |         diagnostic classification levels. Data provided by EUROSTAT on
 331   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  show deviations from the data published by the WHO which
 332   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 to explain. All available data do not take into account
 333   II,     5.  5.  3    |                only on hospital morbidity data yet underestimate the actual
 334   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   outside the hospital.~ ~Data on the outpatient sector
 335   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    the lack of respective data means a relevant gap of
 336   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Inter-country comparison data on mortality for selected
 337   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   by schizophrenia. Other data sources like EUROSTAT do
 338   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   EUROSTAT do not provide data restricted to schizophrenia (
 339   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Therefore, these mortality data have to be interpreted with
 340   II,     5.  5.  3    |               little accurate comparative data on prescribing patterns
 341   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   respective prescription data do not reflect the actual
 342   II,     5.  5.  3    |              other disorders, and limited data are available on antipsychotic
 343   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   however patchy. Another data source is IMS Health, a
 344   II,     5.  5.  3    |              qualifications. Prescription data from Germany from the 12-
 345   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 disease burden. Hence the data presented are supplemented
 346   II,     5.  5.  3    |             presented are supplemented by data from the literature.~ ~Unless
 347   II,     5.  5.  3    |            otherwise noted, the source of data is the European Health for
 348   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Office for Europe. Other data and information are referenced
 349   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.2.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 350   II,     5.  5.  3    |                description and analysis~ ~Data usually representing the
 351   II,     5.  5.  3    |        comprehensive review on prevalence data identified a median point
 352   II,     5.  5.  3    |              urbanicity). Hence, detailed data are not yet available. Factors
 353   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   be addressed.~Incidence data are usually estimates based
 354   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 first treatment/admission data due to the diagnosis of
 355   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   to optimize delivery of data and establish a more reliable
 356   II,     5.  5.  3    |             European countries. Available data from the European Detailed
 357   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  to age categories. These data show a peak in the 30 –
 358   II,     5.  5.  3    |                mentioned above, mortality data seem to be quite questionable
 359   II,     5.  5.  3    |               problem of missing reliable data although there is evidence
 360   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 studies reporting primary data on deaths, the standardized
 361   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Saha, 2007).~The mortality data attributed to the group
 362   II,     5.  5.  3    |             available statistical suicide data - if not based on psychiatric
 363   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Thus, there are no reliable data on suicides in the context
 364   II,     5.  5.  3    |             evaluating detailed mortality data with a more distinct cause
 365   II,     5.  5.  3    |            necessity of a more consistent data collection and documentation.~
 366   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 trend over time~Available data on inter-country comparisons
 367   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 vary widely. In addition, data coded according to ICD-10/
 368   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 0164). On the other hand, data from the Nordic Medical
 369   II,     5.  5.  3    |               accurate hospital morbidity data alone provide a comprehensive
 370   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  morbidity databases with data on outpatient care.~Disability
 371   II,     5.  5.  3    |              According to the most recent data, neuropsychiatric conditions
 372   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 DALY rates estimated from data of 2002 for the year 2005:
 373   II,     5.  5.  3    |              greatest amount of available data is on diabetes and the metabolic
 374   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  on the limited available data there seems to be evidence
 375   II,     5.  5.  3    |               adjustment. Yet the limited data - although promising - do
 376   II,     5.  5.  3    |              mental health care, European data on this topic is limited.
 377   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 2004) worldwide; selected data of studies from Western
 378   II,     5.  5.  3    |              According to the most recent data evaluated within the EUFEST
 379   II,     5.  5.  3    |                highlighted by the current data from the WHO Atlas on mental
 380   II,     5.  5.  3    |              supported by the most recent data from Sweden: Lindström and
 381   II,     5.  5.  3    |              evaluation provided detailed data, these findings are a valuable
 382   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   in 2001Collection of data on the mental health care
 383   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  be backed up by reliable data, the improvement of existing
 384   II,     5.  5.  3    |            research and gather comparable data on incidence and prevalence
 385   II,     5.  5.  3    |               incidence of schizophrenia: data versus dogma. Schiz Bull
 386   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.3.2. Data sources~ ~Autism Spectrum
 387   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   no available comparable data on morbidity in ASD in Europe.
 388   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.3.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 389   II,     5.  5.  3    |          identified as having an ASD. The data were reported by the Autism
 390   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 inconsistent retrieval of data in these studies has made
 391   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 ongoing collection of ASD data, several of the EU countries
 392   II,     5.  5.  3    |              ensure the largest impact of data quality. By following specific
 393   II,     5.  5.  3    |               will be possible to compare data between the EU countrie,
 394   II,     5.  5.  3    |          information system to record ASD data. This data, recorded in
 395   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  to record ASD data. This data, recorded in a common format
 396   II,     5.  5.  3    |               cerebral palsy (CP) and ASD data in the EU. This will be
 397   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.4.2. Data sources~ ~The patients with
 398   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.4.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 399   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Table 5.5.3.4.4). These data are confirmed when limiting
 400   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 from Europe. In contrast, data regarding the mortality
 401   II,     5.  5.  3    |                There are limited European data on the cumulative incidence (
 402   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    laboratory and imaging data of each enrolled patient.
 403   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.5.2. Data sources~ ~The distribution
 404   II,     5.  5.  3    |           considered, and the most recent data from the largest populations
 405   II,     5.  5.  3    |                collecting epidemiological data on the number of patients
 406   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Germany. To date, standardised data sets of ca. 5800 MS patients
 407   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.5.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 408   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  provides epidemiological data on MS in Denmark that appear
 409   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   of 4.2 (Lauer, personal data). Similar prevalence rates
 410   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  in the 1990s. Prevalence data are in the same range for
 411   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   survival time in Europe~Data on MS mortality must be
 412   II,     5.  5.  3    |              issues~Despite the wealth of data deriving from systematic
 413   II,     5.  5.  3    |                based upon epidemiological data, such as prevalence and
 414   II,     5.  5.  3    |               social costs are high. Cost data were extrapolated for EU25
 415   II,     5.  5.  3    |                there are no comprehensive data available on the employment
 416   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 new study are to generate data that will substantiate national
 417   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  provides information and data on the epidemiology of MS
 418   II,     5.  5.  3    |             charts or spreadsheets in the data query section. The whole
 419   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 updated every four years. Data will also be collected on
 420   II,     5.  5.  3    |               that have not yet submitted data and new data will be collected
 421   II,     5.  5.  3    |                yet submitted data and new data will be collected for new
 422   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 studies in MS provide new data on the treatment of clinically
 423   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   evaluated the available data and provided recommendations
 424   II,     5.  5.  3    |                will create a standardised data collection and management
 425   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 to analyse and compare MS data; prevalence and epidemiology
 426   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Sclerosis Registry. History, data collection and validity.
 427   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    2003): Epidemiological data of multiple sclerosis in
 428   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.6.2. Data source~To identify studies
 429   II,     5.  5.  3    |             evaluated epidemiological key data and costing data, we performed
 430   II,     5.  5.  3    |      epidemiological key data and costing data, we performed a systematic
 431   II,     5.  5.  3    |             health information databases. Data from the national and European
 432   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.6.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 433   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   2000).~Country-specific data on PD prevalence are summarised
 434   II,     5.  5.  3    |                disability. In particular, data on the distribution of the
 435   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   The prevalence and cost data were stratified according
 436   II,     5.  5.  3    |        demonstrating that cost-of-illness data from different studies (
 437   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   indirect costs~Only few data about the indirect costs
 438   II,     5.  5.  3    |              after disease onset.~Similar data were presented by the German
 439   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 been observed compared to data from 1973 (Singer 1973).
 440   II,     5.  5.  3    |            central database and web-based data entry; establishment of
 441   II,     5.  5.  3    |                will collect patient-level data on resource use and productivity
 442   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    Health statistics: key data on health, 2002. Available
 443   II,     5.  6.  2    |                                    5.6.2. Data sources~ ~The epidemiological
 444   II,     5.  6.  2    |                 chapter uses material and data from these reports and acknowledges
 445   II,     5.  6.  2    |                   Chronic Diseases. These data have been supplemented by
 446   II,     5.  6.  2    |            literature for epidemiological data on the relevant conditions
 447   II,     5.  6.  2    |            pointed out that comparison of data obtained in different times
 448   II,     5.  6.  3    |                                    5.6.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 449   II,     5.  6.  3    |             estimate and there are little data because of its gradual progressive
 450   II,     5.  6.  3    |               onset of clinical symptoms. Data is not available for all
 451   II,     5.  6.  3    |                    There are insufficient data to know if there is any
 452   II,     5.  6.  3    |              health care. There is little data available specifically for
 453   II,     5.  6.  3    |              osteoarthritis from national data were 0.1% of 1991 GNP, of
 454   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 strategies. However, most data available are with less
 455   II,     5.  6.  3    |                being made to use existing data to describe the absolute
 456   II,     5.  6.  4    |             estimated based upon register data on disability pensions.
 457   II,     5.  6.  6    |                  in rheumatoid arthritis. Data on the effect of multidisciplinary
 458   II,     5.  7.  1    |                   of increasing severity. Data derived from the National
 459   II,     5.  7.  1    |             children is scarce. Available data indicate that CKD at this
 460   II,     5.  7.  1    |                   Esbjorner et al, 1997). Data on renal replacement therapy (
 461   II,     5.  7.  1    |             dialysis patients (U.S. Renal Data System, 2005).~ ~Definitions~ ~
 462   II,     5.  7.  1    |                Whenever possible, the CKD data are presented according
 463   II,     5.  7.  1    |                  Tables 5.7.1 and 5.7.2). Data about CKD in children are
 464   II,     5.  7.  2    |                                    5.7.2. Data sources~ ~ ~The present
 465   II,     5.  7.  2    |         adolescents and adults and on the data of the Registry of the European
 466   II,     5.  7.  2    |                   ERA-EDTA) that collects data in patients with ESRD on
 467   II,     5.  7.  2    |               with ESRD on RRT. Available data on the prevalence of CKD (
 468   II,     5.  7.  2    |                these presentations. Trend data for CKD are very scarce.~ ~
 469   II,     5.  7.  2    |               reliable individual patient data on the incidence and prevalence
 470   II,     5.  7.  2    |                provide individual patient data covering their whole country (
 471   II,     5.  7.  2    |                  include complete patient data in another few years. These
 472   II,     5.  7.  2    |        availability of individual patient data within one European ERA-EDTA
 473   II,     5.  7.  2    |                 least a large part of the data could be analysed using
 474   II,     5.  7.  2    |                 individual and aggregated data from national and/or regional
 475   II,     5.  7.  2    |                    The individual patient data are used for epidemiological
 476   II,     5.  7.  2    |                  incidence and prevalence data that are received from other
 477   II,     5.  7.  2    |                more focused studies using data from a segment of the catchment
 478   II,     5.  7.  2    |                  incidence and prevalence data on RRT were used from 42
 479   II,     5.  7.  2    |              including individual patient data collect at least the date
 480   II,     5.  7.  2    |          Registries collecting aggregated data usually perform yearly surveys
 481   II,     5.  7.  2    |               centres. As availability of data depended on the existence
 482   II,     5.  7.  2    |              coverage of their countries, data on RRT over the period 1992-
 483   II,     5.  7.  2    |               complete individual patient data for the whole country over
 484   II,     5.  7.  2    |                  individual or aggregated data either over a shorter period
 485   II,     5.  7.  2    |                able to provide aggregated data over a shorter period. The
 486   II,     5.  7.  2    |                over a shorter period. The data used for mortality analyses
 487   II,     5.  7.  3    |                                    5.7.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 488   II,     5.  7.  3    |              Winkelmayer et al, 2005). No data has been published in Europe.
 489   II,     5.  7.  3    |                  Similarly scarce are the data concerning changes in CKD
 490   II,     5.  7.  3    |                study that examined NHANES data (Coresh et al,2005).~ ~In
 491   II,     5.  7.  3    |                2005).~ ~In Europe similar data are available only in Norway.
 492   II,     5.  7.  3    |                  pmp in 2005) (U.S. Renal Data System, USRDS, 2007) are
 493   II,     5.  7.  3    |           available for 12 countries. The data for the United Kingdom (
 494   II,     5.  7.  3    |                   and part of the Italian data were based on information
 495   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 practitioners data-bases. Data from other countries are
 496   II,     5.  7.  3    |               There is still a paucity of data on CKD. Data in Europe have
 497   II,     5.  7.  3    |                   paucity of data on CKD. Data in Europe have been gathered
 498   II,     5.  7.  3    |                    or population surveys. Data from medical databases overestimate
 499   II,     5.  7.  3    |                   is apparent also in the data collected in this review.
 500   II,     5.  7.  3    |                    Ardissino et al 2003). Data in a population-based registry