Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

 1   II,     5.  5.  3|                  Multiple System Atrophy~PD~Parkinson’s disease~PSP~
 2   II,     5.  5.  3|      Introduction~ ~Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common
 3   II,     5.  5.  3|                  the typical symptoms of PD include multiple system
 4   II,     5.  5.  3|                 2002; Hely et al, 2005).~PD mainly affects older people
 5   II,     5.  5.  3|                  bed or to a wheelchair. PD has no cure and despite
 6   II,     5.  5.  3|            review estimated costs due to PD resulting in €10.7 billion
 7   II,     5.  5.  3|                  estimated the number of PD patients at 1.2 million
 8   II,     5.  5.  3|            countries~Incidence rates for PD in different studies are
 9   II,     5.  5.  3|                 Country-specific data on PD prevalence are summarised
10   II,     5.  5.  3|                  and incidence rates for PD in the general population
11   II,     5.  5.  3|                  24% of the diagnoses of PD are false positives, even
12   II,     5.  5.  3|                   Granieri et al, 1991).~PD progresses relentlessly
13   II,     5.  5.  3|           patients in advanced stages of PD cause higher healthcare
14   II,     5.  5.  3|             according to the severity of PD is through the Hoehn and
15   II,     5.  5.  3|                 HYV. The distribution of PD severity in Europe seems
16   II,     5.  5.  3|                  is the case for elderly PD patients, patients with
17   II,     5.  5.  3|                  is widely believed that PD patients do have the benefit
18   II,     5.  5.  3|         Australian study, which followed PD patients over a 10-year
19   II,     5.  5.  3|                  common in patients with PD and psychiatric disturbances
20   II,     5.  5.  3|                 to occur in up to 70% of PD patients during the advanced
21   II,     5.  5.  3|                nursing home placement in PD patients (Aarsland et al,
22   II,     5.  5.  3|             European countries including PD (Figure 5.5.3.6.2) (Andlin-Sobocki
23   II,     5.  5.  3|                  3.6.2. Cost per case in PD in selected EUGLOREH countries (€
24   II,     5.  5.  3|                2004)~ ~The total cost of PD was estimated at €10.7 billion
25   II,     5.  5.  3|              disability and mortality of PD.~The prevalence and cost
26   II,     5.  5.  3|                   In the early stages of PD (HY I) average cost are €
27   II,     5.  5.  3|               cost for severely disabled PD patients reach9,200 per
28   II,     5.  5.  3|             review has revealed that: i) PD represents a major burden
29   II,     5.  5.  3|                 society, ii) the cost of PD markedly increase with disease
30   II,     5.  5.  3|                  majority of the cost of PD can be found outside the
31   II,     5.  5.  3|                sector. Disability due to PD causes a strong need for
32   II,     5.  5.  3|                 60% of the total cost of PD. These results are confirmed
33   II,     5.  5.  3|             higher in advanced stages of PD compared to the early stages
34   II,     5.  5.  3|                 highest average cost for PD in countries with high national
35   II,     5.  5.  3|              epidemiological research on PD, with important consequences.
36   II,     5.  5.  3|                 d. Schulenburg, 2007).~ ~PD, employment and indirect
37   II,     5.  5.  3|              about the indirect costs of PD are available for PD. In
38   II,     5.  5.  3|                  of PD are available for PD. In 1988, Späte evaluated
39   II,     5.  5.  3|               evaluated the influence of PD on retirement and employment
40   II,     5.  5.  3|                 group, only 51.2% of the PD patients were still at work
41   II,     5.  5.  3|          duration of disease. 25% of the PD patients were no longer
42   II,     5.  5.  3| Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, 1995). PD patients retired at a mean
43   II,     5.  5.  3|           Although treatment options for PD have increased in the last
44   II,     5.  5.  3|          patients stopped working due to PD (Clarke et al, 1995).~ ~
45   II,     5.  5.  3|              threefold increased risk of PD. Tsui et al, (1999) investigated
46   II,     5.  5.  3|                 5 times greater risk for PD in those working as teachers,
47   II,     5.  5.  3|            affect the risk of developing PD (Lai et al, 2002; Logroscino,
48   II,     5.  5.  3|           smoking and alcohol use in 144 PD patients and 464 matched
49   II,     5.  5.  3|           matched controls. The risk for PD showed a dose-dependent
50   II,     5.  5.  3|                  was not associated with PD risk. The authors concluded
51   II,     5.  5.  3|                 which affect the risk of PD.~Some dietary factors such
52   II,     5.  5.  3|                the primary prevention of PD.~Secondary prevention~Currently,
53   II,     5.  5.  3|                  secondary prevention of PD. The medications and surgical
54   II,     5.  5.  3|                in promoting education on PD for patients, their relatives
55   II,     5.  5.  3|               National and international PD user groups have been established.~
56   II,     5.  5.  3|              regarding the management of PD have been developed in several
57   II,     5.  5.  3|               diagnosis and treatment of PD, these instruments can be
58   II,     5.  5.  3|    neurodegenerative disorders including PD will increase considerably.
59   II,     5.  5.  3|               individuals suffering from PD was estimated for Western
60   II,     5.  5.  3|                 individuals over 50 with PD was between 4.1 and 4.6
61   II,     5.  5.  3|                 al, 2007). The burden of PD will also shift from more
62   II,     5.  5.  3|                 elderly people including PD in the EU currently are: (
63   II,     5.  5.  3|                2050 most of the advanced PD patients supposedly live
64   II,     5.  5.  3|               access to healthcare. Many PD patients are unaware of
65   II,     5.  5.  3|                  Smith-Weller T, Swanson PD (1999): Dietary factors
66   II,     5.  5.  3|                 JM (2003): Prevalence of PD and other types of parkinsonism
67   II,     5.  5.  3|       practitioner~HY~Hoehn & Yahr scale~PD~Parkinson’s disease~SMR~
68   II,     5.  7.Acr|         Nutrition Examination Survey III~PD~Peritoneal Dialysis~PMARP~
69   II,     5.  7.  1|   transplantation~5 D if dialysis (HD or PD)~ ~*Glomerular filtration
70  III,    10.  1.  3|            Paediatr Suppl 404:9-13.~Wood PD (1994): Physical activity,
71  III,    10.  3.  2|                 catalysts using Pt/Rh or Pd/Rh. Pd/Rh catalysts that,
72  III,    10.  3.  2|          catalysts using Pt/Rh or Pd/Rh. Pd/Rh catalysts that, due to
73  III,    10.  3.  2|                  to flooding.~Levels for Pd and Rh were mainly below
74  III,    10.  3.  2|                 attributed to the Pt and Pd compounds in their soluble
75   IV,    11.  6.  5|               106-11.~ ~Mainz J, Bartels PD (2006): "Nationwide quality