Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    -,     1            |             experts listed in Appendix 2; (iv) supervised by officers
   2    I,     2            |                                        2.~ ~THE CHANGING CONTEXT
   3    I,     2.  1        |                                        2.1. Introduction~ ~This Chapter
   4    I,     2.  1        |            macroeconomic level (Figure 2.1).~ ~ ~ ~The analysis of
   5    I,     2.  2        |                                        2.2. Globalisation, travel
   6    I,     2.  2        |                                      2.2. Globalisation, travel and
   7    I,     2.  3        |                                        2.3. Migration~ ~The impact
   8    I,     2.  3        |             reached an annual level of 2 million. Increased immigration
   9    I,     2.  4        |                                        2.4. Socio-economic trends
  10    I,     2.  4        |                data reported in Figure 2.2 clearly show that large
  11    I,     2.  4        |              data reported in Figure 2.2 clearly show that large
  12    I,     2.  4        |               the EU in 2004.~ ~Figure 2.2. Gross Domestic Product
  13    I,     2.  4        |             the EU in 2004.~ ~Figure 2.2. Gross Domestic Product
  14    I,     2.  4        |         inflate the growth rate. Table 2.1 provides an overview of
  15    I,     2.  4        |              varying downward.~ ~Table 2.1. Growth rate of real gross
  16    I,     2.  4.  0(1) |              PREREL_YEAR_2009_MONTH_02/2-13022009-EN-AP.PDF]~
  17    I,     2.  4        |         observed (APPLICA, 2005; Table 2.2).~ ~Table 2.2. At risk
  18    I,     2.  4        |                 APPLICA, 2005; Table 2.2).~ ~Table 2.2. At risk of
  19    I,     2.  4        |              2005; Table 2.2).~ ~Table 2.2. At risk of poverty rate
  20    I,     2.  4        |            2005; Table 2.2).~ ~Table 2.2. At risk of poverty rate
  21    I,     2.  4        |                4 to 6 years among men, 2 to 4 years among women).
  22    I,     2.  5        |                                        2.5. Unemployment rates and
  23    I,     2.  5        |         achieved since the 80s. Figure 2.3 shows the significant
  24    I,     2.  5.  0(3) |              PREREL_YEAR_2008_MONTH_12/2-16122008-EN-AP.PDF~
  25    I,     2.  6        |                                        2.6. Education~ ~Education
  26    I,     2.  6        |             secondary education (Table 2.3) and of total early school
  27    I,     2.  6        |           early school leavers (Figure 2.4).~ ~Table 2.3. Total population
  28    I,     2.  6        |          leavers (Figure 2.4).~ ~Table 2.3. Total population percentage
  29    I,     2.  6        |          educational systems.~ ~Figure 2.4. Early school leavers
  30    I,     2.  6        |              is expected to decline by 2.4 percentage points. Declines
  31    I,     2.  7        |                                        2.7. Urbanisation~In 2008,
  32    I,     2.  8        |                                        2.8. Energy production~ ~Due
  33    I,     2.  8        |                below as shown in Table 2.4.~ ~ ~Table 2.4. Health
  34    I,     2.  8        |                in Table 2.4.~ ~ ~Table 2.4. Health impacts of different
  35    I,     2.  9        |                                        2.9 Climate Changes~ ~Climate
  36    I,     2.  9        |              global average (1.0 and 1.2 °C, respectively), especially
  37    I,     2.  9        |            risk increases by between 0.2 and 5.5 % for every 1 °C
  38    I,     2. 10        |                                        2.10 Technological developments~ ~
  39    I,     2. 10.  1    |                                        2.10.1. Human genomics and
  40    I,     2. 10.  2    |                                        2.10.2. Nanotechnologies~ ~
  41    I,     2. 10.  2    |                                   2.10.2. Nanotechnologies~ ~Due
  42    I,     2. 10.  3    |                                        2.10.3. Information and communication
  43    I,     2. 10.  4    |                                        2.10.4. Automatic identification
  44    I,     2. 10.  4    |                 which may cost around £2 billion/year in hospital
  45    I,     2. 10.  4    |                reach the patient, only 2% of administration errors
  46    I,     2. 10.  4    |               were reduced by 67% from 2.7% to 0.9% of prescriptions12.~ ~
  47    I,     2. 10.  4    |          Internet pharmacies. In 2006, 2.7 million items were seized
  48    I,     2. 10.  5    |                                        2.10.5. Health technology
  49    I,     2. 11        |                                        2.11. References~ ~APPLICA (
  50    I,     3.  1        |          children per woman) was below 2.5 only in Bulgaria, the
  51    I,     3.  1        |           Europe was this number below 2.0. In several other EU Member
  52    I,     3.  1        |             dropped by about 50%: from 2.51 to 1.25 (1963- 1995).
  53    I,     3.  1        |           Member State has a TFR above 2.0. This means that fertility
  54    I,     3.  1        |         so-called replacement level of 2.2 children per woman everywhere
  55    I,     3.  1        |       so-called replacement level of 2.2 children per woman everywhere
  56    I,     3.  1        |               countries except France (2.23), Ireland (2.67), Poland (
  57    I,     3.  1        |                France (2.23), Ireland (2.67), Poland (2.29), the
  58    I,     3.  1        |                Ireland (2.67), Poland (2.29), the Slovak Republic (
  59    I,     3.  1        |              29), the Slovak Republic (2.85) and Romania (2.26).
  60    I,     3.  1        |           Republic (2.85) and Romania (2.26). Cohorts born in the
  61    I,     3.  2        |                                      3.2. Population growth and migration~ ~
  62    I,     3.  2        |             Bulgaria (-5%).~ ~Figure 3.2. Population size per Member
  63    I,     3.  2        |               coming decades (Figure 3.2). Based on the EUROPOP 2004
  64    I,     3.  2        |             reached an annual level of 2 million. Increased immigration
  65    I,     3.  3        |               average annual growth of 2%, followed by Portugal (
  66    I,     3.  3        |              for the United Kingdom to 2% for Italy. The country
  67    I,     3.  3        |       old-age-dependency ratio rose by 2.8% in the period from 2000
  68    I,     3.  3        |                from 25.9 in 2005 to 53.2 in 2050. This means that
  69    I,     3.  3        |                ratios will increase by 2.3% per year. The countries
  70    I,     3.  3        |           Sweden (1%) and Luxemburg (1.2%).~ ~With relation to various
  71    I,     3.  3        |                their share rose from 1.2% to the current 4.2%. A
  72    I,     3.  3        |             from 1.2% to the current 4.2%. A figure of 6.6% is expected
  73    I,     3.  4        |            Démographie européenne, vol.2: Dynamique démographique,
  74   II,     4.  1        |                much smaller, less than 2 years, than the total longevity
  75   II,     4.  1        |               likely trends. Table 4.1.2 gives estimates of life
  76   II,     4.  1        |               ECHP survey.~ ~Table 4.1.2. Life expectancy and Disability-free
  77   II,     4.  1        |              by 3 years for men and by 2 years for women, thereby
  78   II,     4.  1        |                years to 78.5 years (13.2 years gap) for men and from
  79   II,     4.  1        |               gap) for men and from 52.2 years to 70.2 years (18.
  80   II,     4.  1        |              and from 52.2 years to 70.2 years (18.0 years gap) for
  81   II,     4.  1        |              in Figures 4.1.1. and 4.1.2.~ ~Figure 4.1.1. Life Expectancy,
  82   II,     4.  1        |              in 2005, Men~ ~Figure 4.1.2. Life Expectancy, broken
  83   II,     4.  1        |               gender gaps range from 5.2 years in the USA to 7 years
  84   II,     4.  2        |                                      4.2. Life expectancy and causes
  85   II,     4.  2        |        increased, on average, by about 2 years per decade. In several
  86   II,     4.  2        |              at birth has increased by 2.3 years per decade for both
  87   II,     4.  2        |                1.8 years in the 1970s, 2.1 years in the 1980s and
  88   II,     4.  2        |               lower than in the 1970s (2.3 years), but similarly
  89   II,     4.  2        |             was observed in the 1990s (2.7 years).~ ~Table 4.2.1
  90   II,     4.  2        |           1990s (2.7 years).~ ~Table 4.2.1 shows the contribution
  91   II,     4.  2        |               40% for women.~ ~Table 4.2.1. Arriaga decomposition
  92   II,     4.  2        |               causes of death. Table 4.2.2 shows the contribution
  93   II,     4.  2        |             causes of death. Table 4.2.2 shows the contribution of
  94   II,     4.  2        |               men decreased.~ ~Table 4.2.2. Arriaga decomposition
  95   II,     4.  2        |             men decreased.~ ~Table 4.2.2. Arriaga decomposition of
  96   II,     4.  2        |                EU15 average.~ ~Table 4.2.3 shows the Arriaga decomposition
  97   II,     4.  2        |              European Union.~ ~Table 4.2.3. Arriaga decomposition
  98   II,     4.  2        |               of death, cancer (causes 2, 3, 4 and 5 in table 3),
  99   II,     4.  2        |        respiratory diseases.~ ~Table 4.2.4 shows by how many years
 100   II,     4.  2        |             life expectancy.~ ~Table 4.2.4. Contribution of change
 101   II,     4.  2        |           selected countries~ ~Table 4.2.5 shows that cancers caused
 102   II,     4.  2        |                in the 1980s.~ ~Table 4.2.5. The effect of smoking
 103   II,     4.  2        |               were selected.~ ~Table 4.2.6. Average annual change
 104   II,     4.  2        |          selected countries.~ ~Table 4.2.6 shows that in 11 out of
 105   II,     4.  2        |              that for women.~ ~Table 4.2.7 shows the development
 106   II,     4.  2        |               men and women.~ ~Table 4.2.7. Average annual change
 107   II,     4.  2        |               at high ages.~ ~Figure 4.2.1. Standardized death rates
 108   II,     4.  2        |               average increase (Fig. 4.2.2). This indicates that
 109   II,     4.  2        |             average increase (Fig. 4.2.2). This indicates that there
 110   II,     4.  2        |               is completed.~ ~Figure 4.2.2. Relationship between
 111   II,     4.  2        |                completed.~ ~Figure 4.2.2. Relationship between the
 112   II,     4.  2        |     significant relationship (Figure 4.2.3). However, this is mainly
 113   II,     4.  2        |         European countries.~ ~Figure 4.2.3. Relationship between
 114   II,     4.  2        |                1970 for menl (Figure 4.2.4). The regression coefficient
 115   II,     4.  2        |              some 40 years.~ ~Figure 4.2.4. Relationship between
 116   II,     4.  2        |                 if we compare Figure 4.2.5 with Figure 4.2.2). In
 117   II,     4.  2        |             Figure 4.2.5 with Figure 4.2.2). In that case the regression
 118   II,     4.  2        |           Figure 4.2.5 with Figure 4.2.2). In that case the regression
 119   II,     4.  2        |              take 30 years.~ ~Figure 4.2.5. Relationship between
 120   II,     4.  3        |            Statistics Report 45(11-Sup 2): 1-80.~ ~Commission of
 121   II,     4.  3        |                of Women and Aging 14(1-2): 119-133.~ ~Robine, J.-
 122   II,     4.  3        |          across Europe: the Euro-REVES 2 project. European Journal
 123   II,     4.  3        |          across Europe: The Euro-REVES 2 project. European Journal
 124   II,     4.  3        |                comparisons. Genus LVII(2): 89-101.~ ~Robine, J.-M.,
 125   II,     5.  1.  1    |             major risk factor for Type 2 diabetes is excess body weight,
 126   II,     5.  1.  1    |            factors for developing type 2 diabetes:~ ~· obese or with
 127   II,     5.  1.  1    |               high cholesterol;~· type 2 diabetes runs in the family;~·
 128   II,     5.  1.  1    |            periodontitis and make them 2-5 times more susceptible
 129   II,     5.  1.  2    |                                    5.1.2. Patient centeredness~ ~
 130   II,     5.  2        |                                      5.2. Cardiovascular diseases~ ~
 131   II,     5.  2.  1    |                                      5.2.1. Introduction~ ~Diseases
 132   II,     5.  2.  1    |                in Europe and more than 2.0 million deaths each year
 133   II,     5.  2.  1    |           MeetingLuxembourg1 and 2 June 2006; Allender et al,
 134   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                      5.2.2. Data sources~The magnitude
 135   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                    5.2.2. Data sources~The magnitude
 136   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                      5.2.2.1. Ischemic heart disease~ ~
 137   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                    5.2.2.1. Ischemic heart disease~ ~
 138   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                      5.2.2.2. Stroke~ ~Mortality~
 139   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                    5.2.2.2. Stroke~ ~Mortality~Following
 140   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                  5.2.2.2. Stroke~ ~Mortality~Following
 141   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                      5.2.2.3 Risk factors~CVD clinically
 142   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                    5.2.2.3 Risk factors~CVD clinically
 143   II,     5.  2.  3    |                                      5.2.3. Data description and
 144   II,     5.  2.  3    |                                      5.2.3.1. Ischemic heart disease~ ~
 145   II,     5.  2.  3    |              As explained in chapter 5.2.2 ‘Data sources’, it was
 146   II,     5.  2.  3    |               explained in chapter 5.2.2Data sources’, it was decided
 147   II,     5.  2.  3    |              Europe countries (Table 5.2.1). According to the most
 148   II,     5.  2.  3    |              167 in Latvia).~ ~Table 5.2.1. Ischemic heart diseases (
 149   II,     5.  2.  3    |              men are shown in Figure 5.2.1: in all countries from
 150   II,     5.  2.  3    |               found in women (Figure 5.2.2) for whom mortality rates
 151   II,     5.  2.  3    |             found in women (Figure 5.2.2) for whom mortality rates
 152   II,     5.  2.  3    |               per 100.000).~ ~Figure 5.2.1. Age-standardized mortality
 153   II,     5.  2.  3    |            aged 35-74 years~ ~Figure 5.2.2. Age-standardized mortality
 154   II,     5.  2.  3    |               35-74 years~ ~Figure 5.2.2. Age-standardized mortality
 155   II,     5.  2.  3    |            years~ ~Morbidity~ ~Table 5.2.2 shows IHD and AMI hospital
 156   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  Morbidity~ ~Table 5.2.2 shows IHD and AMI hospital
 157   II,     5.  2.  3    |                medical care.~ ~Table 5.2.2. Crude hospital discharge
 158   II,     5.  2.  3    |              medical care.~ ~Table 5.2.2. Crude hospital discharge
 159   II,     5.  2.  3    |                and reported in Table 5.2.3 (Allender et al, 2008).
 160   II,     5.  2.  3    |           patients with IHD.~ ~Table 5.2.3. Crude rates per 1 million
 161   II,     5.  2.  3    |           Project, reported in Table 5.2.4; here we can see mean
 162   II,     5.  2.  3    |                Group, 2003).~ ~Table 5.2.4. WHO-MONICA 13 EU population.
 163   II,     5.  2.  3    |                                      5.2.3.2. Stroke~Data on morbidity
 164   II,     5.  2.  3    |                                  5.2.3.2. Stroke~Data on morbidity
 165   II,     5.  2.  3    |              As explained in chapter 4.2.2 ‘Data sources’, it was
 166   II,     5.  2.  3    |               explained in chapter 4.2.2Data sources’, it was decided
 167   II,     5.  2.  3    |             among countries.~ ~Table 5.2.5. Age-standardized (standard
 168   II,     5.  2.  3    |            higher. As shown in table 5.2.5, in the age range 75-84
 169   II,     5.  2.  3    |              men are shown in Figure 5.2.3; from 1994 to 2003 mortality
 170   II,     5.  2.  3    |             Eastern Europe.~ ~Figure 5.2.3. Age-standardized (standard
 171   II,     5.  2.  3    |               found in women (Figure 5.2.4) for which mortality rates
 172   II,     5.  2.  3    |           Europe countries.~ ~Figure 5.2.4. Age-standardized (standard
 173   II,     5.  2.  3    |            years~ ~Morbidity~ ~Table 5.2.2 also shows stroke hospital
 174   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  Morbidity~ ~Table 5.2.2 also shows stroke hospital
 175   II,     5.  2.  3    |                are reported in Table 5.2.6: here mean attack rates
 176   II,     5.  2.  3    |                et al, 2003).~ ~Table 5.2.6. WHO-MONICA Project 6
 177   II,     5.  2.  4    |                                      5.2.4. Risk factors~ ~
 178   II,     5.  2.  4    |                                      5.2.4.1. Risk factors in primary
 179   II,     5.  2.  4    |           examination surveys. Table 5.2.7 (htt b, 2007) provides
 180   II,     5.  2.  4    |               mmHg; 160 mmHg).~Table 5.2.8 shows data on total cholesterol:
 181   II,     5.  2.  4    |               existing definitions ( 5.2 mmol/l, 6.2, 6.5 or 7.8)
 182   II,     5.  2.  4    |            definitions ( 5.2 mmol/l, 6.2, 6.5 or 7.8) and difficulties
 183   II,     5.  2.  4    |           among elderly women.~Table 5.2.9 reports smoking habit
 184   II,     5.  2.  4    |             also Chapter 8).~ ~Table 5.2.7. Estimated prevalence
 185   II,     5.  2.  4    |                EU countries.~ ~Table 5.2.8. Estimated mean values
 186   II,     5.  2.  4    |        different age ranges.~ ~Table 5.2.9. Estimated prevalence
 187   II,     5.  2.  4    |                and overweight (Table 5.2.10) are also included alongside
 188   II,     5.  2.  4    |            also Chapter 10).~ ~Table 5.2.10. Estimated prevalence
 189   II,     5.  2.  4    |            WHO-MONICA Project (Table 5.2.11) collected between mid
 190   II,     5.  2.  4    |    environmental conditions.~ ~Table 5.2.11. Prevalence of smoking (%),
 191   II,     5.  2.  4    |               smokers (see Chapter 5.1.2.).~Unfortunately, despite
 192   II,     5.  2.  5    |                                      5.2.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
 193   II,     5.  2.  5    |                                      5.2.5.1. Prevention~ ~In 1982,
 194   II,     5.  2.  5    |     environment see Sections 5.1. or 5.2.; for diabetes mellitus
 195   II,     5.  2.  5    |                Council Meeting1 and 2 June 2004) on promoting
 196   II,     5.  2.  5    |                                      5.2.5.2. Policy~ ~· In 2002,
 197   II,     5.  2.  5    |                                  5.2.5.2. Policy~ ~· In 2002, the
 198   II,     5.  2.  6    |                                      5.2.6. Future developments~ ~
 199   II,     5.  2.  6    |           European countries, is about 2 times higher than the risk
 200   II,     5.  2.  6    |           references can be found in 5.2.7)~Baigent C, Keech A, Kearney
 201   II,     5.  2.  7    |                                      5.2.7. References~Allender S,
 202   II,     5.  2.  7    |           MeetingLuxembourg1 and 2 June 2006. European Journal
 203   II,     5.  3.  2    |                                    5.3.2 Data sources~ ~
 204   II,     5.  3.  2    |                                    5.3.2.1 Cancer Registration~ ~
 205   II,     5.  3.  2    |                                    5.3.2.2 Data from European networks
 206   II,     5.  3.  2    |                                  5.3.2.2 Data from European networks
 207   II,     5.  3.  5    |            Figure 5.3.4b).~Figures 5.3.2 show that incidence rates
 208   II,     5.  3.  6    |                                  5.3.5.2 Adult cancer survival~ ~
 209   II,     5.  3.  6    |            diagnosed in 19831985 to 9.2% in 19921994 and from 8.
 210   II,     5.  3.  6    |               23 European countries on 2 699 086 adult cancer cases
 211   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                  5.3.6.2 Early diagnosis (secondary
 212   II,     5.  3.  7    |          breast cancer screening (with 2 or 3 years of interval)
 213   II,     5.  3.  7    |           colorectal cancer (with 1 or 2 years of interval).~ ~It
 214   II,     5.  3.  7    |                with a perspective of 12 years (as increases in costs >
 215   II,     5.  3.  7    |           Member States (see Table 5.3.2) consider national cancer
 216   II,     5.  3.  7    |            cancer control.~ ~Table 5.3.2. Cancer national control
 217   II,     5.  3.  9    |              Council recommendation of 2 December 2003 on cancer
 218   II,     5.  3.  9    |              2002. CA Cancer J Clin 55(2):74-108.~ ~Sant M, Aareleid
 219   II,     5.  4.Acr    |            diabetes mellitus~T2DM~Type 2 diabetes mellitus~ ~ ~
 220   II,     5.  4.  1    |             the last 30 years.~ ~·Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)
 221   II,     5.  4.  1    |                with diabetes have type 2 diabetes and over 80% of
 222   II,     5.  4.  1    |               and Middle East, where 9.2 % of the adult population
 223   II,     5.  4.  1    |           increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes. For low and middle-income
 224   II,     5.  4.  1    |              costs of people with type 2 diabetes in 8 EU countries:
 225   II,     5.  4.  1    |            costs per patient with type 2 diabetes were estimated
 226   II,     5.  4.  1    |            diabetes were estimated at €2,834 in 1999. The health
 227   II,     5.  4.  1    |                forms of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes tends to be associated
 228   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                    5.4.2 Data sources~ ~ ~
 229   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                    5.4.2 Data sources~ ~The different
 230   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                    5.4.2.1. National and regional
 231   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                    5.4.2.2. IDF Diabetes Atlas~ ~
 232   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                  5.4.2.2. IDF Diabetes Atlas~ ~The
 233   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                    5.4.2.3. Quality of care monitoring~ ~
 234   II,     5.  4.  2    |              et al 2004, see Table 5.4.2), only three were available
 235   II,     5.  4.  2    |        Outcomes Framework.~ ~Table 5.4.2. OECD indicators~ ~ ~Areas~ ~
 236   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                    5.4.2.4. Health Surveys~ ~Health
 237   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                    5.4.2.5. Sentinel Surveillance
 238   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                    5.4.2.6. Hospital discharge records~ ~
 239   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                    5.4.2.7. Insurance/reimbursement
 240   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                    5.4.2.8. National drug sales~ ~
 241   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                    5.4.2.9. Conclusion~ ~Different
 242   II,     5.  4.  2    |              14 year), with type 1 and 2 not separated, is defined
 243   II,     5.  4.  2    |             this indicator varied from 2% (Turkey) to 15% (Germany)
 244   II,     5.  4.  2    |             tolerance and/or diet only~2~III Risk factors for complications~ ~
 245   II,     5.  4.  2    |                last 12 months with LDL>2.6 mmol/l (>3 mmol/l)~13~
 246   II,     5.  4.  2    |             months with triglycerides >2.3 mmol/l (>2.0 mmol/l)~12~
 247   II,     5.  4.  2    |            triglycerides >2.3 mmol/l (>2.0 mmol/l)~12~Percent of
 248   II,     5.  4.  2    |          mellitus by 10 year age bands~2~IV Epidemiology of complications~ ~
 249   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 LDL cholesterol level >2.6 mmol/l is an important
 250   II,     5.  4.  2    |               presenting a value above 2.6 mmol/l.~Measurement of
 251   II,     5.  4.  2    |           months.~Triglycerides level >2.3 mmol/l is an important
 252   II,     5.  4.  2    |                total cholesterol above 2.3 mmol/l.~Microalbuminuria
 253   II,     5.  4.  2    |           countries submitting data (N=2).~Fundus inspection is a
 254   II,     5.  4.  3    |              years, corresponding to 3.2% annually. When pooled over
 255   II,     5.  4.  3    |               4.8%) for 5-9 years, and 2.4% (1.0-3.8%) for 10-14
 256   II,     5.  4.  3    |              diabetes (type 1 and type 2).~Annual incidence of blindness
 257   II,     5.  4.  3    |             this indicator varied from 2% (Turkey) to 15% (Germany)
 258   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 LDL cholesterol level >2.6 mmol/l. Crude percentages
 259   II,     5.  4.  3    |          Denmark.~Triglycerides level >2.3 mmol/l. In EUCID databases
 260   II,     5.  4.  3    |               Cyprus). The median is 1.2%.~The annual incidence of
 261   II,     5.  4.  3    |                between 37 (Cyprus) and 2,675 (Germany), with a median
 262   II,     5.  4.  5    |             major risk factor for Type 2 diabetes is excess body weight
 263   II,     5.  4.  5    |            factors for developing type 2 diabetes are:~- high blood
 264   II,     5.  4.  5    |               high cholesterol;~- type 2 diabetes familiarity;~-
 265   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                  5.4.6.2. Primary prevention~For
 266   II,     5.  4.  6    |              dither prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising and has
 267   II,     5.  4.  6    |             cholesterol, see Chapter 5.2.4. and for other risk factors
 268   II,     5.  4.  6    |             should be guaranteed. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular
 269   II,     5.  4.  6    |     cooperation between Member States;~2. help to increase the coherence
 270   II,     5.  4.  6    |        Government of Austria made Type 2 diabetes a key health priority
 271   II,     5.  4.  6    |       Conference on Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes, organized in Vienna
 272   II,     5.  4.  6    |      lifestyles and prevention of type 2 diabetes at the Employment,
 273   II,     5.  4.  6    |          meeting held in Luxembourg, 1-2 June 2006 (see Table 5.4.
 274   II,     5.  4.  8    |       Nutrition and Metabolism 2001;14(2), 100-103.~Carinci M, Federici
 275   II,     5.  4.  8    |      lifestyles and prevention of type 2 diabetes, 2733rd Employment,
 276   II,     5.  4.  8    |         Council meeting, Luxembourg, 1-2 June 2006~[http://www.consilium.
 277   II,     5.  4.  8    |             2007): Immigrants and type 2 diabetes. Occurrence, treatment
 278   II,     5.  4.  8    |              2007): Screening for type 2 diabetes: literature review
 279   II,     5.  5.Int    |             people with depression are 2-3 times more likely to have
 280   II,     5.  5.Int    |              times more likely to have 2 or more chronic illnesses
 281   II,     5.  5.Int    |             more chronic illnesses and 2-6 times more likely to have
 282   II,     5.  5.Int    |              in women and from 0.1% to 2.1% in males. There is often
 283   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                  5.5.1.2. Data sources~ ~ ~
 284   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                  5.5.1.2.1. Registers~ ~There are
 285   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                  5.5.1.2.2. Data from population
 286   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                5.5.1.2.2. Data from population surveys~ ~ ~
 287   II,     5.  5.  1    |                GP) only.~ ~Table 5.5.1.2. Level of care use (%) among
 288   II,     5.  5.  1    |           Nordic countries and Ireland~2) those with a similar prevalence
 289   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Croatia).~ ~Figure 5.5.1.2. Odds ratio (with 95% confidence
 290   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Clin Psychiatry 68(suppl 2): 3-9.~ ~Berk M, Dodd S,
 291   II,     5.  5.  1    |                suicide. Psychol Med 36(2):181-9.~ ~Blakely TA, Collings
 292   II,     5.  5.  1    |            Psychiatr Clin North Am. 31(2):247-69.~ ~European Commission (
 293   II,     5.  5.  1    |          suicide in Ireland. Crisis 28(2):89-94.~ ~K B (2007): Lifetime
 294   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Clin Psychiatry 68(Suppl 2):36-41.~ ~L . (2002). Contact
 295   II,     5.  5.  1    |            Mental Health Policy Econ 9(2):87-98.~ ~S F et al. (2007).
 296   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                    5.5.2. Dementia including Alzheimer’
 297   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                    5.5.2.1. Introduction~ ~The term “
 298   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                    5.5.2.2. Data sources~ ~The data
 299   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                  5.5.2.2. Data sources~ ~The data
 300   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                    5.5.2.3. Data description and
 301   II,     5.  5.  2    |             from dementia.~ ~Table 5.5.2.1. EURODEM prevalence rates~ ~
 302   II,     5.  5.  2    |           prevalence rates~ ~Table 5.5.2.2. Prevalence rates reported
 303   II,     5.  5.  2    |         prevalence rates~ ~Table 5.5.2.2. Prevalence rates reported
 304   II,     5.  5.  2    |                as follows:~ ~Table 5.5.2.3. The estimated number
 305   II,     5.  5.  2    |             Europe, 2006a). Figure 5.5.2.1.1 uses the statistics
 306   II,     5.  5.  2    |               population.~ ~Figure 5.5.2.1. The number of people
 307   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                    5.5.2.4. Risk factors~ ~A tremendous
 308   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                    5.5.2.5. Control and policy tools~ ~
 309   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                    5.5.2.6. Future developments~ ~
 310   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                    5.5.2.7. References~ ~Alzheimer
 311   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.1.2. Data sources~ ~ ~Qualitative
 312   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Children in Europe; Volume 2: Available Health Information
 313   II,     5.  5.  3    |              overview in table 5.5.3.1.2.1 illustrates the limited
 314   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Turkey~ ~X~ ~ ~Table 5.5.3.1.2.1: Available data about
 315   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Children in Europe; Volume 2: Available Health Information
 316   II,     5.  5.  3    |              high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, menstrual dysfunction,
 317   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Children in Europe; Volume 2: Available Health Information
 318   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                  5.5.3.2. Schizophrenia and disorders
 319   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                  5.5.3.2.1. Introduction~ ~Schizophrenia (
 320   II,     5.  5.  3    |             and lifetime morbid risk 7.2 per 1000, respectively.
 321   II,     5.  5.  3    |              psychosis accounts for 32.2% world wide, of which 17.
 322   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                  5.5.3.2.2. Data Sources~ ~There
 323   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.2.2. Data Sources~ ~There are
 324   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                  5.5.3.2.3. Data description and
 325   II,     5.  5.  3    |             and Incidence~Figure 5.5.3.2.1. Estimated prevalence
 326   II,     5.  5.  3    |              lifetime prevalence and 7.2 for lifetime morbidity risk (
 327   II,     5.  5.  3    |                elevated by a factor of 2.5 (median value). Suicide
 328   II,     5.  5.  3    |           mortality rate (23.0% vs. 11.2%) was mainly the result
 329   II,     5.  5.  3    |              missing in figure 5.5.3.3.2 due to lacking ICD-10 documentation.
 330   II,     5.  5.  3    |            documentation.~Figure 5.5.3.2.2. Inter-country comparison
 331   II,     5.  5.  3    |          documentation.~Figure 5.5.3.2.2. Inter-country comparison
 332   II,     5.  5.  3    |               codes: F20.~Figure 5.5.3.2.3. Admission rates trend
 333   II,     5.  5.  3    |             remains high.~Figure 5.5.3.2.4. Average length of stay -
 334   II,     5.  5.  3    |        populations (see Figure 5.5.3.3.2), the value reported from
 335   II,     5.  5.  3    |          ranking 11th and accounts for 2.3% of the years lived with
 336   II,     5.  5.  3    |              disorder accounting for 6.2% YLDs).~Table 5.5.3.2.1.
 337   II,     5.  5.  3    |                6.2% YLDs).~Table 5.5.3.2.1. DALYs due to schizophrenia~
 338   II,     5.  5.  3    |              of morbidity.~Table 5.5.3.2.2. Prevalence and adjusted
 339   II,     5.  5.  3    |               morbidity.~Table 5.5.3.2.2. Prevalence and adjusted
 340   II,     5.  5.  3    |           schizophrenia as compared to 23% in the general population.
 341   II,     5.  5.  3    |            affective-psychoses) was 32.2% (Kohn et al, 2004) worldwide;
 342   II,     5.  5.  3    |               5.5.3.3.5).~Figure 5.5.3.2.5: Prescription of antipsychotics
 343   II,     5.  5.  3    |                guidelines (Table 5.5.3.2.3).~Table 5.5.3.2.3. Psychosocial
 344   II,     5.  5.  3    |                5.5.3.2.3).~Table 5.5.3.2.3. Psychosocial interventions
 345   II,     5.  5.  3    |                2003) – see table 5.5.3.2.4.~Table 5.5.3.2.4. European
 346   II,     5.  5.  3    |           table 5.5.3.2.4.~Table 5.5.3.2.4. European practice guidelines
 347   II,     5.  5.  3    |       respective deficits.~Table 5.5.3.2.5. Mental health service
 348   II,     5.  5.  3    |               of disease.~Figure 5.5.3.2.6. Experiences of stigma
 349   II,     5.  5.  3    |            mental disorders were about 2.5 times as high as for outpatient
 350   II,     5.  5.  3    |               et al, 2007)~Table 5.5.3.2.6. Expenditures by kind
 351   II,     5.  5.  3    |                to F20-F29~Figure 5.5.3.2.7. Direct healthcare costs
 352   II,     5.  5.  3    |             into account.~Figure 5.5.3.2.8. Costs per case of schizophrenia
 353   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                  5.5.3.2.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
 354   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                  5.5.3.2.5. Future developments~ ~
 355   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                  5.5.3.2.6. References~AGREE Collaboration (
 356   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Neuroscience Research 3(1-2):23-33.~Häfner H and Maurer
 357   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 254(2):117-28.~Healy D, Harris
 358   II,     5.  5.  3    |                schizophrenia PLoS Med. 2(5):e141.~Saha S, Chant D,
 359   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                  5.5.3.2.7. Acronyms~ ~DALYs~Disability
 360   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.3.2. Data sources~ ~Autism Spectrum
 361   II,     5.  5.  3    |             children were involved and 2,685 eight-year-olds (65.
 362   II,     5.  5.  3    |             children with autism cost £2.7 billion (Euros 3.8 billion)
 363   II,     5.  5.  3    |               is £25 billion (Euros 36.2 billion) – i.e. over eight
 364   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.4.2. Data sources~ ~The patients
 365   II,     5.  5.  3    |             the elderly (Table 5.5.3.4.2), even with significant
 366   II,     5.  5.  3    |              in Europe~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.2. Incidence (per 100,000)
 367   II,     5.  5.  3    |               21%) followed by trauma (2-16%) and neoplasms (6-10%).~
 368   II,     5.  5.  3    |          active epilepsy ranges from 3.2 to 7.8 per 1,000 (Table
 369   II,     5.  5.  3    |            examination ~329/348 ~3.9/3.2~Eriksson and Koivikko, 1997 (*) /~
 370   II,     5.  5.  3    |             278/51~ ~199/235~ ~81/47~6.2/5.1~ ~3.9/5.2~ ~3.3/3.1~
 371   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  81/47~6.2/5.1~ ~3.9/5.2~ ~3.3/3.1~Granieri et al.,
 372   II,     5.  5.  3    |            review and GP contacts~245 ~2.3 ~Krohn, 1961 (*) ~Poland~
 373   II,     5.  5.  3    |         inquiry/MR review? ~155/195 ~4.2/3.5~Sidenvall et al., 1996/
 374   II,     5.  5.  3    |                All ages ~GP files~? ~6.2 ~Pond et al., 1960 (*)~U.
 375   II,     5.  5.  3    |       respectively 36-66%, 30-62%, and 2-4%. The differing proportions
 376   II,     5.  5.  3    |            idiopathic epilepsies was 1.2 per 1,000, while that of
 377   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Lennox-Gastaut syndrome 2-6%.~Socio-economic background
 378   II,     5.  5.  3    |            annual mortality rates at 1-2 per 100,000 (Massey et al,
 379   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Prevalent cohorts~32~12.4~2.6~Preston and Clarke, 1966 (*)~
 380   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Incident cohort~39~15.7~2.5~Lindsten et al., 2000~ ~
 381   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Prevalent cohort~160~67.8~2.4~Alstrom, 1950 (*)~ ~Insurance
 382   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Prevalent cohort~32~14.6~2.2~Svensson and Astrand,
 383   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Prevalent cohort~32~14.6~2.2~Svensson and Astrand, 1976 (*)~ ~
 384   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Incident cohort~149~58.3~2.6~Lhathoo et al., 2001~
 385   II,     5.  5.  3    |               with SMR ranging between 2.4 and 5.6 (Gaitatzis and
 386   II,     5.  5.  3    |                causes) was 4.9 (95% CI 2.7-8.3) vs. 7.9 (95% CI 2.
 387   II,     5.  5.  3    |               2.7-8.3) vs. 7.9 (95% CI 2.6-18.4) in non-surgical
 388   II,     5.  5.  3    |             the incidence of SUDEP was 2.5 vs. 6.3 per 1,000 (Nilsson
 389   II,     5.  5.  3    |         medical event occurring in a 1-2 year period in a large cohort
 390   II,     5.  5.  3    |       intelligence exhibiting at least 2-year retardation in reading
 391   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 ranging from 0.02 to 0.2% (Black and Lay, 1997; Sheth
 392   II,     5.  5.  3    |                First provoked seizure (2 years)~Croatia I 24 months
 393   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 license valid 1 year;~ 2 years if seizure freedom >
 394   II,     5.  5.  3    |              years if seizure freedom >2 years; 5 years~ if seizure
 395   II,     5.  5.  3    |         epileptiform epileptiform EEG (2 years)~ activity)~ ~ ~Norway
 396   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.5.2. Data sources~ ~The distribution
 397   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Countries~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.2. Prevalence (per 100 000)
 398   II,     5.  5.  3    |              annual incidence rate was 2.6 in 197488. Multiple assessments
 399   II,     5.  5.  3    |             annual incidence rate of 5.2 in 198897.~In Finland,
 400   II,     5.  5.  3    |             annual incidence rate of 4.2 (Lauer, personal data).
 401   II,     5.  5.  3    |            annual incidence rates from 24 in the 1990s. Prevalence
 402   II,     5.  5.  3    |               mean annual incidence of 2.4 in Greece. Methodological
 403   II,     5.  5.  3    |               3.5.6 and Figure 5.5.3.5.2. The estimated proportion
 404   II,     5.  5.  3    |              with a woman:man ratio of 2.0. In the same study the
 405   II,     5.  5.  3    |              drug costs dominate with €2.5 billion in 2005 (41% of
 406   II,     5.  5.  3    |                720-fingolimod, anti IL 2 receptor monoclonal antibody,
 407   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Society. Eur Neurol. 2006;56(2):78-105~Horakova D (2004):
 408   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Chronic Disability 1985;38(2):203-10.~Lensky P (1994):
 409   II,     5.  5.  3    |                86 to 4.9/100.000, PSP: 2.5 to 7.5/100.000; CGD: 4.
 410   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                5.5.3.6.2. Data source~To identify
 411   II,     5.  5.  3    |             number of PD patients at 1.2 million within the European
 412   II,     5.  5.  3    |            summarised in Table 5.5.3.6.2..(von Campenhausen et al,
 413   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 2005).~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.2. Prevalence studies of Parkinson’
 414   II,     5.  5.  3    |               some studies found a 1.5-2-fold increase, but these
 415   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Mutch et al (in which 10.2% of the study population
 416   II,     5.  5.  3    |              increased mortality (SMR: 2.9) was reported compared
 417   II,     5.  5.  3    |           including PD (Figure 5.5.3.6.2) (Andlin-Sobocki et al,
 418   II,     5.  5.  3    |           across Europe, ranging from €2,500 (Estonia) – €13,000 (
 419   II,     5.  5.  3    |                7,600.~ ~Figure 5.5.3.6.2. Cost per case in PD in
 420   II,     5.  5.  3    |               to 64 age group, only 51.2% of the PD patients were
 421   II,     5.  5.  3    |              al, (1999) investigated a 2-2.5 times greater risk for
 422   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 1999) investigated a 2-2.5 times greater risk for
 423   II,     5.  5.  3    |     door-to-door survey. Mov Disord 17(2):242-249.~DAlessandro R,
 424   II,     5.  5.  3    |              disease. J Neurol Sci 217(2):169-174.~Granieri E, Carreras
 425   II,     5.  5.  3    |                15 years. Mov Disord 20(2):190-199~Hoehn M, Yahr MD (
 426   II,     5.  5.  3    |     post-levodopa eras. Neurol Clin 10(2):331-339.~Horstink M, Tolosa
 427   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Journal of neurology 255(2):255-264.~Rosati G, Granieri
 428   II,     5.  6.  1    |            arthritis, osteoarthritis; (2) bone conditions e.g. osteoporosis
 429   II,     5.  6.  2    |                                    5.6.2. Data sources~ ~The epidemiological
 430   II,     5.  6.  3    |             with older age (Figure 5.6.2). A decline in the complaint
 431   II,     5.  6.  3    |               in Sweden~ ~ ~Figure 5.6.2. Prevalence of self reported
 432   II,     5.  6.  3    |               Netherlands~ ~Figure 5.6.2.b Prevalence of self reported
 433   II,     5.  6.  3    |                a rheumatic disorder, 8.2% were disabled and of these
 434   II,     5.  6.  3    |                symptomatic knee OA was 2.3% compared to 17% based
 435   II,     5.  6.  3    |              et al, 2003).~ ~Table 5.6.2. Osteoarthritis Incidence
 436   II,     5.  6.  3    |           estimated that a decrease of 2 BMI units would decrease
 437   II,     5.  6.  3    |              are high during the first 2 years, largely related to
 438   II,     5.  6.  3    |             the BMD level in women was 2.5 standard deviations or
 439   II,     5.  6.  3    |     Osteoporosis: a BMD value at least 2.5 standard deviations below
 440   II,     5.  6.  3    |              adult women (BMD Tscore2.5).~ ~Osteopenia (low bone
 441   II,     5.  6.  3    |                BMD value between 1 and 2.5 standard deviations below
 442   II,     5.  6.  3    |             BMD of young adult women (–2.5 BMD Tscore1).~ ~Clinically,
 443   II,     5.  6.  3    |                with age, with rates of 2/100,000 person-years in
 444   II,     5.  6.  3    |       incidence ratio of approximately 2:1 (EULAR Online Course,
 445   II,     5.  6.  3    |             the comparable figures are 2.4% and 20%, respectively (
 446   II,     5.  6.  3    |              with 90% returning within 2 months (Woolf and Pfleger,
 447   II,     5.  6.  3    |               return to work and after 2 years absence, there is
 448   II,     5.  6.  4    |          sickness absence (less than 1-2 weeks), musculoskeletal
 449   II,     5.  6.  4    |          musculoskeletal disorders are 2-4 times more frequent than
 450   II,     5.  6.  6    |                 Rev Rhum Ed Fr 60(6 Pt 2):63S-7S~Lin CT, Albertson
 451   II,     5.  7.  1    |  cardiovascular complications which is 2-4 times higher than that
 452   II,     5.  7.  1    |       initiative (Tables 5.7.1 and 5.7.2). Data about CKD in children
 453   II,     5.  7.  1    |                 kidney transplantation~2. GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ,
 454   II,     5.  7.  1    |               damage~ ~ ~ ~ ~Table 5.7.2. Current CKD Classification
 455   II,     5.  7.  1    |          kidney transplant recipient~ ~2~Kidney damage~with mild
 456   II,     5.  7.  1    |             decrease in GFR*~6089~585.2~ ~3~Moderate decrease in
 457   II,     5.  7.  2    |                                    5.7.2. Data sources~ ~ ~The present
 458   II,     5.  7.  3    |               1-5 CKD in Norway was 10.2% which is similar to the
 459   II,     5.  7.  3    |              to Norwegian patients was 2.5. This was only modestly
 460   II,     5.  7.  3    |              in Tables 5.7..1 and 5.7..2) in The Netherlands (De
 461   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 is shown in Figure 5.7.2.~ ~Figure 5.7.2. Prevalence
 462   II,     5.  7.  3    |             Figure 5.7.2.~ ~Figure 5.7.2. Prevalence of chronic kidney
 463   II,     5.  7.  3    |               Hallan et al, 2006) to 7.2% (Germany) (Meisinger et
 464   II,     5.  7.  3    |              2006) in males and from 6.2% (Italy) (Cirillo et al,
 465   II,     5.  7.  3    |             Cirillo et al, 2006) to 10.2% (Iceland) (Viktorsdottir
 466   II,     5.  7.  5    |             the incidence of ESRD and (2) to reduce the impact of
 467   II,     5.  7.  5    |               transplantation is about 2 years. Accessibility of
 468   II,     5.  7.  6    |                 see also the Chapter 9.2. on Transplants).~ ~
 469   II,     5.  7.  7    |                Nephrol 2003;14(7 Suppl 2):S131-S138.~Chen J, Wildman
 470   II,     5.  7.  7    |             Intern Med 2004 Jul 20;141(2):95-101.~Jager KJ, van Dijk
 471   II,     5.  8.  2    |                                    5.8.2. Data sources~ ~The data
 472   II,     5.  8.  2    |               et al 2004).~ ~Table 5.8.2.1. ICD10 Codes for pulmonary
 473   II,     5.  8.  2    |                Panacinar emphysema~J43.2~ ~Centrilobular emphysema~
 474   II,     5.  8.  3    |              18.3%, the lowest ones (0.2 to 2.5%) being based on
 475   II,     5.  8.  3    |                the lowest ones (0.2 to 2.5%) being based on WHO expert
 476   II,     5.  8.  3    |            estimated a prevalence of 9.2% using a spirometric definition
 477   II,     5.  8.  3    |             reported a prevalence of 6.2% of chronic bronchitis and
 478   II,     5.  8.  3    |                and by 50% (from 1.9 to 2.9 per 1 000) in males and
 479   II,     5.  8.  3    |                in females (from 1.0 to 2.9 per 1 000) from 2000 to
 480   II,     5.  8.  3    |             are reported in Figure 5.8.2.~ ~Figure 5.8.2. Prevalence
 481   II,     5.  8.  3    |             Figure 5.8.2.~ ~Figure 5.8.2. Prevalence of the GOLD
 482   II,     5.  8.  3    |             and 7.3%, moderate 4.5 and 2.2%, severe-very severe 0.
 483   II,     5.  8.  3    |               7.3%, moderate 4.5 and 2.2%, severe-very severe 0.4
 484   II,     5.  8.  3    |                COPD was 5.3%, moderate 2.2%, and severe 0.6% (GOLD-COPD:
 485   II,     5.  8.  3    |              COPD was 5.3%, moderate 2.2%, and severe 0.6% (GOLD-COPD:
 486   II,     5.  8.  3    |                0.6% (GOLD-COPD: mild 8.2%, moderate 5.3%, severe
 487   II,     5.  8.  3    |                in males and 3..9, 8.1, 2.3, 0.4, respectively, in
 488   II,     5.  8.  3    |          pulmonary embolism (Table 5.8.2).~ ~Table 5.8.2. Incidence
 489   II,     5.  8.  3    |              Table 5.8.2).~ ~Table 5.8.2. Incidence of comorbidities
 490   II,     5.  8.  3    |               physician diagnosed, n = 2,699) in 1998 with age, gender,
 491   II,     5.  8.  3    |      osteoporosis (RR = 3.1), RI (RR = 2.2), MI (RR = 1.7), angina (
 492   II,     5.  8.  3    |    osteoporosis (RR = 3.1), RI (RR = 2.2), MI (RR = 1.7), angina (
 493   II,     5.  8.  3    |        baseline, showed that more than 2/3 of them (69.4%) reported
 494   II,     5.  8.  3    |             depression (OR 3.52, 95%CI 2.04 to 6.07) compared to
 495   II,     5.  8.  3    |              were for ambulatory care, 2.7 for drugs, 2.9 for inpatient
 496   II,     5.  8.  3    |        ambulatory care, 2.7 for drugs, 2.9 for inpatient care and
 497   II,     5.  8.  3    |            were about 1 200, 1 600 and 2 300 € in Spain and 150,
 498   II,     5.  8.  4    |              developed (GOLD stage 0), 2.5 and 1.1% for GOLD stages
 499   II,     5.  8.  5    |                 aged 53.5±11.5 yrs; 58.2% males) among which 64%
 500   II,     5.  8.  6    |              001) or at home (37.4% vs 2.8%, p<0.05) than people