Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    I,     2.  2        |            Community. It reveals that Europe is a very stable tourist
   2    I,     2.  2        |              towards global tourismEurope consolidated its position
   3    I,     2.  2        |             they continued growing in Europe. Since 2004 global international
   4    I,     2.  2        |              contributed to improving Europe’s position as a tourist
   5    I,     2.  2        |            the growing cooperation of Europe with low-income countries
   6    I,     2.  2        |         entrance of these diseases in Europe. Environmental, ecological
   7    I,     2.  2        |           effect of global warming on Europe in the years ahead could
   8    I,     2.  2        |             in those areas, including Europe. Moreover, with their different
   9    I,     2.  3        |             During the past 20 years, Europe experienced very important
  10    I,     2.  3        |              relation to skill level, Europe attracts less high skilled
  11    I,     2.  3        |      consequences of this practice in Europe and, moreover, the human
  12    I,     2.  4        |             trends and inequalities~ ~Europe continues to become wealthier.
  13    I,     2.  4        |               groups and also between Europe and neighbouring countries.~ ~
  14    I,     2.  4        |              therefore fundamental to Europe’s sustainable development.
  15    I,     2.  4        |         economy in these countries.~ ~Europe has become wealthier overall
  16    I,     2.  4        |               groups and also between Europe and neighbouring countries.
  17    I,     2.  4        |              High risk populations in Europe, indicated by low level
  18    I,     2.  4        |             mortality were in Eastern Europe at least as big, and perhaps
  19    I,     2.  4        |           even bigger than in Western Europe. For example, a study looking
  20    I,     2.  4        |             many countries in Eastern Europe, sometimes for the better (
  21    I,     2.  4        |               in income inequality in Europe in the next 20 years. Larger
  22    I,     2.  5        |               in income inequality in Europe in the next 20 years. Larger
  23    I,     2.  5        |            Commission’s Employment in Europe report, published in early
  24    I,     2.  5        |              million unfilled jobs in Europe. Growing labour needs are
  25    I,     2.  5        |             adapt.~ ~The situation in Europe in terms of migration is
  26    I,     2.  5        |              relation to skill level, Europe attracts less high skilled
  27    I,     2.  5        |        increasing in all countries in Europe with more weekend work,
  28    I,     2.  7        |               to be a single city; in Europe, South-East England has
  29    I,     2.  8        |             air emissions in parts of Europe, the energy supply sector
  30    I,     2.  9        |             by 1.0 °C for land alone. Europe has warmed more than the
  31    I,     2.  9        |              temperature increases in Europe between 1.05.5 °C by the
  32    I,     2.  9        |             the northeastern part of Europe. Climate change alters the
  33    I,     2.  9        |     Mediterranean and central-eastern Europe and, together with prolonged
  34    I,     2.  9        |              that winter mortality in Europe has decreased, but this
  35    I,     2.  9        |             has extended its range in Europe substantially over the past
  36    I,     2. 10.  2    |              the target tissue.~ ~For Europe, data on the actual use
  37    I,     2. 10.  3    |            decade. In particular, the Europe 2005 Action Plan targeted
  38    I,     2. 10.  3    |             of the competitiveness of Europe’s ICT sector within the
  39    I,     2. 10.  3    |          integrated strategy to boost Europe’s digital economy. With
  40    I,     2. 10.  4(8) |          medication safety culture in Europe. Building up safe medication
  41    I,     2. 10.  4(8) |     Medication Practisise. Council of Europe - 2007~
  42    I,     2. 10.  4    |              Drug counterfeiting~ ~In Europe, around 1% of pharmaceuticals
  43    I,     2. 10.  4    |           Practices of the Council of Europe strongly recommends the
  44    I,     2. 10.  4(21)|          medication safety culture in Europe: Building up sa medication
  45    I,     2. 11        |        EEA-JRC-WHO reportImpacts of Europe's changing climate2008
  46    I,     2. 11        |           satisfaction: evidence from Europe. Available at: ftp ~ ~EUROSTAT (
  47    I,     2. 11        |              the statistical guide to Europe. Available at: htt ~ ~EUROSTAT (
  48    I,     2. 11        |              life of women and men in Europe 2008 edition. A statistical
  49    I,     3.  1        |       Slovenia and Sweden; nowhere in Europe was this number below 2.
  50    I,     3.  1        |          States. Northern and Western Europe were the first regions where
  51    I,     3.  1        |            somewhat later. In Eastern Europe this trend has been visible
  52    I,     3.  1        |             slightly lower in Eastern Europe. Currently the age is around
  53    I,     3.  1        |        Northern, Western and Southern Europe, while Eastern Europe is
  54    I,     3.  1        |        Southern Europe, while Eastern Europe is lagging behind with levels
  55    I,     3.  1        |              a bit earlier in Eastern Europe.~Currently, cohort TFRs
  56    I,     3.  1        |               in Eastern and Southern Europe with currentlylowest low
  57    I,     3.  2        |               or countries of Eastern Europe. The strict immigration
  58    I,     3.  2        |             During the past 20 years, Europe experienced very important
  59    I,     3.  4        |             HWWA) (2004): Migrants in Europe and their Economic Position:~
  60    I,     3.  4        |               1993): L’infecondité en Europe, in A. Blum e J. L. Rallu (
  61   II,     4.  1        |           that the Baltic and Eastern Europe countries are found as their
  62   II,     4.  2        |            South, Central and Eastern Europe. Therefore, they may be
  63   II,     4.  3        |              to monitor health across Europe: the Euro-REVES 2 project.
  64   II,     4.  3        |              to monitor health across Europe: The Euro-REVES 2 project.
  65   II,     5.  1.  1    |               in Eastern and Southern Europe and the second in Western
  66   II,     5.  1.  1    |               in Western and Northern Europe. Therefore, awareness of
  67   II,     5.  2.  1    |           million deaths each year in Europe and more than 2.0 million
  68   II,     5.  2.  1    |               mid 70s, but in Eastern Europe mortality has remained stable
  69   II,     5.  2.  1    |              costs. Therefore, across Europe there is a pressing need
  70   II,     5.  2.  2    |      mortality in Western and Eastern Europe and regional variations [
  71   II,     5.  2.  2    |  characteristics to those of Northern Europe and mortality rates are
  72   II,     5.  2.  2    |               included among Northern Europe countries because mortality
  73   II,     5.  2.  2    |               populations of Northern Europe; such an approach is understood
  74   II,     5.  2.  3    |           Central Eastern and Eastern Europe countries (Table 5.2.1).
  75   II,     5.  2.  3(1) |                                Baltic Europe countries include: Estonia,
  76   II,     5.  2.  3    |                45% in Central Eastern Europe countries3 (from 440 to
  77   II,     5.  2.  3    |              100.000), 27% in Eastern Europe countries4 (from 450 to
  78   II,     5.  2.  3(3) |                       Central Eastern Europe countries include: Czech Republic,
  79   II,     5.  2.  3    |              100.000), 37% in Central Europe countries5 (from 225 to
  80   II,     5.  2.  3(4) |                               Eastern Europe countries include: Bulgaria,
  81   II,     5.  2.  3    |             100.000), 34% in Southern Europe countries6 (from 139 to
  82   II,     5.  2.  3(5) |                               Central Europe countries include: Belgium,
  83   II,     5.  2.  3(6) |                              Southern Europe countries include: Greece,
  84   II,     5.  2.  3    |          rates fell by 40% in Central Europe countries (from 73 to 44
  85   II,     5.  2.  3    |                51% in Central Eastern Europe countries (from 157 to 77
  86   II,     5.  2.  3    |              100.000), 23% in Eastern Europe countries (from 169 to 130
  87   II,     5.  2.  3    |             100.000), 41% in Northern Europe (from 102 to 61 per 100.
  88   II,     5.  2.  3    |               100.000), 36% in Baltic Europe countries (from 231 to 148
  89   II,     5.  2.  3    |              000) and 41% in Southern Europe countries (from 40 to 23
  90   II,     5.  2.  3    |               data vary widely across Europe and all countries have seen
  91   II,     5.  2.  3    |           Central Eastern and Eastern Europe countries have lower rates
  92   II,     5.  2.  3    |           Central Eastern and Eastern Europe than in Southern Europe
  93   II,     5.  2.  3    |               Europe than in Southern Europe countries; for men living
  94   II,     5.  2.  3    |           Central Eastern and Eastern Europe countries than in Northern
  95   II,     5.  2.  3    |              in Northern and Southern Europe countries (Tunstall-Pedoe
  96   II,     5.  2.  3    |         population based registers in Europe adopt different data collection
  97   II,     5.  2.  3(7) |                                Baltic Europe countries include: Latvia,
  98   II,     5.  2.  3    |             84 fell by 63% in Central Europe (from 133 to 49 per 100.
  99   II,     5.  2.  3    |             100.000), 40% in Southern Europe countries (from 136 to 82
 100   II,     5.  2.  3    |                34% in Central Eastern Europe (from 273 to 180 per 100.
 101   II,     5.  2.  3    |             100.000) and 6% in Baltic Europe countries (from 298 to 279
 102   II,     5.  2.  3    |           increased by 10% in Eastern Europe (from 324 to 357 per 100.
 103   II,     5.  2.  3    |            mortality rates in Central Europe countries were more than
 104   II,     5.  2.  3    |           times lower than in Eastern Europe countries. Temporal trends
 105   II,     5.  2.  3    |               in Central and Southern Europe and showed a clear East-West
 106   II,     5.  2.  3    |             mortality rates in Baltic Europe and Eastern Europe.~ ~Figure
 107   II,     5.  2.  3    |             Baltic Europe and Eastern Europe.~ ~Figure 5.2.3. Age-standardized (
 108   II,     5.  2.  3    |          rates fell by 39% in Central Europe (from 89 to 54 per 100.000),
 109   II,     5.  2.  3    |             100.000), 46% in Southern Europe countries (from 99 to 54
 110   II,     5.  2.  3    |               100.000), 13% in Baltic Europe countries (from 218 to 189
 111   II,     5.  2.  3    |            and 37% in Central Eastern Europe (from 193 to 121 per 100.
 112   II,     5.  2.  3    |           increased by 21% in Eastern Europe (from 203 to 246 per 100.
 113   II,     5.  2.  3    |           mortality rates in Southern Europe were more than four times
 114   II,     5.  2.  3    |           times lower than in Eastern Europe countries.~ ~Figure 5.2.
 115   II,     5.  2.  3    |               populations in Northern Europe (Lithuania, Finland, Northern
 116   II,     5.  2.  3    |              men and women in Eastern Europe. The political, social and
 117   II,     5.  2.  4    |          Southern, Baltic and Eastern Europe than in Northern countries.
 118   II,     5.  2.  4    |          generally higher in Northern Europe and Southern Europe than
 119   II,     5.  2.  4    |          Northern Europe and Southern Europe than in Central Eastern
 120   II,     5.  2.  4    |              heart attacks in Western Europe and 25% in Central Eastern
 121   II,     5.  2.  4    |           Central Eastern and Eastern Europe are due to a history of
 122   II,     5.  2.  5    |            identify best practices in Europe and ensure solidarity among
 123   II,     5.  2.  7    |         population-based registers in Europe: are morbidity indicators
 124   II,     5.  2.  7    |  cardiovascular diseases mortality in Europe. Task force of the European
 125   II,     5.  2.  7    |               morbidity statistics in Europe. Eur Heart J 18: 1231–48.~
 126   II,     5.  2.  7    |               WHO Regional Office for Europe (2007): The Second WHO European
 127   II,     5.  3.Acr    |            Medical Oncology Status in Europe Survey~NCP~National caner
 128   II,     5.  3.  1    |            the major cancer killer in Europe; cancers of female breast,
 129   II,     5.  3.  2    |       national population. However in Europe some Member States do not
 130   II,     5.  3.  2    |          cancer registries operate in Europe today, playing a key role
 131   II,     5.  3.  2    |             control monitoring across Europe. Cancer Registries should
 132   II,     5.  3.  2    |   standardized data comparable across Europe;~· cancer registries are
 133   II,     5.  3.  2    |              in cancer information in Europe and is a recognised European
 134   II,     5.  3.  2    |         EUROCARECancer survival in Europe: The EUROCARE project was
 135   II,     5.  3.  2    |          cancer survival rates across Europe. A further aim is to compare
 136   II,     5.  3.  2    |            improve cancer research in Europe; analysis and synthesis
 137   II,     5.  3.  2    |              National Cancer Plans in Europe; evaluation of potential
 138   II,     5.  3.  2    |           cancer care and practice in Europe. ESMO performed the ‘MOSES’ (
 139   II,     5.  3.  2    |            Medical Oncology Status in Europe Survey) Project. It collected
 140   II,     5.  3.  2    |         status of medical oncology in Europe through questionnaires.
 141   II,     5.  3.  3    |            geographical area (Eastern Europe: Bulgaria, Czech Republic,
 142   II,     5.  3.  3    |           Romania, Slovakia; Northern Europe: Denmark, Estonia, Finland,
 143   II,     5.  3.  3    |              United Kingdom; Southern Europe: Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal,
 144   II,     5.  3.  3    |              Slovenia, Spain; Western Europe: Austria, Belgium, France,
 145   II,     5.  3.  4    |               in Eastern and Southern Europe and the second in Western
 146   II,     5.  3.  4    |               in Western and Northern Europe. Therefore, awareness of
 147   II,     5.  3.  5    |            for all cancers all around Europe (Ferlay et al, 2007). Maximum
 148   II,     5.  3.  5    |               in 2006 were in Western Europe for men (482 new cases per
 149   II,     5.  3.  5    |               5.3.2a) and in Northern Europe for women (351 new cases
 150   II,     5.  3.  5    |              were reported in Eastern Europe for men (287 deaths per
 151   II,     5.  3.  5    |             4a) and again in Northern Europe for women (155 deaths per
 152   II,     5.  3.  5    |              the exception of Eastern Europe and is decreasing or constant
 153   II,     5.  3.  5    |            Cancer (ICD-9 151)~In 2006 Europe saw, 160,000 new cases and
 154   II,     5.  3.  5    |             male incidence in Eastern Europe). Moreover, Eastern Europe
 155   II,     5.  3.  5    |            Europe). Moreover, Eastern Europe maintains higher levels (
 156   II,     5.  3.  5    |              for colorectal cancer in Europe (Ferlay et al, 2007). Figures
 157   II,     5.  3.  5    |          similar GDP. In 2006 Western Europe had maximum levels of incidence
 158   II,     5.  3.  5    |      mortality rates than the rest of Europe both for men (over 40 deaths
 159   II,     5.  3.  5    |        rapidly in Western and Eastern Europe mainly for men (Figure 5.
 160   II,     5.  3.  5    |               in Western and Northern Europe, while they are increasing
 161   II,     5.  3.  5    |               in Eastern and Southern Europe.~ ~Figure 5.3.9a. Colorectal
 162   II,     5.  3.  5    |                ICD-9 162)~In 2006, in Europe there were 386,000 new cases
 163   II,     5.  3.  5    |           cases per 100,000). Eastern Europe had maximum levels of incidence (
 164   II,     5.  3.  5    |              100,000). While Northern Europe had the maximum incidence (
 165   II,     5.  3.  5    |         deaths in 2006 for the entire Europe (Ferlay et al, 2007). The
 166   II,     5.  3.  5    |           affluent world areas as for Europe could also depend by the
 167   II,     5.  3.  5    |            are decreasing in Northern Europe, Western Europe and Southern
 168   II,     5.  3.  5    |              Northern Europe, Western Europe and Southern Europe, whilst
 169   II,     5.  3.  5    |           Western Europe and Southern Europe, whilst they are constant
 170   II,     5.  3.  5    |               are constant in Eastern Europe.~ ~Figure 5.3.17. Female
 171   II,     5.  3.  5    |         deaths in 2002 for the entire Europe (Parkin et al, 2005). The
 172   II,     5.  3.  5    |        Western, Southern and Northern Europe (Figure 5.3.22 and Figure
 173   II,     5.  3.  5    |      estimated for prostate cancer in Europe (Ferlay et al, 2007). Comparison
 174   II,     5.  3.  5    |        Western, Northern and Southern Europe (Figure 5.3.26) reflects
 175   II,     5.  3.  5    |              are constant in Northern Europe, slightly decreasing in
 176   II,     5.  3.  5    |               in Western and Southern Europe, and increasing in Eastern
 177   II,     5.  3.  5    |             and increasing in Eastern Europe.~ ~Figure 5.3.25. Prostate
 178   II,     5.  3.  6    |         Western, Southern and Eastern Europe).~ ~
 179   II,     5.  3.  6    |               United Kingdom, Eastern Europe, Nordic countries, and West
 180   II,     5.  3.  6    |         countries, and West and South Europe) and Europe as a whole.
 181   II,     5.  3.  6    |            West and South Europe) and Europe as a whole. Europe-wide
 182   II,     5.  3.  6    |              66%) occurred in Eastern Europe although still under the
 183   II,     5.  3.  6    |              were reported in Eastern Europe (Sant et al, 2003).~ ~Figure
 184   II,     5.  3.  6    |               of Northern and Western Europe with the best prognosis,
 185   II,     5.  3.  6    |               shown) indicate that in Europe there was a moderate improvement
 186   II,     5.  3.  6    |               25 and 35% - in Eastern Europe (Estonia, Poland, Slovakia
 187   II,     5.  3.  6    |               shown) indicate that in Europe 5-year relative survival
 188   II,     5.  3.  6    |               shown) indicate that in Europe there was a modest tendency
 189   II,     5.  3.  6    |               survival for the entire Europe increased from 7.5% in men
 190   II,     5.  3.  6    |             most countries of Western Europe. In Finland, Sweden, France,
 191   II,     5.  3.  6    |          survival was seen in Eastern Europe (Estonia, Poland, Slovakia
 192   II,     5.  3.  6    |               more marked for Western Europe than in the Nordic countries,
 193   II,     5.  3.  6    |          Nordic countries and Western Europe has greatly reduced. There
 194   II,     5.  3.  6    |           except Denmark) and central Europe, intermediate in Southern
 195   II,     5.  3.  6    |              intermediate in Southern Europe, lower in the UK and Denmark,
 196   II,     5.  3.  6    |         Denmark, and worse in Eastern Europe. All-cancer survival correlated
 197   II,     5.  3.  6    |         although, patients in Eastern Europe had the highest improvement
 198   II,     5.  3.  7    |         occult blood or FOB test). In Europe breast, colorectal and cervical
 199   II,     5.  3.  7    |         cervical screening in Eastern Europe is one of the major cancer
 200   II,     5.  3.  7    |               trials are under way in Europe to establish whether screening
 201   II,     5.  3.  7    |             in cancer survival within Europe are way too large. The geographical
 202   II,     5.  3.  7    |              2006) underlined that in Europe:~· There are wide differences
 203   II,     5.  3.  7    |            lack of homogeneity within Europe and a particular need for
 204   II,     5.  3.  7    |              its Health Strategies in Europe conference, stressed that
 205   II,     5.  3.  7    |            the Challenge of Cancer in Europe”, has been produced as a
 206   II,     5.  3.  7    |          cancer control activities in Europe.~ ~
 207   II,     5.  3.  7    |    collaboration~ ~Cancer research in Europe is of a high standard, but
 208   II,     5.  3.  8    |              Future developments~ ~In Europe the incidence rates for
 209   II,     5.  3.  8    |           cancer patients survival in Europe has strongly increased in
 210   II,     5.  3.  8    |            percentage of survival. In Europe we can estimate nearly 14
 211   II,     5.  3.  8    |             cancer control policy for Europe should address. We included
 212   II,     5.  3.  8    |               treatment facilities in Europe (especially in Eastern European
 213   II,     5.  3.  8    |               Systems expenditures in Europe while improving cancer services.~ ~
 214   II,     5.  3.  9    |           summary. Cancer survival in Europe at the end of the 20th century.
 215   II,     5.  3.  9    |            Medical Oncology Status in Europe Survey (MOSES). Phase II. htt 1 (
 216   II,     5.  3.  9    |            incidence and mortality in Europe in 2006. Ann Oncol 18(3):
 217   II,     5.  3.  9    |             Cancer Survival Trends in Europe: A EUROCARE Working Group
 218   II,     5.  3.  9    |            2007) Health Strategies in Europe, 1213 July 2007, Strategies
 219   II,     5.  3.  9    |            2007) Health Strategies in Europe, 1213 July 2007, Strategies
 220   II,     5.  3.  9    |              2003): Cancer control in Europe: a proposed set of European
 221   II,     5.  3.  9    |             Recent cancer survival in Europe: a 200002 period analysis
 222   II,     5.  3.  9    |          cancer control programmes in Europe. htt f (document online,
 223   II,     5.  4.  1    |            have diabetes, followed by Europe with 53 million. India leads
 224   II,     5.  4.  1    |               s top.~The situation in Europe is among the most alarming.
 225   II,     5.  4.  2    |              WHO regional Offices for Europe and the European Region
 226   II,     5.  4.  2    |            best diabetes registers in Europe have adopted innovative
 227   II,     5.  4.  2    |        examples of this kind exist in Europe, showing a heterogeneous
 228   II,     5.  4.  2    |            collaborating registers in Europe (Carinci et al 2006).~In
 229   II,     5.  4.  2    |               QOC) information across Europe.~A landmark of QOC monitoring
 230   II,     5.  4.  2    |         landmark of QOC monitoring in Europe has been undoubtedly represented
 231   II,     5.  4.  2    |         systems currently existing in Europe, and beyond. Quality of
 232   II,     5.  4.  2    |   complications of this nature across Europe. Close monitoring of the
 233   II,     5.  4.  2    |               the highest priority in Europe with a total of 8 countries
 234   II,     5.  4.  3    |               North-South gradient in Europe, with a much higher incidence
 235   II,     5.  4.  3    |       attributable to diabetes across Europe.~ ~Secondary Indicators~ ~
 236   II,     5.  4.  3    |          currently affected by IGT in Europe is over 60 millions, and
 237   II,     5.  4.  3    |           three-fold variation across Europe of poor management, with
 238   II,     5.  4.  4    |        According to EUCID, obesity in Europe ranges between 12% (Netherlands)
 239   II,     5.  4.  4    |             is highly variable across Europe, flagging attention towards
 240   II,     5.  4.  4    |           that, on average, a town of Europe with 100 000 inhabitants
 241   II,     5.  4.  4    |      highlight that health systems in Europe are not optimally organized
 242   II,     5.  4.  6    |              for knowledge sharing in Europe. The initiative will probably
 243   II,     5.  4.  6    |           highest prevalence rates in Europe, and will rank among the
 244   II,     5.  4.  6    |           living with diabetes across Europe. Clinical guidelines are
 245   II,     5.  4.  6    |     FederationEuropean Region (IDF Europe) and the Federation of European
 246   II,     5.  4.  6    |            public health challenge in Europe and encouraging networking
 247   II,     5.  4.  6    |               of this research across Europe;~· Examining and strengthening
 248   II,     5.  4.  8    |               in the EU25 FEND /IDF - Europe 2006, available at: [http://
 249   II,     5.  4.  8    |              of childhood diabetes in Europe. Lancet 11;355 873-6~EUDIP
 250   II,     5.  4.  8    |       Diabetes. The Policy puzzle: is Europe making progress? FEND/IDF -
 251   II,     5.  4.  8    |           making progress? FEND/IDF - Europe 2008, [http://www.fend.org/
 252   II,     5.  4.  8    |           cost of Type II diabetes in Europe. Diabetologia, 2002; 45(
 253   II,     5.  5.Int    |            and premature mortality in Europe with women twice as susceptible
 254   II,     5.  5.Int    |             Mental health services in Europe have been identified as
 255   II,     5.  5.Int    |             highly stigmatised across Europe. Depression affects 10-15%
 256   II,     5.  5.Int(15)|      Depression among older people in Europe: the EURODEP studies. World
 257   II,     5.  5.Int    |           children and adolescents in Europe with active epilepsy is
 258   II,     5.  5.Int(19)|        dementia and major subtypes in Europe: A collaborative study of
 259   II,     5.  5.Int    |     organizations (e.g. Mental Health Europe, EUFAMI, EnterMentalHealth,)
 260   II,     5.  5.Int    |     continuous improvement throughout Europe in mental health, the quality
 261   II,     5.  5.  1    |           more common among women; in Europe, prevalence is 9% for adult
 262   II,     5.  5.  1    |          common (Lecrubier, 2007). In Europe, only one third of those
 263   II,     5.  5.  1    |               another. In general, in Europe hanging, shooting and self-poisoning
 264   II,     5.  5.  1    |              by country and gender in Europe are presented in Table 5.
 265   II,     5.  5.  1    |              000 people) by gender in Europe~ ~The stability of inter-country
 266   II,     5.  5.  1    |            accidents (per 100 000) in Europe.~ ~The changes in age-adjusted
 267   II,     5.  5.  1    |               age group and gender in Europe~ ~As regards to the gender,
 268   II,     5.  5.  1    |            serious health problems in Europe in terms of severity of
 269   II,     5.  5.  1    |           Stress Related Disorders in Europe (2001-3) targeted people
 270   II,     5.  5.  1    |     Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European
 271   II,     5.  5.  1    |             mental health services in Europe: results from the European
 272   II,     5.  5.  1    |            factors for suicidality in Europe: results from the ESEMED
 273   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 Suicidal behaviour in Europe - Results from the WHO/EURO
 274   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 Cost of depression in Europe. J Mental Health Policy
 275   II,     5.  5.  1    |             2008). Suicide methods in Europe: a gender-specific analysis
 276   II,     5.  5.  2    |             prevalence of dementia in Europe and in the world, and our
 277   II,     5.  5.  2    |          prevalence rates for Western Europe (Region A) and Eastern Europe (
 278   II,     5.  5.  2    |         Europe (Region A) and Eastern Europe (Regions B and C)23. ~ ~
 279   II,     5.  5.  2    |           over. Ferri et al separated Europe into Western Europe and
 280   II,     5.  5.  2    |         separated Europe into Western Europe and Eastern Europe, with
 281   II,     5.  5.  2    |            Western Europe and Eastern Europe, with a further division
 282   II,     5.  5.  2    |           further division in Eastern Europe between countries with a
 283   II,     5.  5.  2    |              in the overall total for Europe.~ ~ ~
 284   II,     5.  5.  2    |              from EUROSTAT, Alzheimer Europe calculated the estimated
 285   II,     5.  5.  2    |       dementia in each country within Europe and in Iceland, Norway,
 286   II,     5.  5.  2    |     Switzerland and Turkey (Alzheimer Europe, 2006). The results are
 287   II,     5.  5.  2    |             future trends~ ~Alzheimer Europe also looked at the development
 288   II,     5.  5.  2    |               1960 to 2005 (Alzheimer Europe, 2006a). Figure 5.5.2.1.
 289   II,     5.  5.  2    |            For this reason, Alzheimer Europe decided to address this
 290   II,     5.  5.  2    |         project partners of Alzheimer Europe are currently carrying out
 291   II,     5.  5.  2    |           prevalence studies in whole Europe, including the new Member
 292   II,     5.  5.  2    |            when available) (Alzheimer Europe, 2007).~ ~
 293   II,     5.  5.  2    |            the framework of Alzheimer Europe’s EuroCoDe project, a working
 294   II,     5.  5.  2    |            the end of 2008 (Alzheimer Europe, 2007).~ ~
 295   II,     5.  5.  2    |              with dementia. Alzheimer Europe is currently carrying out
 296   II,     5.  5.  2    |       December 2008.~ ~The Council of Europe has nominated a NGO Health
 297   II,     5.  5.  2    |       relatives.~ ~In 2007, Alzheimer Europe received funding from DG
 298   II,     5.  5.  2    |       DementiaEuroCoDe” (Alzheimer Europe, 2007). This led to the
 299   II,     5.  5.  2    |               is different. Alzheimer Europe and its member organisations
 300   II,     5.  5.  2    |           respite care).~ ~Lastly, as Europe’s population continues to
 301   II,     5.  5.  2    |        Alzheimer’s disease (Alzheimer Europe, 2007a). The declaration
 302   II,     5.  5.  2    |      priorities endorsed by Alzheimer Europe member organisations and
 303   II,     5.  5.  2    |            health inequalities across Europe and improving the level
 304   II,     5.  5.  2    |               to supporting Alzheimer Europe and its members in making
 305   II,     5.  5.  2    |             public health priority in Europe (European Parliament, 1996).~ ~
 306   II,     5.  5.  2    |                References~ ~Alzheimer Europe (2006): Dementia in Europe
 307   II,     5.  5.  2    |            Europe (2006): Dementia in Europe Yearbook. Alzheimer Europe~ ~
 308   II,     5.  5.  2    |            Europe Yearbook. Alzheimer Europe~ ~Alzheimer Europe (2007):
 309   II,     5.  5.  2    |          Alzheimer Europe~ ~Alzheimer Europe (2007): EuroCoDe, WP4 survey
 310   II,     5.  5.  2    |        finalised in 2008)~ ~Alzheimer Europe (2007a): Paris Declaration
 311   II,     5.  5.  2    |        Available at:~htt ~ ~Alzheimer Europe (2006a): Who cares? The
 312   II,     5.  5.  2    |             state of dementia care in Europe. Alzheimer Europe~ ~Alzheimer
 313   II,     5.  5.  2    |             care in Europe. Alzheimer Europe~ ~Alzheimer Scotland (2006):
 314   II,     5.  5.  2    |     definition and concept, Alzheimer Europe. Available at: htt B (article
 315   II,     5.  5.  3    |               WHO Regional Office for Europe and was realised for the
 316   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of Obesity in Children in Europe; Volume 2: Available Health
 317   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of Obesity in Children in Europewritten by Alexander et
 318   II,     5.  5.  3    |               of data availability in Europe~ ~ ~Country / Measure~Availability
 319   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of Obesity in Children in Europe; Volume 2: Available Health
 320   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of Obesity in Children in Europe)~ ~A third European study
 321   II,     5.  5.  3    |           titled Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (
 322   II,     5.  5.  3    |              habits of adolescents in Europe, and tries to get a better
 323   II,     5.  5.  3    |              young females in Western Europe and the United States was
 324   II,     5.  5.  3    |               WHO Regional Office for Europe implemented a strategy for
 325   II,     5.  5.  3    |               WHO Regional Office for Europe points out main factors
 326   II,     5.  5.  3    |          measure disordered eating in Europe and should, moreover, implement
 327   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of Obesity in Children in Europe; Volume 1: The Public Health
 328   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of Obesity in Children in Europe; Volume 2: Available Health
 329   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of Obesity in Children in Europe, in press~Anorexia Nervosa
 330   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Showcases Healthy lifestyle in Europe by nutrition in 13-16 years
 331   II,     5.  5.  3    |              years adolescents across Europe. Available at: htt l (article
 332   II,     5.  5.  3    |          ProjectHealthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence.
 333   II,     5.  5.  3    |               WHO Regional Office for Europe.~ ~
 334   II,     5.  5.  3    |           HELENA~Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence~
 335   II,     5.  5.  3    |               WHO Regional Office for Europe~World Health Organization
 336   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Organization Regional Office for Europe~ ~ ~
 337   II,     5.  5.  3    |       publication and coverage across Europe is however patchy. Another
 338   II,     5.  5.  3    |               WHO Regional Office for Europe. Other data and information
 339   II,     5.  5.  3    |              contributors to DALYs in Europe are neuropsychiatric disorders (
 340   II,     5.  5.  3    |               of studies from Western Europe note 17.8%, while estimates
 341   II,     5.  5.  3    |       estimates in the WHO Report for Europe 2001 were much higher, namely
 342   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Research and Evaluation Europe) instrument, a rating scale
 343   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Mental health service in Europe~Not only the lack of resources
 344   II,     5.  5.  3    |            reflected in the fact that Europe has a lower proportion of
 345   II,     5.  5.  3    |           costs of brain disorders in Europe by an analysis of studies
 346   II,     5.  5.  3    |          system. www Mental Health in Europe 2001 - Country reports from
 347   II,     5.  5.  3    |             disorders of the brain in Europe. Eur J Neurol 12 Suppl 1:
 348   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of psychotic disorders in Europe. Eur J Neurol 12 Suppl 1:
 349   II,     5.  5.  3    |       recognition and intervention in Europe. World Psychiatry 4(3):161-
 350   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Policy and Practice across Europe – The future direction of
 351   II,     5.  5.  3    |          2001a) - WHO Regional Office Europe: Mental Health in Europe.
 352   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Europe: Mental Health in Europe. Country Reports from the
 353   II,     5.  5.  3    |           2005d) -WHO Regional Office Europe: Helsinki Mental Health
 354   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Mental Health Declaration for Europe. Facing the Challenges,
 355   II,     5.  5.  3    |      contributed to this. Equally, in Europe, the social and economic
 356   II,     5.  5.  3    |           data on morbidity in ASD in Europe. Controversy exists in the
 357   II,     5.  5.  3    |               ASD prevalence study in Europe. This is a relevant action
 358   II,     5.  5.  3    |             case definition of ASD in Europe is still not fully harmonized,
 359   II,     5.  5.  3    |             ASD information system in Europe.~Tools have been developed
 360   II,     5.  5.  3    |           families affected by ASD in Europe. The initiative by the Welsh
 361   II,     5.  5.  3    |               With few exceptions, in Europe the information existing
 362   II,     5.  5.  3    |        consequences of the disease in Europe and in the rest of the world.~
 363   II,     5.  5.  3    |         description and analysis~ ~In Europe, the incidence, prevalence
 364   II,     5.  5.  3    |             expects that, at least in Europe, genetic susceptibility
 365   II,     5.  5.  3    |      incidence studies carried out in Europe have been identified, mostly
 366   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Incidence of epilepsy in Europe~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.2. Incidence (
 367   II,     5.  5.  3    |               100,000) of epilepsy in Europe, by age~ ~With one exception (
 368   II,     5.  5.  3    |            and unprovoked seizures in Europe has been reported to be
 369   II,     5.  5.  3    |        temporal trends of epilepsy in Europe. No overall trends have
 370   II,     5.  5.  3    |              in Northern and Southern Europe. This observation can be
 371   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of epileptic syndromes in Europe. In Iceland (Olafsson et
 372   II,     5.  5.  3    |             prevalence of epilepsy in Europe (Forsgren et al, 2005).
 373   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Prevalence of active epilepsy in Europe~Modified from Forsgren,
 374   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the SMR for epilepsy in Europe was found to range from
 375   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Observed~Expected~ ~ ~Europe~Insurance policies~Prevalent
 376   II,     5.  5.  3    |               in several studies from Europe. In contrast, data regarding
 377   II,     5.  5.  3    |   particularly in Central and Eastern Europe, where unemployment rates
 378   II,     5.  5.  3    |         greater than those of Western Europe (Anonymous, 2003). These
 379   II,     5.  5.  3    |               epilepsy and driving in Europe~ ~__ __~Country Group Seizure
 380   II,     5.  5.  3    |          achieve harmonization across Europe. On April 27 2005, the SEWGED
 381   II,     5.  5.  3    |           epidemiology of epilepsy in Europe – a systematic review. Eur
 382   II,     5.  5.  3    |            mortality was reviewed for Europe with regards to “European
 383   II,     5.  5.  3    |             hereafter referred to as “Europe”. Articles published in
 384   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 MS case registers in ”Europe”~Population-based registries
 385   II,     5.  5.  3    |              in time and space across Europe are summarised here. Tables
 386   II,     5.  5.  3    |              of Multiple Sclerosis in Europe~ ~ ~Systematic surveys in
 387   II,     5.  5.  3    |               In brief, prevalence in Europe ranges from approx. 20 to
 388   II,     5.  5.  3    |           annual mean MS incidence in Europe is estimated to be 4 per
 389   II,     5.  5.  3    |             The distribution of MS in Europe by disease course~ ~The
 390   II,     5.  5.  3    |             The distribution of MS in Europe by severity~The prevalence-based
 391   II,     5.  5.  3    |            rates and survival time in Europe~Data on MS mortality must
 392   II,     5.  5.  3    |            elevated risk for death in Europe, with mortality ranging
 393   II,     5.  5.  3    |        overview of mortality rates in Europe is reported in Table 7 Decreasing
 394   II,     5.  5.  3    |             The epidemiology of MS in Europe: methodological issues~Despite
 395   II,     5.  5.  3    |         geographical pattern of MS in Europe is a hard task due to: (
 396   II,     5.  5.  3    |               prevalence rates across Europe has been observed. Although
 397   II,     5.  5.  3    |         current epidemiology of MS in Europe was categorisation, and
 398   II,     5.  5.  3    |        socio-economic burden of MS in Europe~ ~The disability adjusted
 399   II,     5.  5.  3    |              The total DALY for MS in Europe is 307 000 years and varies
 400   II,     5.  5.  3    |               The cost per MS case in Europe ranges from €10 000 to €
 401   II,     5.  5.  3    |   Distribution of total cost of MS in Europe (year 2005) by resource
 402   II,     5.  5.  3    |     management of MS are available in Europe, i.e., beta-interferons
 403   II,     5.  5.  3    |        situation of people with MS in Europe, but only reports from a
 404   II,     5.  5.  3    |      experiences of people with MS in Europe. It did so with regard to
 405   II,     5.  5.  3    |            with Multiple Sclerosis in Europe by the European Multiple
 406   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Sclerosis Rehabilitation in Europe; their target is to contribute
 407   II,     5.  5.  3    |            severely affected by MS in Europe to have access to palliative
 408   II,     5.  5.  3    |      societies from the wider part of Europe they constitute the European
 409   II,     5.  5.  3    |              of multiple sclerosis in Europe; good practice review of
 410   II,     5.  5.  3    |            with Multiple Sclerosis in Europe~Baumhackl U, Eibl G, Ganzinger
 411   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Multiple Sclerosis in Europe: An Epidemiological Update.
 412   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Multiple Sclerosis in Europe: An Epidemiological Update.
 413   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Multiple Sclerosis in Europe: An Epidemiological update.
 414   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Multiple Sclerosis in Europe: An Epidemiological Update.
 415   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Multiple Sclerosis in Europe: An Epidemiological Update.
 416   II,     5.  5.  3    |              study of four centres in Europe. Neuroepidemiology 5:71-
 417   II,     5.  5.  3    |              of multiple sclerosis in Europe. Eur J Neurol 13: 700722.~
 418   II,     5.  5.  3    |       Estimation of the cost of MS in Europe: Extrapolations from a multinational
 419   II,     5.  5.  3    |              10.7 billion per year in Europe (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005).~
 420   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of Parkinson’s disease in Europe~ ~Figure 5.5.3.6.1. Estimated
 421   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of Parkinson’s disease in Europe.~ ~Crude incidence estimates
 422   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of Parkinson’s disease in Europe.~ ~Estimates of crude prevalence
 423   II,     5.  5.  3    |        distribution of PD severity in Europe seems quite similar in most
 424   II,     5.  5.  3    |           stage~ ~Crude incidences in Europe range from 5 per 100,000
 425   II,     5.  5.  3    |         differed significantly across Europe, ranging from €2,500 (Estonia) – €
 426   II,     5.  5.  3    |            cost-of-illness studies in Europe. Furthermore, standardized
 427   II,     5.  5.  3    |       awareness of brain disorders in Europe (htt ). Among others, it
 428   II,     5.  5.  3    |      evaluation of brain disorders in Europe (Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005).
 429   II,     5.  5.  3    |             was estimated for Western Europe's 5 most and the world's
 430   II,     5.  5.  3    |             disorders of the brain in Europe. Eur J Neurol 12 Suppl 1:
 431   II,     5.  5.  3    |            and Parkinson’s disease in Europe: the EUROPARKINSON Collaborative
 432   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of Parkinson’s disease in Europe. Eur J Neurol 12 Suppl 1:
 433   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of Parkinson’s disease in Europe. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
 434   II,     5.  6.  1    |            and governments throughout Europe, through support of the
 435   II,     5.  6.  1    |          non-communicable diseases in Europe in the WHO European Strategy (
 436   II,     5.  6.  3    |               derived from studies in Europe and North America (Symmons,
 437   II,     5.  6.  3    |          arthritis.~ ~Prevalence~ ~In Europe, just over one-fifth (22%)
 438   II,     5.  6.  3    |              top 10 causes of DALY in Europe (WHO European Strategy for
 439   II,     5.  6.  3    |              Prevalence of knee OA in Europe~ ~Figure 5.6.4a. Prevalence
 440   II,     5.  6.  3    |             individual studies across Europe.~ ~Prevalence~ ~For both
 441   II,     5.  6.  3    |               in the next 10 years in Europe due to the ageing populations.
 442   II,     5.  6.  3    |           been reported from Northern Europe (EULAR Online Course, 2008).~ ~
 443   II,     5.  6.  3    |           elderly women than men). In Europe it has been estimated that
 444   II,     5.  6.  3    |             and women aged over 50 in Europe. The rates vary between
 445   II,     5.  6.  3    |           three-fold variation across Europe and up to two-fold variation
 446   II,     5.  6.  3    |              is increasing throughout Europe, and the number of hip fractures
 447   II,     5.  6.  4    |           ageing of the population in Europe will result in the number
 448   II,     5.  6.  5    |        opinion of experts from across Europe in the areas of rheumatology,
 449   II,     5.  6.  6    |             of vertebral fractures in Europe: results from the European
 450   II,     5.  6.  6    |         Management of Osteoporosis in Europe. Osteoporos Int 16(3):229-
 451   II,     5.  6.  6    |          Available at URL : ht ~ ~WHO Europe (2006): Gaining Health.
 452   II,     5.  6.  6    |               56th Session of the WHO Europe Regional Committee for Europe,
 453   II,     5.  6.  6    |         Europe Regional Committee for Europe, Copenhagen, 11-14 September
 454   II,     5.  6.  6    |               Musculoskeletal pain in Europe: its impact and a comparison
 455   II,     5.  7.  1    |      magnitude in those countries. In Europe several surveys have now
 456   II,     5.  7.  1    |               the renal registries in Europe. Although rare, CKD and
 457   II,     5.  7.  1    |              of healthcare funding in Europe is spent on treating dialysis
 458   II,     5.  7.  2    |          regional renal registries in Europe and countries bordering
 459   II,     5.  7.  3    |            data has been published in Europe. In the Atherosclerosis
 460   II,     5.  7.  3    |              Coresh et al,2005).~ ~In Europe similar data are available
 461   II,     5.  7.  3    |               are similar to those in Europe, incidence rates in US whites (
 462   II,     5.  7.  3    |               5-3 times as high as in Europe. This is partly due to a
 463   II,     5.  7.  3    |               of data on CKD. Data in Europe have been gathered both
 464   II,     5.  7.  3    |               children (<20 years) in Europe is about 60 cases pmarp (
 465   II,     5.  7.  3    |             in European countries.~In Europe over the period 1992-2005 (
 466   II,     5.  7.  3    |          Mortality on RRT is lower in Europe compared to the US (Sixth
 467   II,     5.  7.  3    |          Registry, 2005). Also within Europe there are considerable differences
 468   II,     5.  7.  3    |               of data on CKD. Data in Europe have been gathered both
 469   II,     5.  7.  6    |          other chronic diseases.~ ~In Europe there is still no document
 470   II,     5.  7.  6    |             is expected to grow.~ ~In Europe the availability of cadaver
 471   II,     5.  7.  7    |            end-stage renal disease in Europe, 1990-1999. Nephrol Dial
 472   II,     5.  7.  7    |            end-stage renal disease in Europe, Canada and the Asia-Pacific
 473   II,     5.  8.  1    |              people die every year in Europe because of COPD. It represents
 474   II,     5.  8.  2    |             journals~- Lung Health in Europe Facts & Figures, from European
 475   II,     5.  8.  2    |    Organization,~ Regional Office for Europe~ ~Although COPD and asthma
 476   II,     5.  8.  3    |               annual cost for COPD in Europe (excluding mortality and
 477   II,     5.  8.  3    |                in Central and Eastern Europe lost work days due to COPD
 478   II,     5.  8.  7    |              on respiratory health in Europe”. Loddenkemper R, Gibson
 479   II,     5.  8.  7    |               respiratory research in Europe: FP7. Eur Respir J 2007;
 480   II,     5.  9.Acr    |          Asthma Insights & Reality in Europe~AR~Atopic Rhinitis~ARIA~
 481   II,     5.  9. FB    |               major health concern in Europe, with over 80 million people
 482   II,     5.  9. FB    |     homogeneous lifestyles throughout Europe, allergy prevalence among
 483   II,     5.  9. FB    |              80 million people across Europe are estimated to suffer
 484   II,     5.  9. FB    |         populations living in Western Europe compared to those living
 485   II,     5.  9. FB    |               of allergic diseases in Europe seen particularly in the
 486   II,     5.  9. FB    |              allergic diseases across Europe could be partially explained
 487   II,     5.  9. FB    |          exposure to microbes seen in Europe in the last decades, due
 488   II,     5.  9. FB    |          begin an early treatment. In Europe,,allergic patients are currently
 489   II,     5.  9.  2    |             Program;~- Lung Health in Europe Facts & Figures, from European
 490   II,     5.  9.  3    |        patients died. (Lung Health in Europe, 2003 ERJ)~ ~According to
 491   II,     5.  9.  3    |              public health problem in Europe, The UCB Institute of Allergy,
 492   II,     5.  9.  3    |            costs.~ ~At the moment, in Europe allergic patients are underestimated,
 493   II,     5.  9.  3    |              billion) (Lung Health in Europe Facts & Figures, 2003 ERJ).
 494   II,     5.  9.  3    |              burden of asthma care in Europe is consistent and the direct
 495   II,     5.  9.  3    |              billion) (Lung Health in Europe, 2003).~ ~In a review of
 496   II,     5.  9.  4    |         judaica is higher in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe
 497   II,     5.  9.  4    |               Europe than in Northern Europe and sensitization to the
 498   II,     5.  9.  4    |           birch is higher in Northern Europe than in Southern Europe.
 499   II,     5.  9.  4    |               Europe than in Southern Europe. These patterns could be
 500   II,     5.  9.  4    |              respiratory allergies in Europe. The partners collected