Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

 1   II,     8.  2.  2|             rehabilitation, welfare payments, lost taxation revenue and
 2   IV,    11.  1.  3|     clinical guidelines and linking payments to performance and quality
 3   IV,    11.  1.  3|           introduced activity-based payments to increase productivity (
 4   IV,    11.  1.  6| Fee-for-service.~Salary, with bonus payments for performance.~Negotiable
 5   IV,    11.  1.  6|           selected services, target payments for immunization), 14% by
 6   IV,    11.  1.  6|           allowance, and additional payments for training and distance
 7   IV,    11.  1.  6|      payment (capitation and target~payments for preventive care).~100%
 8   IV,    11.  1.  6|           Slovenia~Salary and bonus payments.~Salary (with public contract);
 9   IV,    11.  1.  6|             increasingly case-based payments (often referred to as diagnosis
10   IV,    11.  1.  6|          and expected activity: DRG payments are combined with risk-adjusted
11   IV,    11.  3.  2|        higher margins or additional payments may provide an incentive
12   IV,    11.  6.  2|            and direct out-of-pocket payments (though calculations of
13   IV,    11.  6.  2|             cost sharing and direct payments) (see below).~ ~European
14   IV,    11.  6.  2|      expenditure from out-of-pocket payments, compared to 66% in EU Member
15   IV,    11.  6.  2|  predominant sources: out-of-pocket payments and private insurance. Out-of-pocket
16   IV,    11.  6.  2|            insurance. Out-of-pocket payments constitute the large share
17   IV,    11.  6.  2|              although out-of-pocket payments represent an important financing
18   IV,    11.  6.  2|              PHI) and out-of-pocket payments, though in all countries
19   IV,    11.  6.  2|   expenditure is from out-of-pocket payments (see below). The agents
20   IV,    11.  6.  2|          widespread use of informal payments and the reluctance to pay
21   IV,    11.  6.  2|        increases.~ ~ ~Out-of-pocket payments~ ~Out-of-pocket payments
22   IV,    11.  6.  2|            payments~ ~Out-of-pocket payments can come in broadly three
23   IV,    11.  6.  2|         broadly three forms: direct payments (‘pure private’ payments),
24   IV,    11.  6.  2|            payments (‘pure privatepayments), cost sharing (individuals
25   IV,    11.  6.  2|         care received) and informal payments (unofficial payments for
26   IV,    11.  6.  2|       informal payments (unofficial payments for services that should
27   IV,    11.  6.  2|           al 2008).~ ~Out-of-pocket payments comprise a substantial proportion
28   IV,    11.  6.  2|     disaggregation of out-of-pocket payments into cost sharing, direct
29   IV,    11.  6.  2|           into cost sharing, direct payments and, if recorded, informal
30   IV,    11.  6.  2|          and, if recorded, informal payments. Since 1996 out-of-pocket
31   IV,    11.  6.  2|            Since 1996 out-of-pocket payments have become an increasing
32   IV,    11.  6.  2|           increase in out-of-pocket payments may be due to an increase
33   IV,    11.  6.  2|           in direct and/or informal payments. On the contrary, Cyprus,
34   IV,    11.  6.  2|          the share of out-of-pocket payments (WHO 2007, cited in Thomson,
35   IV,    11.  6.  2|         Figure 11.19. Out-of-pocket payments (households) as a proportion
36   IV,    11.  6.  2|        expenditure, 2004~ ~Informal payments~ ~In central and Eastern
37   IV,    11.  6.  2|           increase in out-of-pocket payments in the 1990s (Preker et
38   IV,    11.  6.  2|             By definition, informal payments are made without any record
39   IV,    11.  6.  2|      studies indicate that informal payments have come to represent a
40   IV,    11.  6.  2|             CIS countries. Informal payments constitute about 30% of
41   IV,    11.  6.  2|          the prevalence of informal payments among service users highlight
42   IV,    11.  6.  2|          across countries. Informal payments are mainly associated with
43   IV,    11.  6.  2|          specialist visits involved payments in Slovakia (Vagac and Haulikova,
44   IV,    11.  6.  2|           of patients made informal payments sometimes, while 5.7% made
45   IV,    11.  6.  2|          sometimes, while 5.7% made payments on almost every visit (Vagac
46   IV,    11.  6.  2|               In Bulgaria, informal payments are more common in Sofia,
47   IV,    11.  6.  2|         2002). In Romania, informal payments are prevalent and may account
48   IV,    11.  6.  2|             Bulgaria, out-of-pocket payments (including both formal and
49   IV,    11.  6.  2|            both formal and informal payments) increased from 9% of total
50   IV,    11.  6.  2|            evidence on how informal payments affect utilization, patients
51   IV,    11.  6.  2|            implications of informal payments is that they undermine governments’
52   IV,    11.  6.  3|  distributed within the population. Payments are progressive if higher
53   IV,    11.  6.  3|             for contribution rates; payments are progressive up to a
54   IV,    11.  6.  3|           in the public system, the payments become regressive (De Graeve
55   IV,    11.  6.  3|  arrangements towards out-of-pocket payments by individuals and households
56   IV,    11.  6.  3|            the goal that healthcare payments should not be linked to
57   IV,    11.  6.  3|       ability to pay and healthcare payments. Thus, a fair system of
58   IV,    11.  6.  3|        households with catastrophic payments (defined as representing
59   IV,    11.  6.  3|   households reporting catastrophic payments. Note that comparisons between
60   IV,    11.  6.  4|   inadequate financing and informal payments have led to the exclusion
61   IV,    11.  6.  4|           Sections on out-of-pocket payments and informal payments).
62   IV,    11.  6.  4| out-of-pocket payments and informal payments). Benefits packages or catalogues
63   IV,    11.  6.  5|              Understanding informal payments for health care: the example
64   IV,    11.  6.  5| Hanvoravongchai P (2003): "Provider payments and patient charges as policy