1-500 | 501-1000 | 1001-1437
     Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    -,     1            |                  ii) produced through a 3-year process (from 15 November
   2    -,     1            |               and EU Agencies (Appendix 3); and (v) considered by
   3    I,     2.  3        |                                       2.3. Migration~ ~The impact
   4    I,     2.  5        |                 since the 80s. Figure 2.3 shows the significant differences
   5    I,     2.  6        |            secondary education (Table 2.3) and of total early school
   6    I,     2.  6        |                  Figure 2.4).~ ~Table 2.3. Total population percentage
   7    I,     2.  6        |                 by an average of almost 3 percentage points in the
   8    I,     2.  7        |                  an estimated number of 3.3 billion people, will be
   9    I,     2.  7        |                an estimated number of 3.3 billion people, will be
  10    I,     2.  9        |                cover has decreased by 1.3 % per decade during the
  11    I,     2.  9        |         sea-level rise has increased to 3.1 mm/year in the past 15
  12    I,     2. 10.  3    |                                    2.10.3. Information and communication
  13    I,     2. 10.  4    |            Event Study indicated that 9.3% of hospital stays incurred
  14    I,     2. 10.  4    |             administration errors (from 3.10% to 0.84%)11. Chelsea
  15    I,     2. 10.  4    |                 the retail industry and 3-6% in the grocery industry –
  16    I,     2. 11        |         Circumpolar Health. 2007 Jun;66(3):188-98.~Medina c. et al. (
  17    I,     3            |                                         3.~DEMOGRAPHY~ ~
  18    I,     3.  1        |                                         3.1. Fertility and marriage
  19    I,     3.  1        |               States, the TFR was above 3.0: Cyprus, Ireland, Malta,
  20    I,     3.  1        |               even halved between 1975 (3.75) and 1994 (1.85), in
  21    I,     3.  1        |               Netherlands between 1964 (3.17) and 1977 (1.58), and
  22    I,     3.  1        |               in Portugal between 1968 (3.00) and 1993 (1.51). In
  23    I,     3.  1        |               fertility history (Figure 3.1)~ ~Figure 3.1. Total Period
  24    I,     3.  1        |           history (Figure 3.1)~ ~Figure 3.1. Total Period Fertility
  25    I,     3.  2        |                                         3.2. Population growth and
  26    I,     3.  2        |                Bulgaria (-5%).~ ~Figure 3.2. Population size per Member
  27    I,     3.  2        |              the coming decades (Figure 3.2). Based on the EUROPOP
  28    I,     3.  2        |                 the former EU15 (Figure 3.3).~ ~Figure 3.3. Natural
  29    I,     3.  2        |               the former EU15 (Figure 3.3).~ ~Figure 3.3. Natural
  30    I,     3.  2        |             EU15 (Figure 3.3).~ ~Figure 3.3. Natural increase rate
  31    I,     3.  2        |                 Figure 3.3).~ ~Figure 3.3. Natural increase rate and
  32    I,     3.  2        |                    Poland ( 5%), Italy (3%) and Netherlands (10%)
  33    I,     3.  3        |                                         3.3. Population ageing~ ~The
  34    I,     3.  3        |                                       3.3. Population ageing~ ~The
  35    I,     3.  3        |            expectancy changes.~ ~Figure 3.4. Age composition in EU27
  36    I,     3.  3        |                in EU27 in 2006~ ~Figure 3.5. Age composition in the
  37    I,     3.  3        |              end of that period (Figure 3.4 and Figure 3.5). Since
  38    I,     3.  3        |           period (Figure 3.4 and Figure 3.5). Since population pyramids
  39    I,     3.  3        |                 trend in ageing. Figure 3.5.3 shows the percentage
  40    I,     3.  3        |             trend in ageing. Figure 3.5.3 shows the percentage of
  41    I,     3.  3        |                 coming decade.~ ~Figure 3.6. Share of EU27 population
  42    I,     3.  3        |                increase, varying from 0.3% for the United Kingdom
  43    I,     3.  3        |               ratios will increase by 2.3% per year. The countries
  44    I,     3.  4        |                                         3.4. References~ ~Beets G,
  45   II,     4.  1        |              Michel, 2004).~ ~Table 4.1.3 shows 10-year trends in
  46   II,     4.  1        |                within EU27.~ ~Table 4.1.3. Life expectancy at birth (
  47   II,     4.  1        |               increased in the EU27, by 3 years for men and by 2 years
  48   II,     4.  1        |                gap by 1 year (Table 4.1.3). Estimates shown in Table
  49   II,     4.  1        |            Estimates shown in Table 4.1.3 for LE only suggest a very
  50   II,     4.  1        |             birth in 2005 range from 65.3 years to 78.5 years (13.
  51   II,     4.  2        |                birth has increased by 2.3 years per decade for both
  52   II,     4.  2        |                1 years in the 1980s and 3.0 years in the 1990s. For
  53   II,     4.  2        |              lower than in the 1970s (2.3 years), but similarly to
  54   II,     4.  2        |               EU15 average.~ ~Table 4.2.3 shows the Arriaga decomposition
  55   II,     4.  2        |             European Union.~ ~Table 4.2.3. Arriaga decomposition of
  56   II,     4.  2        |              causes 6, 7 and 8 in table 3) has contributed most to
  57   II,     4.  2        |                death, cancer (causes 2, 3, 4 and 5 in table 3), had
  58   II,     4.  2        |           causes 2, 3, 4 and 5 in table 3), had a smaller impact on
  59   II,     4.  2        |               cancers (cause 4 in table 3) had a negative impact on
  60   II,     4.  2        |              diseases (cause 1 in table 3) did not have a large effect
  61   II,     4.  2        |              diseases (cause 9 in table 3) declined in most countries.
  62   II,     4.  2        |           causes 10, 11 and 12 in table 3) has decreased in most countries.
  63   II,     4.  2        |            mortality (cause 13 in table 3) had a negative effect on
  64   II,     4.  2        |               death’ (cause 14 in table 3) across European countries.
  65   II,     4.  2        |                relationship (Figure 4.2.3). However, this is mainly
  66   II,     4.  2        |                 countries.~ ~Figure 4.2.3. Relationship between the
  67   II,     4.  3        |                                       4.3. References~ ~Anderson R,
  68   II,     4.  3        |               and Development Review 16(3): 403-432.~ ~Robine, J.-
  69   II,     4.  3        |             Journal of Public Health 13(3): 6-14.~ ~Robine, J.-M.,
  70   II,     4.  3        |                 und Präventivmedizin 51(3): 153-161.~ ~World Health
  71   II,     5.  1.  1    |           within total causes of death; 3 years average (2001-2003),
  72   II,     5.  1.  1    |           within total causes of death; 3 years average (2001-2003),
  73   II,     5.  1.  3    |                                     5.1.3. Therapeutic patient education~ ~
  74   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 the average of the last 3 years available (2001-2003)
  75   II,     5.  2.  2    |        presented as average of the last 3 years available.~To make
  76   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 the average of the last 3 years available in EU Member
  77   II,     5.  2.  2    |             rates derived from the last 3 years of surveillance. Annual
  78   II,     5.  2.  2    |                                   5.2.2.3 Risk factors~CVD clinically
  79   II,     5.  2.  3    |                                     5.2.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
  80   II,     5.  2.  3    |                                     5.2.3.1. Ischemic heart disease~ ~
  81   II,     5.  2.  3    |               and reported in Table 5.2.3 (Allender et al, 2008).
  82   II,     5.  2.  3    |          patients with IHD.~ ~Table 5.2.3. Crude rates per 1 million
  83   II,     5.  2.  3    |                                     5.2.3.2. Stroke~Data on morbidity
  84   II,     5.  2.  3    |            women aged 35-74 and 35-84 - 3 years average~ ~In men,
  85   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 are shown in Figure 5.2.3; from 1994 to 2003 mortality
  86   II,     5.  2.  3    |            Eastern Europe.~ ~Figure 5.2.3. Age-standardized (standard
  87   II,     5.  2.  3    |                attack rates of the last 3 years of surveillance for
  88   II,     5.  2.  3    |                100.000 mean of the last 3 years of the 10- year surveillance
  89   II,     5.  2.  5    |           diabetes mellitus see Section 3.1.5. Annex 1 is also relevant
  90   II,     5.  2.  6    |              intake to less than 1,5 g (3,8 g) per day, an increased
  91   II,     5.  2.  7    |                Group. N Engl J Med 344: 3-10.~Sans S, Kesteloot H,
  92   II,     5.  2.  7    |                  World Health Stat Q 41(3-4):155178.~Unal B, Critchley
  93   II,     5.  3        |                                       5.3. Cancer~ ~
  94   II,     5.  3.  1    |                                       5.3.1 Introduction~ ~Cancer
  95   II,     5.  3.  1    |                 diagnosis (i.e. 1-year, 3-years, 5-years after diagnosis);~ ~
  96   II,     5.  3.  1    |               health relevance. Table 5.3.1 shows the burden of these
  97   II,     5.  3.  1    |            estimated in 2006.~ ~Table 5.3.1. Estimated incident cases
  98   II,     5.  3.  2    |                                       5.3.2 Data sources~ ~
  99   II,     5.  3.  2    |                                       5.3.2.1 Cancer Registration~ ~
 100   II,     5.  3.  2    |                                       5.3.2.2 Data from European networks
 101   II,     5.  3.  2    |                 org/content/vol18/suppl_3/index.dtl.~ ~ ~ ~
 102   II,     5.  3.  3    |                                       5.3.3 Data presentation~ ~Cancer
 103   II,     5.  3.  3    |                                     5.3.3 Data presentation~ ~Cancer
 104   II,     5.  3.  4    |                                       5.3.3 Risk factors~ ~The majority
 105   II,     5.  3.  4    |                                     5.3.3 Risk factors~ ~The majority
 106   II,     5.  3.  5    |                                       5.3.4 Mortality and incidence
 107   II,     5.  3.  5    |              care performance. In 2006, 3,200,000 new cases and 1,
 108   II,     5.  3.  5    |              incidence rates (Figures 5.3.1) were estimated in Hungary
 109   II,     5.  3.  5    |              mortality rates (Figures 5.3.3) were estimated in Hungary
 110   II,     5.  3.  5    |            mortality rates (Figures 5.3.3) were estimated in Hungary
 111   II,     5.  3.  5    |             cases per 100,000, Figure 5.3.2a) and in Northern Europe
 112   II,     5.  3.  5    |             cases per 100,000, Figure 5.3.2b), while the highest mortality
 113   II,     5.  3.  5    |            deaths per 100,000, Figure 5.3.4a) and again in Northern
 114   II,     5.  3.  5    |            deaths per 100,000, Figure 5.3.4b).~Figures 5.3.2 show
 115   II,     5.  3.  5    |               Figure 5.3.4b).~Figures 5.3.2 show that incidence rates
 116   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 the contrary, Figures 5.3.4 show that mortality is
 117   II,     5.  3.  5    |          constant for women.~ ~Figure 5.3.1a. All cancer (ICD9 140-
 118   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.1b. All cancer (ICD9 140-
 119   II,     5.  3.  5    |                2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.2a. Trends of all cancer (
 120   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.2b. Trends of all cancer (
 121   II,     5.  3.  5    |               sex B) Women~ ~ ~Figure 5.3.3a. All cancer (ICD9 140-
 122   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.3b. All cancer (ICD9 140-
 123   II,     5.  3.  5    |                2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.4a. Trends of all cancer (
 124   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.4b. Trends of all cancer (
 125   II,     5.  3.  5    |              incidence rates (Figures 5.3.5) were estimated in Macedonia
 126   II,     5.  3.  5    |              mortality rates (Figures 5.3.7) were estimated in Lithuania
 127   II,     5.  3.  5    |                men and women (Figures 5.3.5 and Figures 5.3.7). Stomach
 128   II,     5.  3.  5    |             Figures 5.3.5 and Figures 5.3.7). Stomach cancer incidence (
 129   II,     5.  3.  5    |             mortality trends (Figures 5.3.8) are decreasing both for
 130   II,     5.  3.  5    |               and mortality.~ ~Figure 5.3.5a. Stomach cancer (ICD9
 131   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.5b. Stomach cancer (ICD9
 132   II,     5.  3.  5    |                2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.6a. Trends of stomach cancer (
 133   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.6b. Trends of stomach cancer (
 134   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 sex B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.7a. Stomach cancer (ICD9
 135   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.7b. Stomach cancer (ICD9
 136   II,     5.  3.  5    |                2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.8a. Trends of stomach cancer (
 137   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.8b. Trends of stomach cancer (
 138   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 et al, 2007). Figures 5.3.9 show that maximum incidence
 139   II,     5.  3.  5    |                men and women (Figures 5.3.10) (65 new cases in men
 140   II,     5.  3.  5    |                000 in women). Figures 5.3.11 show that Hungary, Czech Republic
 141   II,     5.  3.  5    |                mainly for men (Figure 5.3.10a). Male mortality rates (
 142   II,     5.  3.  5    |               mortality rates (Figure 5.3.12a) are declining in Western
 143   II,     5.  3.  5    |             Southern Europe.~ ~Figure 5.3.9a. Colorectal cancer (ICD9
 144   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.9b. Colorectal cancer (ICD9
 145   II,     5.  3.  5    |                2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.10a. Trends of colorectal
 146   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.10b. Trends of colorectal
 147   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 sex B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.11a. Colorectal cancer (
 148   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.11b. Colorectal cancer (
 149   II,     5.  3.  5    |                2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.12a. Trends of colorectal
 150   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.12b. Trends of colorectal
 151   II,     5.  3.  5    |              rates are lower.~Figures 5.3.13a and 5.3.15a show that
 152   II,     5.  3.  5    |            lower.~Figures 5.3.13a and 5.3.15a show that Hungary had
 153   II,     5.  3.  5    |           levels of incidence (Figure 5.3.14a) and mortality (Figure
 154   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 and mortality (Figure 5.3.16a) rates (in respect of
 155   II,     5.  3.  5    |             maximum incidence (Figure 5.3.14b) and mortality (Figure
 156   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 and mortality (Figure 5.3.16b) rates for women (31
 157   II,     5.  3.  5    |        considered as shown in Figures 5.3.14a and 5.3.16a. In contrast,
 158   II,     5.  3.  5    |                in Figures 5.3.14a and 5.3.16a. In contrast, incidence
 159   II,     5.  3.  5    |          increasing for women (Figure 5.3.14b and 5.3.16b).~ ~Figure
 160   II,     5.  3.  5    |             women (Figure 5.3.14b and 5.3.16b).~ ~Figure 5.3.13a.
 161   II,     5.  3.  5    |                and 5.3.16b).~ ~Figure 5.3.13a. Lung cancer (ICD9 162)
 162   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.13b. Lung cancer (ICD9 162)
 163   II,     5.  3.  5    |                2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.14a. Trends of lung cancer (
 164   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.14b. Trends of lung cancer (
 165   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 sex B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.15a. Lung cancer (ICD9 162)
 166   II,     5.  3.  5    |                 in 2006 A) Men~Figure 5.3.15b. Lung cancer (ICD9 162)
 167   II,     5.  3.  5    |                2006 B) Women~ ~Figure 5.3.16a. Trends of lung cancer (
 168   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  by sex A) Men~Figure 5.3.16b. Trends of lung cancer (
 169   II,     5.  3.  5    |                implementation.~Figure 5.3.17 shows that the maximum
 170   II,     5.  3.  5    |           associated with GDP.~Figure 5.3.19 shows that in 2007 mortality
 171   II,     5.  3.  5    |              Mortality trends (Figure 5.3.20) are decreasing in Northern
 172   II,     5.  3.  5    |              Eastern Europe.~ ~Figure 5.3.17. Female breast cancer (
 173   II,     5.  3.  5    |              standard) in 2006~Figure 5.3.18. Trends of female breast
 174   II,     5.  3.  5    |             European standard)~Figure 5.3.19. Female breast cancer (
 175   II,     5.  3.  5    |              standard) in 2006~Figure 5.3.20. Trends of female breast
 176   II,     5.  3.  5    |           associated with GDP (Figure 5.3.21). This could be caused
 177   II,     5.  3.  5    |               Northern Europe (Figure 5.3.22 and Figure 5.3.24) where
 178   II,     5.  3.  5    |              Figure 5.3.22 and Figure 5.3.24) where there are well-developed
 179   II,     5.  3.  5    |          screening programs.~ ~Figure 5.3.21. Cervical cancer (ICD9
 180   II,     5.  3.  5    |              standard) in 2002~Figure 5.3.22. Trends of cervical cancer (
 181   II,     5.  3.  5    |             European standard)~Figure 5.3.23. Uterus cancer standardized
 182   II,     5.  3.  5    |                44 in 1996-2001~Figure 5.3.24. Trends of uterus cancer
 183   II,     5.  3.  5    |           associated with GDP (Figure 5.3.25) possibly due to the
 184   II,     5.  3.  5    |               Southern Europe (Figure 5.3.26) reflects the PSA test
 185   II,     5.  3.  5    |                rates by years (Figure 5.3.28) are constant in Northern
 186   II,     5.  3.  5    |              Eastern Europe.~ ~Figure 5.3.25. Prostate cancer (ICD9
 187   II,     5.  3.  5    |              standard) in 2006~Figure 5.3.26. Trends of prostate cancer (
 188   II,     5.  3.  5    |             European standard)~Figure 5.3.27. Prostate cancer (ICD9
 189   II,     5.  3.  5    |              standard) in 2006~Figure 5.3.28. Trends of prostate cancer (
 190   II,     5.  3.  6    |                                       5.3.5 Survival data discussion~ ~
 191   II,     5.  3.  6    |                                       5.3.5.1 Childhood cancer survival~ ~
 192   II,     5.  3.  6    |                                       5.3.5.2 Adult cancer survival~ ~
 193   II,     5.  3.  6    |               For this reason Figures 5.3.29 show 5-year relative
 194   II,     5.  3.  6    |                et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.29a. All cancers (ICD9 140-
 195   II,     5.  3.  6    |           December 1999 A) Men~Figure 5.3.29b. All cancers (ICD9 140-
 196   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 of prognosis (Figures 5.3.30). 5-year relative survival
 197   II,     5.  3.  6    |                et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.30a. Stomach cancer (ICD9
 198   II,     5.  3.  6    |           December 1999 A) Men~Figure 5.3.30b. Stomach cancer (ICD9
 199   II,     5.  3.  6    |            relative survival (Figures 5.3.31) was over than 48% for
 200   II,     5.  3.  6    |                et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.31a. Colorectal cancer (
 201   II,     5.  3.  6    |           December 1999 A) Men~Figure 5.3.31b. Colorectal cancer (
 202   II,     5.  3.  6    |                men and women (Figures 5.3.32). Estimates of 1-year
 203   II,     5.  3.  6    |                et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.32a. Lung cancer (ICD9 162)
 204   II,     5.  3.  6    |           December 1999 A) Men~Figure 5.3.32b. Lung cancer (ICD9 162)
 205   II,     5.  3.  6    |             relative survival (Figure 5.3.33) exceeding 75% in most
 206   II,     5.  3.  6    |                et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.33. Female breast cancer (
 207   II,     5.  3.  6    |               in Sweden (70%) (Figure 5.3.34) (Sant et al, 2003).
 208   II,     5.  3.  6    |                et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.34. Cervical cancer (ICD9
 209   II,     5.  3.  6    |        diagnosis stood at 67% (Figure 5.3.35). 5-year relative survival
 210   II,     5.  3.  6    |                et al, 2003).~ ~Figure 5.3.35. Prostate cancer (ICD9
 211   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                       5.3.6 Control tools and policies~ ~
 212   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                       5.3.6.1 Primary prevention~ ~
 213   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                       5.3.6.2 Early diagnosis (secondary
 214   II,     5.  3.  7    |                pre-cancer lesions (with 3 or 5 years of interval);
 215   II,     5.  3.  7    |             cancer screening (with 2 or 3 years of interval) and men
 216   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                       5.3.6.3. Oncologic care and
 217   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                   5.3.6.3. Oncologic care and practice~ ~
 218   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                       5.3.6.4 Cancer Plans~ ~Definition
 219   II,     5.  3.  7    |              Member States (see Table 5.3.2) consider national cancer
 220   II,     5.  3.  7    |               cancer control.~ ~Table 5.3.2. Cancer national control
 221   II,     5.  3.  7    |                                       5.3.6.5 Research collaboration~ ~
 222   II,     5.  3.  8    |                                       5.3.7 Future developments~ ~
 223   II,     5.  3.  9    |                                       5.3.8 References~ ~Berrino F,
 224   II,     5.  3.  9    |            Europe in 2006. Ann Oncol 18(3):581-592.~ ~Gatta G, Capocaccia
 225   II,     5.  3.  9    |              Summary. Ann Onc 18 (Suppl 3): iii2–iii7.~ ~Micheli A,
 226   II,     5.  3.  9    |                  Eur J Public Health 13(3 Suppl):116-118.~ ~Parkin
 227   II,     5.  4.  1    |           projection of 380 millions (7.3%) forecast for 2025. According
 228   II,     5.  4.  1    |                increase of 1.0% in only 3 years. Very important differences
 229   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                   5.4.2.3. Quality of care monitoring~ ~
 230   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 presented in Tables 5.4.3 and 5.4.4.~ ~Table 5.4.3.
 231   II,     5.  4.  2    |                3 and 5.4.4.~ ~Table 5.4.3. EUDIP core indicators and
 232   II,     5.  4.  2    |            months with LDL>2.6 mmol/l (>3 mmol/l)~13~Percent of diabetic
 233   II,     5.  4.  2    |            months with triglycerides >2.3 mmol/l (>2.0 mmol/l)~12~
 234   II,     5.  4.  2    |                received laser treatment<3 months after diagnosis of
 235   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  Triglycerides level >2.3 mmol/l is an important indicator
 236   II,     5.  4.  2    |               total cholesterol above 2.3 mmol/l.~Microalbuminuria
 237   II,     5.  4.  2    |              had laser treatment within 3 months.~Control of serum
 238   II,     5.  4.  3    |                                     5.4.3 Data description and analysis~ ~
 239   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 years, corresponding to 3.2% annually. When pooled
 240   II,     5.  4.  3    |                rates of increase were 6.3% (4.1-8.5%) for children
 241   II,     5.  4.  3    |                children aged 0-4 years, 3.1% (1.5-4.8%) for 5-9 years,
 242   II,     5.  4.  3    |                5-9 years, and 2.4% (1.0-3.8%) for 10-14 years (Green,
 243   II,     5.  4.  3    |               indicators varied between 3 (Belgium) and 632 (Scotland),
 244   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  Triglycerides level >2.3 mmol/l. In EUCID databases
 245   II,     5.  4.  4    |             found between EUCID (median=3%) and IDF (median=8.7%)
 246   II,     5.  4.  4    |               striking, the range being 3-632, something that may
 247   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                   5.4.6.3. Secondary prevention~Screening
 248   II,     5.  4.  6    |                 reported in section 5.4.3, which indicate clearly
 249   II,     5.  4.  6    |               different policy sectors;~3. open a platform for involving
 250   II,     5.  4.  8    |                 Diabet Med. 1995 Mar;12(3):271-6~Beck, P, Battlogg,
 251   II,     5.  4.  8    |              Int J Clin Pract 61(4):680-3~Jönsson B (2002), CODE-2
 252   II,     5.  4.  8    |              TRIGR). Pediatr Diabetes 8(3):117-37~Waug A (2007): Screening
 253   II,     5.  5.Int    |            equivalent to a reduction of 3% to 4% of the total GDP9.~ ~
 254   II,     5.  5.Int    |            people with depression are 2-3 times more likely to have
 255   II,     5.  5.Int(15)|              studies. World Psychiatry, 3:4549.~
 256   II,     5.  5.Int    |                bulimia it ranges from 0.3% to 7.3% in women and from
 257   II,     5.  5.Int    |                it ranges from 0.3% to 7.3% in women and from 0.1%
 258   II,     5.  5.Int    |             about 1% equivalent to some 3.7 million people. The disease
 259   II,     5.  5.Int    |                in the EU varies between 3 and 6 per 1.000 inhabitants.
 260   II,     5.  5.  1    |               were gathered during 2001-3.~ ~· The Eurobarometer Surveys~ ~
 261   II,     5.  5.  1    |                                   5.5.1.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 262   II,     5.  5.  1    |           adults, collected during 2001-3. It represents a population
 263   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 disorder.~ ~Table 5.5.1.3. Lifetime suicidal behaviour
 264   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  Slovenia and Slovakia.~3) those with a higher prevalence
 265   II,     5.  5.  1    |              and Latvia.~ ~Figure 5.5.1.3. Odds ratio (with 95% confidence
 266   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 rates (SMR) of the last 3 available years for suicide
 267   II,     5.  5.  1    |          Substance Abuse Families (2002-3).~o Mental health promotion
 268   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Disorders in Europe (2001-3) targeted people belonging
 269   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 Psychiatry 68(suppl 2): 3-9.~ ~Berk M, Dodd S, Henry
 270   II,     5.  5.  1    |          Initiative. World Psychiatry 6(3):168-76.~ ~Kessler R, Nelson
 271   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 disorders: results from 3 European studies. J Clin
 272   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 2005. Eur Psychiatry 22(3):146-52.~ ~S G (2005). The
 273   II,     5.  5.  2    |                is estimated to be 1.1-1.3%, and is constantly increasing.
 274   II,     5.  5.  2    |                                   5.5.2.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 275   II,     5.  5.  2    |               as follows:~ ~Table 5.5.2.3. The estimated number of
 276   II,     5.  5.  2    |               Framework Programme for a 3 year project entitledEuropean
 277   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3. OTHER DISEASES~ ~
 278   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.1. Eating Disorders~ ~
 279   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.1.1. Introduction~ ~Eating
 280   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.1.2. Data sources~ ~ ~Qualitative
 281   II,     5.  5.  3    |               The overview in table 5.5.3.1.2.1 illustrates the limited
 282   II,     5.  5.  3    |                the project.~ ~Table 5.5.3.1.1 Overview of data availability
 283   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Turkey~ ~X~ ~ ~Table 5.5.3.1.2.1: Available data about
 284   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.1.3. Data description and
 285   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.1.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 286   II,     5.  5.  3    |            average prevalence rate of 0.3% for young females in Western
 287   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.1.4. Risk factors and vulnerable
 288   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.1.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
 289   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.1.6. Future developments~ ~
 290   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.1.7. References~Alexander
 291   II,     5.  5.  3    |               2001/2002 survey, chapter 3, 110-129. WHO Library Cataloguing
 292   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Health Report 2005Part 3 Child an adolescent health
 293   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.1.8 Acronyms~ ~DSMR-IV classification~
 294   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.2. Schizophrenia and disorders
 295   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.2.1. Introduction~ ~Schizophrenia (
 296   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 1000, period prevalence 3.3 per 1000, lifetime prevalence
 297   II,     5.  5.  3    |               1000, period prevalence 3.3 per 1000, lifetime prevalence
 298   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 schizophrenia should be 3 465 899 (htt ). Since relapses
 299   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.2.2. Data Sources~ ~There
 300   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.2.3. Data description and
 301   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.2.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 302   II,     5.  5.  3    |                and Incidence~Figure 5.5.3.2.1. Estimated prevalence
 303   II,     5.  5.  3    |            prevalence of 4.6 per 1 000, 3.3 for period prevalence,
 304   II,     5.  5.  3    |          prevalence of 4.6 per 1 000, 3.3 for period prevalence, 4.
 305   II,     5.  5.  3    |               are missing in figure 5.5.3.3.2 due to lacking ICD-10
 306   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 missing in figure 5.5.3.3.2 due to lacking ICD-10
 307   II,     5.  5.  3    |               documentation.~Figure 5.5.3.2.2. Inter-country comparison
 308   II,     5.  5.  3    |           ICD-10 codes: F20.~Figure 5.5.3.2.3. Admission rates trend
 309   II,     5.  5.  3    |              codes: F20.~Figure 5.5.3.2.3. Admission rates trend over
 310   II,     5.  5.  3    |                remains high.~Figure 5.5.3.2.4. Average length of stay -
 311   II,     5.  5.  3    |             populations (see Figure 5.5.3.3.2), the value reported
 312   II,     5.  5.  3    |           populations (see Figure 5.5.3.3.2), the value reported from
 313   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 11th and accounts for 2.3% of the years lived with
 314   II,     5.  5.  3    |               for 6.2% YLDs).~Table 5.5.3.2.1. DALYs due to schizophrenia~
 315   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 of morbidity.~Table 5.5.3.2.2. Prevalence and adjusted
 316   II,     5.  5.  3    |        schizophrenia as compared to 23% in the general population.
 317   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Mini survey Finland 14.3%~NEMESIS Netherlands 53.
 318   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  NEMESIS Netherlands 53.3%~ONS United Kingdom 15.0%~
 319   II,     5.  5.  3    |                et al, 2007) (Figure 5.5.3.3.5).~Figure 5.5.3.2.5:
 320   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 al, 2007) (Figure 5.5.3.3.5).~Figure 5.5.3.2.5: Prescription
 321   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Figure 5.5.3.3.5).~Figure 5.5.3.2.5: Prescription of antipsychotics
 322   II,     5.  5.  3    |                in guidelines (Table 5.5.3.2.3).~Table 5.5.3.2.3. Psychosocial
 323   II,     5.  5.  3    |               guidelines (Table 5.5.3.2.3).~Table 5.5.3.2.3. Psychosocial
 324   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Table 5.5.3.2.3).~Table 5.5.3.2.3. Psychosocial interventions
 325   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 5.3.2.3).~Table 5.5.3.2.3. Psychosocial interventions
 326   II,     5.  5.  3    |    Collaboration, 2003) – see table 5.5.3.2.4.~Table 5.5.3.2.4. European
 327   II,     5.  5.  3    |              table 5.5.3.2.4.~Table 5.5.3.2.4. European practice guidelines
 328   II,     5.  5.  3    |          respective deficits.~Table 5.5.3.2.5. Mental health service
 329   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 psychiatric nurses from 3 to 104, of psychologists
 330   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  relatives) (Figure 5.5.3.3.6). Internalized stigma
 331   II,     5.  5.  3    |                relatives) (Figure 5.5.3.3.6). Internalized stigma
 332   II,     5.  5.  3    |           course of disease.~Figure 5.5.3.2.6. Experiences of stigma
 333   II,     5.  5.  3    |          outpatient care (see Table 5.5.3.3.6). Since psychotic disorders
 334   II,     5.  5.  3    |        outpatient care (see Table 5.5.3.3.6). Since psychotic disorders
 335   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Andlin-Sobocki (Figure 5.5.3.3.7), it can be assumed
 336   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Andlin-Sobocki (Figure 5.5.3.3.7), it can be assumed that
 337   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Lindström et al, 2007)~Table 5.5.3.2.6. Expenditures by kind
 338   II,     5.  5.  3    |           respect to F20-F29~Figure 5.5.3.2.7. Direct healthcare costs
 339   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Brain Council (Figure 5.5.3.3.8). Although not all countries
 340   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Brain Council (Figure 5.5.3.3.8). Although not all countries
 341   II,     5.  5.  3    |                into account.~Figure 5.5.3.2.8. Costs per case of schizophrenia
 342   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.2.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
 343   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.2.5. Future developments~ ~
 344   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.2.6. References~AGREE Collaboration (
 345   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Pract Epidemol Ment Health 3(1):23 [Epub ahead of print].~
 346   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Psychiatr Clin North Am 30(3):437-52.~Carney CP, Jones
 347   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Clinical Neuroscience Research 3(1-2):23-33.~Häfner H and
 348   II,     5.  5.  3    |        perspectives. World Psychiatry 5(3):130-8.~Häfner H, Maurer
 349   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Europe. World Psychiatry 4(3):161-7.~Knapp M, McDaid
 350   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med. 3(11):e442.~McGrath JJ (2006):
 351   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Arch Gen Psychiatry 62(3):247-53.~Pilling S, Bebbington
 352   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.2.7. Acronyms~ ~DALYs~Disability
 353   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.3. Autism Spectrum Disorder~ ~
 354   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.3. Autism Spectrum Disorder~ ~
 355   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.3.1. Introduction~ ~Autism
 356   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.3.1. Introduction~ ~Autism
 357   II,     5.  5.  3    |             until sometime between ages 3 and 7. They often have good
 358   II,     5.  5.  3    |                a condition occurring in 3 to 4 year olds characterized
 359   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.3.2. Data sources~ ~Autism
 360   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.3.2. Data sources~ ~Autism
 361   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.3.3. Data description and
 362   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.3.3. Data description and
 363   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.3.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 364   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.3.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
 365   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.3.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
 366   II,     5.  5.  3    |                cost £2.7 billion (Euros 3.8 billion) annually, yet
 367   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.3.5. Future developments~ ~
 368   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.3.5. Future developments~ ~
 369   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.3.6. References~ ~Blaxill
 370   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.3.6. References~ ~Blaxill
 371   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.3.7. Acronyms~ ~ASD~Autism
 372   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                   5.5.3.3.7. Acronyms~ ~ASD~Autism
 373   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.4. Epilepsy~ ~
 374   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.4.1. Introduction~ ~ ~Epilepsy
 375   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.4.2. Data sources~ ~The
 376   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.4.3. Data description and
 377   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.4.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 378   II,     5.  5.  3    |                the continent (Table 5.5.3.4.1). The annual incidence
 379   II,     5.  5.  3    |               in the elderly (Table 5.5.3.4.2), even with significant
 380   II,     5.  5.  3    |               study design.~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.1. Incidence of epilepsy
 381   II,     5.  5.  3    |          epilepsy in Europe~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.2. Incidence (per 100,
 382   II,     5.  5.  3    |             generalized epilepsy in 6% (3.4 per 100,000 per year).
 383   II,     5.  5.  3    |        generally lower. The rate was 15.3 per 100,000 for localization-related
 384   II,     5.  5.  3    |             active epilepsy ranges from 3.2 to 7.8 per 1,000 (Table
 385   II,     5.  5.  3    |                7.8 per 1,000 (Table 5.5.3.4.3). The prevalence is
 386   II,     5.  5.  3    |                per 1,000 (Table 5.5.3.4.3). The prevalence is lower
 387   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 see above).~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.3. Prevalence of active
 388   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 above).~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.3. Prevalence of active epilepsy
 389   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Children ~Prospective~560 ~3.6 ~Beilmann et al., 1999~
 390   II,     5.  5.  3    |           review and examination~396 ~5.3 ~Oun et al., 2003 (*)~Finland~
 391   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 and examination~1233 ~6.3 ~Keranen et al., 1989 (*)~
 392   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and examination ~329/348 ~3.9/3.2~Eriksson and Koivikko,
 393   II,     5.  5.  3    |               examination ~329/348 ~3.9/3.2~Eriksson and Koivikko,
 394   II,     5.  5.  3    |               199/235~ ~81/47~6.2/5.1~ ~3.9/5.2~ ~3.3/3.1~Granieri
 395   II,     5.  5.  3    |               81/47~6.2/5.1~ ~3.9/5.2~ ~3.3/3.1~Granieri et al., 1989 (*) /
 396   II,     5.  5.  3    |                47~6.2/5.1~ ~3.9/5.2~ ~3.3/3.1~Granieri et al., 1989 (*) /
 397   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 6.2/5.1~ ~3.9/5.2~ ~3.3/3.1~Granieri et al., 1989 (*) /
 398   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Children ~MR review~378 ~4.3 ~Endziniene et al., 1997~
 399   II,     5.  5.  3    |           review and examination~198 ~5.3 -~Waaler et al., 2000 (*)~
 400   II,     5.  5.  3    |           review and GP contacts~245 ~2.3 ~Krohn, 1961 (*) ~Poland~
 401   II,     5.  5.  3    |           domiciliary questionnaire~62 ~3.7Ø ~Ochoa Sangrador and
 402   II,     5.  5.  3    |                MR review? ~155/195 ~4.2/3.5~Sidenvall et al., 1996/
 403   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 years ~MR review ~69 ~4.3 ~Tidman et al., 2003 (*)~+ =
 404   II,     5.  5.  3    |               generalized epilepsies (1.3 per 1,000) and undetermined
 405   II,     5.  5.  3    |            found to range from 1.6 to 9.3 in community-based studies
 406   II,     5.  5.  3    |           epilepsy ranges from 1.6 to 5.3 in children and adults (
 407   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Jallon, 2004) (Table 5.5.3.4.4). These data are confirmed
 408   II,     5.  5.  3    |       symptomatic seizures.~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.4. Community-based studies
 409   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Incident cohort~149~16.1~9.3~Loiseau et al., 1999~Iceland~
 410   II,     5.  5.  3    |             incident cohort~4001~1109.0~3.6~Nilsson et al, 1997~U.
 411   II,     5.  5.  3    |               MF~Incident cohort~149~58.3~2.6~Lhathoo et al., 2001~
 412   II,     5.  5.  3    |                not in remission had a 9.3 RR of death (95% CI 3.8-
 413   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 9.3 RR of death (95% CI 3.8-22.7) compared with patients
 414   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Donogue and Sander, 1997) to 3.5 per 1,000 in incidence
 415   II,     5.  5.  3    |           causes) was 4.9 (95% CI 2.7-8.3) vs. 7.9 (95% CI 2.6-18.
 416   II,     5.  5.  3    |        incidence of SUDEP was 2.5 vs. 6.3 per 1,000 (Nilsson et al,
 417   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Lindsen et al, 2001) and the 3 to 5-year remission rate
 418   II,     5.  5.  3    |             partial seizures)(Table 5.5.3.4.5). The issue of epilepsy
 419   II,     5.  5.  3    |               relationship.~ ~Table 5.5.3.4.5. National legislations
 420   II,     5.  5.  3    |              First seizure, idiopathic (3 months)~ Seizures not impairing
 421   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Seizures not impairing driving (3 months)~ Seizures during
 422   II,     5.  5.  3    |               normal~ diagnostic tests (3 months)~ Sporadic seizures (
 423   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 No seizures in previous 3 years~Germany I 12 months
 424   II,     5.  5.  3    |             occasion-related seizures~ (3-6 months)~ First seizure,
 425   II,     5.  5.  3    |              First seizure, idiopathic (3-6 months)~ Treatment stop (
 426   II,     5.  5.  3    |            months)~ Treatment stop (ban 3 months)~ II 60 months (no
 427   II,     5.  5.  3    |         unprovoked, idiopathic seizure (3 months)~ Sporadic seizures (
 428   II,     5.  5.  3    |                single partial seizures (3 months)~ Treatment stop/
 429   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Treatment stop/change (ban 3 months)~ II 60 months (no
 430   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 pattern established~ by 3 years~ II 120 months (no
 431   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.4.4. Control tools and policies~ ~
 432   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.4.5. Future developments~ ~
 433   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.4.6. References~ ~Anonymous (
 434   II,     5.  5.  3    |           revisited. Epileptic Disord 6:3-13.~Gaitatzis A, Carroll
 435   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 childhood. Clin Dev Med 3:35-36.~Shackleton DP, Westerndorp
 436   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.4.7. Acronyms~ ~AED~Antiepileptic
 437   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.5 Multiple sclerosis~ ~
 438   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.5.1. Introduction~ ~Multiple
 439   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.5.2. Data sources~ ~The
 440   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Status Scale (EDSS) 0 to 3.5), moderate (4.0 to 6.5)
 441   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.5.3. Data description and
 442   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.5.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 443   II,     5.  5.  3    |             summarised here. Tables 5.5.3.5.1-5.5.3.5.4 provide further
 444   II,     5.  5.  3    |              here. Tables 5.5.3.5.1-5.5.3.5.4 provide further details
 445   II,     5.  5.  3    |            where available.~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.1. Prevalence of Multiple
 446   II,     5.  5.  3    |          EUGLOREH Countries~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.2. Prevalence (per 100
 447   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Contries by gender~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.3. Prevalence (per 100
 448   II,     5.  5.  3    |               by gender~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.3. Prevalence (per 100 000)
 449   II,     5.  5.  3    |             best estimates)~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.4. Incidence (per 100
 450   II,     5.  5.  3    |            increased significantly from 3 to 6 per 100 000 per year
 451   II,     5.  5.  3    |                the prevalence increased 3.5-fold to 73 between 1973
 452   II,     5.  5.  3    |             male ratios between 1.1 and 3.4. Mean total prevalence
 453   II,     5.  5.  3    |                is reported in Table 5.5.3.5.5 and Figure 5.5.3.5.1.
 454   II,     5.  5.  3    |                5.5.3.5.5 and Figure 5.5.3.5.1. RR-MS ranged from 24% (
 455   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Netherlands).~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.5. Proportion of Multiple
 456   II,     5.  5.  3    |             score is shown in Table 5.5.3.5.6 and Figure 5.5.3.5.2.
 457   II,     5.  5.  3    |                5.5.3.5.6 and Figure 5.5.3.5.2. The estimated proportion
 458   II,     5.  5.  3    |               range for mild MS (EDSS 0-3.5) was 33% (UK) to 80% (
 459   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 EDSS 7-9.5)~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.6. Proportion of Multiple
 460   II,     5.  5.  3    |            2004a). However, rates up to 3.6 per 100 000 are reported
 461   II,     5.  5.  3    |             about 30 to 45.~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.7. Mortality (per 100
 462   II,     5.  5.  3    |              daily living.~ ~Figure 5.5.3.5.1. Distribution of total
 463   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.5.4. Risk factors~ ~MS is
 464   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.5.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
 465   II,     5.  5.  3    |               studies so that EDSS 0 to 3.5 refers to fully ambulatory
 466   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.5.6. Future developments~ ~
 467   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.5.7. References~ ~Bajenaru
 468   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.5.8. Acronyms~ ~ADL~Activities
 469   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.6. Parkinson’s disease~ ~ ~
 470   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.6.1. Introduction~ ~Parkinson’
 471   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.6.2. Data source~To identify
 472   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.6.3. Data description and
 473   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.6.3. Data description and analysis~ ~
 474   II,     5.  5.  3    |          European community (Figure 5.5.3.6.1. Estimated total number
 475   II,     5.  5.  3    |          disease in Europe~ ~Figure 5.5.3.6.1. Estimated total number
 476   II,     5.  5.  3    |                are shown in Table 5. 5. 3. 6. 1.~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.1.
 477   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 5. 3. 6. 1.~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.1. Incidence studies of
 478   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 summarised in Table 5.5.3.6.2..(von Campenhausen et
 479   II,     5.  5.  3    |               et al, 2005).~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.2. Prevalence studies
 480   II,     5.  5.  3    |                a few studies (Table 5.5.3.6.3. Distribution of Parkinson’
 481   II,     5.  5.  3    |              few studies (Table 5.5.3.6.3. Distribution of Parkinson’
 482   II,     5.  5.  3    |               et al, 1986).~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.3. Distribution of Parkinson’
 483   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  1986).~ ~Table 5.5.3.6.3. Distribution of Parkinson’
 484   II,     5.  5.  3    |                including PD (Figure 5.5.3.6.2) (Andlin-Sobocki et
 485   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 of €7,600.~ ~Figure 5.5.3.6.2. Cost per case in PD
 486   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 five groups (Figure 5.5.3.6.3). In the early stages
 487   II,     5.  5.  3    |             five groups (Figure 5.5.3.6.3). In the early stages of
 488   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 HY I) average cost are €3,400 per patient, whereas
 489   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  HY IV).~ ~ ~Figure 5.5.3.6.3. Cost of Parkinson’s
 490   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 IV).~ ~ ~Figure 5.5.3.6.3. Cost of Parkinson’s disease
 491   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.6.4. Risk factors~ ~The
 492   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.6.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
 493   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.6.6. Future developments~ ~
 494   II,     5.  5.  3    |             2030 to results in 8.7 to 9.3 million (Dorsey et al, 2007).
 495   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                     5.5.3.6.7. References~Aarsland
 496   II,     5.  5.  3    |            central Spain. Mov Disord 18(3):267-274.~Bergareche A,
 497   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Journal of neurology 251(3):340-345.~Bermejo F, Gabriel
 498   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 of cases. Mov Disord 13(3):400-405.~Chrischilles EA,
 499   II,     5.  5.  3    |                s disease. Mov Disord 13(3):406-413.~Clarke CE, Zobkiw
 500   II,     5.  5.  3    |                An estimation based on a 3-month prospective analysis.