Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

 1   II,     5.  5.  3|     orthopaedic injuries and stress fractures, ruptured oesophagus, high
 2   II,     5.  6.  1|            and associated fragility fractures; (3) spinal disorders e.g.
 3   II,     5.  6.  1|      injuries e.g. high energy limb fractures, strains and sprains often
 4   II,     5.  6.  2|          Burden of Osteoporosis and Fractures in Developing Countries,
 5   II,     5.  6.  3|         Osteoporosis and low trauma fractures~ ~Definition~ ~Osteoporosis
 6   II,     5.  6.  3|           characteristic low-trauma fractures, the best documented of
 7   II,     5.  6.  3|        vertebral and distal forearm fractures.~ ~Natural history~ ~A classical
 8   II,     5.  6.  3|      menopause, a family history of fractures, smoking, heavy alcohol
 9   II,     5.  6.  3|           with subsequent vertebral fractures. Approximately 1015 years
10   II,     5.  6.  3|      present any of a wide range of fractures and at a variety of ages;
11   II,     5.  6.  3|      indirectly as the incidence of fractures resulting from the condition.
12   II,     5.  6.  3|          lifetime risk of fragility fractures at the age of 50 or more
13   II,     5.  6.  3|         Estimated lifetime risks of fractures in the UK at various ages~ ~
14   II,     5.  6.  3|    populations the incidence of hip fractures strongly increases with
15   II,     5.  6.  3|           Overall, about 98% of hip fractures occur among people aged
16   II,     5.  6.  3|         2000 there were 178,777 hip fractures sustained by men over 50,
17   II,     5.  6.  3|                 Most distal forearm fractures occur in women (the age-adjusted
18   II,     5.  6.  3|            the twenty-first.~ ~Most fractures in subjects aged over 50
19   II,     5.  6.  3|          pelvic and proximal tibial fractures also rise steeply with age
20   II,     5.  6.  3|             80% of proximal humeral fractures occur in individuals aged
21   II,     5.  6.  3|           distal femur fracture and fractures of the rib, clavicle and
22   II,     5.  6.  3|   developmental changes rather than fractures. The age-adjusted and sex-adjusted
23   II,     5.  6.  3|          Akesson, 2003).~ ~Most hip fractures occur after a fall in men
24   II,     5.  6.  3| relationship with fracture but many fractures will also occur in women
25   II,     5.  6.  3|          Estimated 10 year risks of fractures in the UK at various ages~ ~
26   II,     5.  6.  3|             progressive compression fractures and deformities, is associated
27   II,     5.  6.  3|        whilst undiagnosed vertebral fractures are associated with disability.
28   II,     5.  6.  3|          contributory factor in hip fractures and a determinant of outcome (
29   II,     5.  6.  3|         Johnell, 1993).~ ~Vertebral fractures are also associated with
30   II,     5.  6.  3|            is associated with wrist fractures (Center et al, 1999; Cooper
31   II,     5.  6.  3|          The number of osteoporotic fractures is increasing throughout
32   II,     5.  6.  3|       Europe, and the number of hip fractures is projected to more than
33   II,     5.  6.  6|           crippling consequences of fractures and their impact on quality
34   II,     5.  6.  6|         survival after osteoporotic fractures. Am.J Epidemiol 137:1001-
35   II,     5.  6.  6|        women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. N Engl J
36   II,     5.  6.  6|              Incidence of vertebral fractures in Europe: results from
37   II,     5.  6.  6|        Mortality after osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos Int 15:38-42~
38   II,     5.  6.  6|           Functional recovery after fractures of the distal forearm. Analysis
39   II,     5.  6.  6|              1995): Epidemiology of fractures. In Osteoporosis: Etiology,
40   II,     5.  6.  6|            outcomes of osteoporotic fractures in the general population.
41   II,     5.  6.  6|         without prevalent vertebral fractures. J Bone Miner Res 15:1384-
42   II,     5.  6.  6|              2001): Epidemiology of fractures in England and Wales. Bone
43   II,     5.  6.  6|        Akesson K (2003): Preventing fractures in elderly people. BMJ 327:
44   II,     5.  6.  6|          Burden of osteoporosis and fractures in developing countries.
45   II,     5.  8.  3|             angina, cataracts, bone fractures, osteoporosis, pneumonia,
46   II,     5.  8.  3|            1.7), angina (RR = 1.7), fractures (RR = 1.6), and glaucoma (
47   II,     7.  1    |           not only to know how many fractures or head injuries have occurred,
48   II,     9.  3.  1|             at high risk of further fractures. The incidence of hip, humerus
49   II,     9.  3.  1|           overall lifetime risk for fractures in women in the United States
50   II,     9.  3.  1|              about 1.26 million hip fractures occur each year, a number
51   II,     9.  3.  1|       osteoporosis and related bone fractures increase with age. Low bone
52   II,     9.  3.  1|        intake. Severe bone loss and fractures are not natural consequences
53   II,     9.  3.  1|        further loss of bone mass or fractures until the disease worsens.~ ~
54   II,     9.  3.  1|             men tend to suffer bone fractures approximately 10 years later
55   II,     9.  3.  1|             mortality associated to fractures and their (surgical) treatment
56   II,     9.  4.  3|         than 10% of falls result in fractures, but 20% require medical
57   II,     9.  4.  3|          require medical cares. Hip fractures are increasing and represent
58  III,    10.  2.  1|            lung function*~Colon~Hip fractures~ ~Reproductive effects in
59  III,    10.  2.  1|         osteoporosis and hence bone fractures as the vitamin is essential
60  III,    10.  2.  1|        hence have a greater risk of fractures. Osteoporosis affects one
61  III,    10.  2.  1|         loss and reduce the risk of fractures. While it is recommended
62   IV,    13.  5    |        increased risks of falls and fractures and disability in performing
63  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|    food-borne~formaldehyde~fracture~fractures~fragile~France~fumes~fumonisins~