Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

 1   II,     5.  6.  3|     fragility and susceptibility to fracture. In 1994 a WHO expert panel (
 2   II,     5.  6.  3|          density (BMD). The risk of fracture rises when the bone mineral
 3   II,     5.  6.  3|           years of age with a wrist fracture. Ten years later she may
 4   II,     5.  6.  3|         X-rays may show a vertebral fracture. She might have one of several
 5   II,     5.  6.  3|          may fall and sustain a hip fracture, resulting in hospitalisation,
 6   II,     5.  6.  3|          the 10 year probability of fracture can also be considered (
 7   II,     5.  6.  3|    incidence rate of distal forearm fracture to continue to increase
 8   II,     5.  6.  3|           observed for distal femur fracture and fractures of the rib,
 9   II,     5.  6.  3|           the major determinants of fracture are falling, low bone mass,
10   II,     5.  6.  3|             and previous low trauma fracture. There are risk factors
11   II,     5.  6.  3|       osteoporosis or be at risk of fracture (Table 5.6.9). There are
12   II,     5.  6.  3|   semi-independent risk factors for fracture such as bone turnover as
13   II,     5.  6.  3|         factors for poor outcome of fracture (Woolf and Akesson, 2003).~ ~
14   II,     5.  6.  3|             increases with age. Hip fracture may also occur spontaneously (
15   II,     5.  6.  3|             of osteoporosis and for fracture in the elderly (excluding
16   II,     5.  6.  3|         strongest relationship with fracture but many fractures will
17   II,     5.  6.  3|    osteoporosis. The possibility of fracture increases when combining
18   II,     5.  6.  3|           of other risk factors for fracture. In particular, bone density
19   II,     5.  6.  3|           at much increased risk of fracture but the exact interaction
20   II,     5.  6.  3|             ages~ ~Disability~ ~Hip fracture results in pain, loss of
21   II,     5.  6.  3|      undergo surgical repair of the fracture or replacement of the joint.
22   II,     5.  6.  3|           the joint. At 1 year, hip fracture is associated with 20% mortality
23   II,     5.  6.  3|          half those surviving a hip fracture will walk again and often
24   II,     5.  6.  3|          same level as prior to the fracture (Magaziner et al, 1990;
25   II,     5.  6.  3|            1993).~ ~Acute vertebral fracture affects one’s quality of
26   II,     5.  6.  3|             with each new vertebral fracture. The effect is not just
27   II,     5.  6.  3|          not just due to the recent fracture as it has been demonstrated
28   II,     5.  6.  3|             several years after the fracture. Physical performance declines
29   II,     5.  6.  3|           Akesson, 2006).~ ~Colle’s fracture results in hospitalisation
30   II,     5.  6.  3|             Mortality following hip fracture is high in the first year,
31   II,     5.  6.  3|            5 years as seen with hip fracture, but this is gradual over
32   II,     5.  6.  3|     infection, spondyloarthropathy, fracture or tumour. Such specific
33   II,     5.  6.  6|         major types of osteoporotic fracture in men and women: an observational
34   II,     5.  6.  6|         1995): Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of
35   II,     5.  6.  6|       Ten-year risk of osteoporotic fracture and the effect of risk factors
36   II,     5.  6.  6|        Dawson A (2000): Risk of hip fracture according to the World Health
37   II,     5.  6.  6|          hospital discharge for hip fracture: a prospective study. J
38   II,     5.  6.  6|         Incidence of distal forearm fracture in British men and women.
39   II,     5.  6.  6|               Consequences of a hip fracture: a prospective study over
40   II,     5.  6.  6|           WHO (1994): Assessment of fracture risk and its application
41   II,     9.  3.  1|        through its association with fracture. One in three women and
42   II,     9.  3.  1|          fragility and an increased fracture risk. Across Europe, some
43   II,     9.  3.  1|    descriptive epidemiology of limb fracture per region and gender. Amongst
44   II,     9.  3.  1|          humerus and distal forearm fracture increases with age, with
45   II,     9.  3.  1| postmenopausal women are at risk of fracture: (a) those with osteoporosis
46   II,     9.  3.  1| osteoporosis who have not yet had a fracture and who, if they remain
47   II,     9.  3.  1| osteoporosis who have already had a fracture and are at high risk of
48   II,     9.  3.  1|          humerus and distal forearm fracture increases with age. Incidence
49   II,     9.  3.  1|         bone mineral density (BMD). Fracture risk is the most important
50   II,     9.  3.  1|          contribute to the risk for fracture. Although there has been
51   II,     9.  3.  1|            the risk of osteoporotic fracture, identifying individuals
52   II,     9.  3.  1|          rate for men following hip fracture is twice that of women (
53   II,     9.  3.  1|           al 2008). Following first fracture, the risk of the second
54   II,     9.  3.  1|            of the disease.~ ~Once a fracture has occurred, the risk of
55   II,     9.  3.  1|        occurred, the risk of future fracture is at least doubled within
56  III,    10.  2.  1|           and breast cancer and hip fracture in the elderly (Bauman and
57   IV,    11.  1.  5|              waiting time for femur fracture surgery and asthma mortality
58   IV,    11.  6.  4|           time (e.g. in case of hip fracture, the time elapsed between
59   IV,    11.  6.  4|            time elapsed between the fracture and the surgical procedure).
60  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|             food-borne~formaldehyde~fracture~fractures~fragile~France~