1-500 | 501-1000 | 1001-1355
     Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    -,     1            |       description and analysis; (iv) Risk factors; (v) Control tools
   2    I,     2.  2        |            is often a very important risk factor for the transmission
   3    I,     2.  4        |          Table 2.2).~ ~Table 2.2. At risk of poverty rate in EU27
   4    I,     2.  4        |          million Europeans living at risk of poverty, 19 million are
   5    I,     2.  4        |           inadequate to ward off the risk of poverty. Therefore, the
   6    I,     2.  4        |         statistical capacity.~ ~High risk populations in Europe, indicated
   7    I,     2.  4        |     increases of the relative excess risk of dying in the lowest socio-economic
   8    I,     2.  4        |         excessive drinking and other risk factors for premature mortality.
   9    I,     2.  4        |    inequalities, e.g. by: addressing risk factors through health promotion;
  10    I,     2.  5        |            violence and psychosocial risk factors. More women than
  11    I,     2.  5        |              and safety at increased risk, in comparison with other
  12    I,     2.  5        |          have also shown an elevated risk of psychological exhaustion (
  13    I,     2.  5        |              their work. These “newrisk factors are associated with
  14    I,     2.  5        |           working times increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.~ ~
  15    I,     2.  8        |              during reprocessing).~ ~Risk from uncontrolled releases
  16    I,     2.  9        |         contributing to an increased risk of desertification. In many
  17    I,     2.  9        |            to change, with mortality risk increases by between 0.2
  18    I,     2.  9        |            and latitudes. There is a risk of additional outbreaks
  19    I,     2.  9        |             countries and there is a risk of human Leishmania cases
  20    I,     2.  9        |         frequent extreme events. The risk is very dependent on human
  21    I,     2. 10.  1    |   populations based on their genomic risk profile. The upcoming post-genomic
  22    I,     2. 10.  1    |          only be used if the genomic risk stratification shows outcomes
  23    I,     2. 10.  1    |       introduction of new concept of risk stratification and prevention.~ ~
  24   II,     4.  1        |             by chronic diseases, the risk of becoming ill was not
  25   II,     4.  1        |             not solely linked to the risk of dying but also to the
  26   II,     4.  1        |             of dying but also to the risk of surviving many years
  27   II,     4.  1        |            dramatically increase the risk of becoming dependent for
  28   II,     4.  1        |            dramatically increase the risk of losing independence and
  29   II,     4.  3        |             Riley, J. C. (1990): The risk of being sick: morbidity
  30   II,     5.  1.  1    |  non-communicable diseases and their risk factors~ ~Main non-communicable
  31   II,     5.  1.  1    |           the control of behavioural risk factors, such as smoking,
  32   II,     5.  1.  1    |       environmental and occupational risk factors have been identified;
  33   II,     5.  1.  1    |              Men.~ ~ ~ ~Table 5.1.1. Risk factors for non-communicable
  34   II,     5.  1.  1    |             physical inactivity) and risk factors (elevated total
  35   II,     5.  1.  1    |    differences in IHD. Among all CVD risk factors, age remains the
  36   II,     5.  1.  1    |           remains the most important risk factor for CVD. A too rich
  37   II,     5.  1.  1    |           physical inactivity. Other risk factors are: air pollution (
  38   II,     5.  1.  1    |           lead; noise; stress.~ ~The risk factors identified as the
  39   II,     5.  1.  1    |       diagnostic criteria adopted in risk definition (hypertension
  40   II,     5.  1.  1    |         associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer (WCRF,
  41   II,     5.  1.  1    |            awareness of tobacco as a risk factor promoting lung cancer
  42   II,     5.  1.  1    |              factors that modify the risk of this cancer when diagnosed
  43   II,     5.  1.  1    |   postmenopausally are not the same. Risk factors for breast cancer
  44   II,     5.  1.  1    |            Cervical cancer: the main risk factor is the infection
  45   II,     5.  1.  1    |         cancer: age is the strongest risk factor for prostate cancer:
  46   II,     5.  1.  1    |       natural history. Other certain risk factors are an high fat
  47   II,     5.  1.  1    |              history, while possible risk factors are androgens and
  48   II,     5.  1.  1    |          gallbladder cancer.~ ~Other risk factors are: air pollution (
  49   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  Diabetes~ The major risk factor for Type 2 diabetes
  50   II,     5.  1.  1    |              to the disease. Further risk factors for developing type
  51   II,     5.  1.  1    |             are critically important risk factors influencing personal
  52   II,     5.  1.  1    |            genetic and environmental risk factors for Autism is still
  53   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 Dementia~A number of risk factors and possible protective
  54   II,     5.  1.  1    |           found to both increase the risk of but also protect against
  55   II,     5.  1.  1    |         associated with an increased risk of developing dementia,
  56   II,     5.  1.  1    |             fuel are well recognized risk factors. Cigarette smoking
  57   II,     5.  1.  1    |         Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for COPD.A study
  58   II,     5.  1.  1    |           smoking were the two major risk factors, in a multivariate
  59   II,     5.  1.  1    |              perhaps non-traditional risk factors like anemia, hyperphosphatemia,
  60   II,     5.  1.  1    |      nephrotoxic drugs are at higher risk for CKD. Currently, diabetes
  61   II,     5.  1.  1    |        evidence shows that important risk factors for periodontal
  62   II,     5.  2.  2    |          database and WHO MONICA for risk factors distribution.~Following
  63   II,     5.  2.  2    |             changes in environmental risk factors (Kuulasmaa et al,
  64   II,     5.  2.  2    |   case-fatality, trends in classical risk factors and advancements
  65   II,     5.  2.  2    |                              5.2.2.3 Risk factors~CVD clinically manifests
  66   II,     5.  2.  2    |             physical inactivity) and risk factors (elevated total
  67   II,     5.  2.  2    |    differences in IHD. Among all CVD risk factors, age remains the
  68   II,     5.  2.  2    |           remains the most important risk factor for CVD.~Last available
  69   II,     5.  2.  2    |               Last available data on risk factors were taken from
  70   II,     5.  2.  2    |          database (htt b, 2007). The risk factors identified as the
  71   II,     5.  2.  2    |       diagnostic criteria adopted in risk definition (hypertension
  72   II,     5.  2.  3    |              in the average level of risk factors, such as serum cholesterol
  73   II,     5.  2.  3    |     conditions and the management of risk factors.~Comparable data
  74   II,     5.  2.  3    |     prevalence, age distribution and risk factors.~In addition, the
  75   II,     5.  2.  3    |      increased levels of traditional risk factors, such as diet rich
  76   II,     5.  2.  4    |                               5.2.4. Risk factors~ ~
  77   II,     5.  2.  4    |                             5.2.4.1. Risk factors in primary prevention~
  78   II,     5.  2.  4    |         smoking habit.~Some of these risk factors are linked to a
  79   II,     5.  2.  4    |            disease does not develop: risk factors thresholds are arbitrary
  80   II,     5.  2.  4    |           the only way to reduce the risk of developing the disease
  81   II,     5.  2.  4    |         disease is to keep levels of risk factors at a favourable
  82   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 Although the role of risk factors is well known, national
  83   II,     5.  2.  4    |             mentioned most important risk factors for the prediction
  84   II,     5.  2.  4    |            by BMI - in predicting CV risk (see also Chapter 10).~ ~
  85   II,     5.  2.  4    |      diagnostic criteria adopted for risk factor definition (hypertension
  86   II,     5.  2.  4    |            and comparison among high risk countries. Therefore, it
  87   II,     5.  2.  4    |          results, changes in classic risk factors explained only a
  88   II,     5.  2.  4    |            differences in ‘classical risk factors’ such as smoking,
  89   II,     5.  2.  4    |              are at almost twice the risk of heart attack compared
  90   II,     5.  2.  4    |        studies demonstrated that the risk is reversible through healthy
  91   II,     5.  2.  4    |              for individuals at high risk (the North Karelia Project
  92   II,     5.  2.  4    |     recommendations on management of risk factors are still not properly
  93   II,     5.  2.  4    |           describe the management of risk factors in hospitalized
  94   II,     5.  2.  5    |  attributable to reductions in major risk factors, mainly smoking,
  95   II,     5.  2.  5    |       disease trends, treatments and risk factors in order to improve
  96   II,     5.  2.  5    |           have emphasized that known risk factors account for more
  97   II,     5.  2.  5    |           least one or more previous risk factors (Greenland et al,
  98   II,     5.  2.  5    |              optimal levels of known risk factors are associated with
  99   II,     5.  2.  5    |         associated with very low CVD risk (Palmieri et al, 2006; Giampaoli
 100   II,     5.  2.  5    |           Daviglus et al, 2007). Low risk individuals live longer
 101   II,     5.  2.  5    |            is commonly believed that risk factors increase with age,
 102   II,     5.  2.  5    |          population strategy, a high risk strategy and a secondary
 103   II,     5.  2.  5    |       studies have demonstrated that risk is a continuum, many asymptomatic
 104   II,     5.  2.  5    |               many asymptomatic high risk individuals exist and the
 105   II,     5.  2.  5    |           prevention are artificial. Risk assessment, based on age,
 106   II,     5.  2.  5    |           step to identify people at risk to develop the disease,
 107   II,     5.  2.  5    |          disease, help those at high risk to reduce it and those at
 108   II,     5.  2.  5    |           reduce it and those at low risk to maintain this favourable
 109   II,     5.  2.  5    |        prevention is that individual risk factors (such as hypertension
 110   II,     5.  2.  5    |      increasing intensity as the CVD risk increases; treatment targets
 111   II,     5.  2.  5    |           individuals with different risk profiles have been set in
 112   II,     5.  2.  5    |         nutritional control of these risk factors (Poli A et al, 2008;
 113   II,     5.  2.  5    |              A et al, 2008). In high risk subjects, if these interventions
 114   II,     5.  2.  5    |         prevention approaches of CVD risk factors related to the lifestyles
 115   II,     5.  2.  5    |              major reductions in CVD risk factor levels, morbidity
 116   II,     5.  2.  5    |         mortality decline comes from risk factors reduction.~ ~
 117   II,     5.  2.  6    |             such as the reduction of risk factors or through more
 118   II,     5.  2.  6    |           important to remember that risk factors such as smoking
 119   II,     5.  2.  6    |         mortality decline comes from risk factors reduction.~One of
 120   II,     5.  2.  6    |           cholesterol levels and CVD risk~Observational studies performed
 121   II,     5.  2.  6    |           cholesterol levels and CHD risk was convincingly proven
 122   II,     5.  2.  6    |             blood in determining CVD risk was elucidated in the same
 123   II,     5.  2.  6    |           directly associated to CHD risk, while the High Density
 124   II,     5.  2.  6    |           2006). The ischemic stroke risk was also diminished in many
 125   II,     5.  2.  6    |           from 70 mg/dL in very high risk patients to 160 mg/dL in
 126   II,     5.  2.  6    |             to 160 mg/dL in very low risk subjects) in the large majority
 127   II,     5.  2.  6    |               Blood pressure and CVD risk~Elevated blood pressure
 128   II,     5.  2.  6    |         associated with an increased risk of stroke, of CHD and of
 129   II,     5.  2.  6    |              S et al, 2002). The CVD risk associated to blood pressure
 130   II,     5.  2.  6    |              2 times higher than the risk associated to blood pressure
 131   II,     5.  2.  6    |          associated to increased CVD risk, especially in elderly subjects (
 132   II,     5.  2.  6    |         especially if the overall CV risk of the patient considered
 133   II,     5.  2.  6    |         pressure as a cardiovascular risk factor: prevention and treatment.
 134   II,     5.  2.  6    |        systolic hypertension and the risk of coronary heart disease
 135   II,     5.  2.  6    |        between serum cholesterol and risk of premature death from
 136   II,     5.  2.  6    |            screenees of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (
 137   II,     5.  2.  6    |    high-normal blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease.
 138   II,     5.  2.  7    |             Favorable Cardiovascular Risk Profile in Young Women and
 139   II,     5.  2.  7    |            Young Women and Long-term Risk of Cardiovascular and All-Cause
 140   II,     5.  2.  7    |            al (2005): Cardiovascular risk profile earlier in life
 141   II,     5.  2.  7    |            2001): Trends in coronary risk factors in the WHO MONICA
 142   II,     5.  2.  7    |             Favorable cardiovascular risk profile (Low Risk) and 10-
 143   II,     5.  2.  7    |     cardiovascular risk profile (Low Risk) and 10-year stroke incidence
 144   II,     5.  2.  7    |              Wilson PW (2003): Major risk factors as antecedents of
 145   II,     5.  2.  7    |            to Optimal and Borderline Risk Factors. Arch Intern Med.
 146   II,     5.  2.  7    |              of changes in classical risk factors to trends in coronary
 147   II,     5.  2.  7    |             Favorable cardiovascular risk profile and 10-year coronary
 148   II,     5.  2.  7    |              to lower cardiovascular risk: The Italian Progetto CUORE
 149   II,     5.  2.  7    |             and other cardiovascular risk factors explain trends in
 150   II,     5.  2.  7    |            Treatments and Population Risk Factor Changes in England
 151   II,     5.  2.  7    |            of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with
 152   II,     5.  3.  1    |             and importance of cancer risk factors and also due to
 153   II,     5.  3.  1    |          year over the population at risk. It is usually expressed
 154   II,     5.  3.  1    |            per 100,000 population at risk;~ ~- Mortality: cancer mortality
 155   II,     5.  3.  1    |          year over the population at risk. It is usually expressed
 156   II,     5.  3.  1    |            per 100,000 population at risk;~ ~- Relative survival:
 157   II,     5.  3.  2    |             social factors on cancer risk and outcomes, and supporting
 158   II,     5.  3.  2    |   individuals and families at higher risk of developing cancer. People
 159   II,     5.  3.  2    |         history may put them at high risk of cancer. The CR is often
 160   II,     5.  3.  3    |            by EUROSTAT for 2006. The risk of cancer increases with
 161   II,     5.  3.  4    |                                5.3.3 Risk factors~ ~The majority of
 162   II,     5.  3.  4    |              below we have the major risk factors for the cancer sites
 163   II,     5.  3.  4    |           associated to an increased risk of stomach cancer (WCRF,
 164   II,     5.  3.  4    |            awareness of tobacco as a risk factor promoting lung cancer
 165   II,     5.  3.  4    |              factors that modify the risk of this cancer when diagnosed
 166   II,     5.  3.  4    |  post-menopausally are not the same. Risk factors for breast cancer
 167   II,     5.  3.  4    |            Cervical cancer: the main risk factor is the infection
 168   II,     5.  3.  4    |         cancer: age is the strongest risk factor for prostate cancer:
 169   II,     5.  3.  4    |       natural history. Other certain risk factors are a diet rich
 170   II,     5.  3.  4    |              history, while possible risk factors are linked to androgens
 171   II,     5.  3.  5    |             Parkin et al, 2005). The risk of developing cervical cancer
 172   II,     5.  3.  7    |        disease. Avoiding exposure to risk determinants would result
 173   II,     5.  3.  7    |             in a reduction in cancer risk. Although all of these avoidable
 174   II,     5.  3.  7    |       identified, it is thought that risk determinants currently exist
 175   II,     5.  3.  7    |      prevention approaches of cancer risk factors related to lifestyles
 176   II,     5.  3.  7    |           from primary prevention of risk factors to early diagnosis,
 177   II,     5.  3.  8    |              still exposed to cancer risk factors. Moreover, cancer
 178   II,     5.  4.  1    |             to be highly significant risk factors that can be usefully
 179   II,     5.  4.  1    |          implicated in the increased risk of complications, affecting
 180   II,     5.  4.  1    |              also a well known major risk factor for blood vessel
 181   II,     5.  4.  1    |         diabetes are at an increased risk of miscarriage and stillbirth.~
 182   II,     5.  4.  2    |           prevalence of the disease, risk factors, quality of care,
 183   II,     5.  4.  2    |   opportunistic screening among high risk individuals overestimate
 184   II,     5.  4.  2    |         recent data~Data sources~ ~I Risk factors of diabetes~ ~ ~%
 185   II,     5.  4.  2    |     tolerance and/or diet only~2~III Risk factors for complications~ ~
 186   II,     5.  4.  3    |       further hypotheses on possible risk factors for T1DM, some of
 187   II,     5.  4.  3    |              In EUCID databases this risk factor was found in crude
 188   II,     5.  4.  3    |              In EUCID databases this risk factor was found across
 189   II,     5.  4.  4    |              that the most important risk factor for prevention, i.e.
 190   II,     5.  4.  4    |          geographical areas and high risk strata. Regardless of the
 191   II,     5.  4.  5    |                               5.4.5. Risk factors~ ~The major risk
 192   II,     5.  4.  5    |             Risk factors~ ~The major risk factor for Type 2 diabetes
 193   II,     5.  4.  5    |              to the disease.~Further risk factors for developing type
 194   II,     5.  4.  6    |            Diabetes Mellitus and its risk factors available throughout
 195   II,     5.  4.  6    |              lifestyle intervention. Risk factors are well known and
 196   II,     5.  4.  6    |         approaches to this important risk factor. For high blood pressure
 197   II,     5.  4.  6    |         Chapter 5.2.4. and for other risk factors see Chapter 10.~
 198   II,     5.  4.  6    |           important to monitor other risk factors regularly in order
 199   II,     5.  4.  6    |        challenge of identifying high risk categories in order to reduce
 200   II,     5.  4.  6    |           are at a sufficiently high risk of a specific disorder in
 201   II,     5.  4.  6    |               The definition of high risk state in the case of diabetes
 202   II,     5.  4.  6    |          more of the above mentioned risk factors. This is one case
 203   II,     5.  4.  6    |    cardiovascular disease share many risk factors, as for example
 204   II,     5.  4.  6    |           the needs of those most at risk of developing diabetes as
 205   II,     5.  4.  6    |             mortality, morbidity and risk factor data across Member
 206   II,     5.  4.  6    |              health determinants and risk factors of diabetes into
 207   II,     5.  4.  7    |    characteristics (diabetes status, risk factors e.g. obesity, lifestyle,
 208   II,     5.  4.  8    |           IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR). Pediatr Diabetes
 209   II,     5.  5.Int    |  Disadvantaged groups face a greater risk of mental illness. People
 210   II,     5.  5.Int    |            There are gender-specific risk factors for some common
 211   II,     5.  5.Int    |            Women are at much greater risk of experiencing domestic
 212   II,     5.  5.Int    |      minority groups are at a higher risk for victimisation by violence.
 213   II,     5.  5.Int    |       depressed. Individuals most at risk of social isolation and
 214   II,     5.  5.Int    |          depression in older people, risk factors, detection and treatment
 215   II,     5.  5.Int    |     late-life depression. The higher risk of depression in older women
 216   II,     5.  5.Int    |              firms, and an increased risk of unemployment for individuals.
 217   II,     5.  5.Int(17)|         Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors [on-line publications
 218   II,     5.  5.Int    |      education was not a significant risk factor in men.~ ~Schizophrenia
 219   II,     5.  5.  1    |             adolescence increase the risk for depression two to threefold (
 220   II,     5.  5.  1    |          social support increase the risk of anxiety disorders (Fryers,
 221   II,     5.  5.  1    |              an individual at higher risk of suicide including psychiatric
 222   II,     5.  5.  1    |           associated to an increased risk for future suicidal behaviour
 223   II,     5.  5.  1    |             are covered: prevalence, risk factors, disability, health-related
 224   II,     5.  5.  1    |         range (³65 years) have lower risk than younger adults.~ ~Figure
 225   II,     5.  5.  1    |  recommendation already in 2001 as a risk factor for suicide.~ ~A
 226   II,     5.  5.  1    |         MHEDEA Investigators (2006). Risk factors for suicidality
 227   II,     5.  5.  2    |         European long term care. The risk of dementia can be reduced
 228   II,     5.  5.  2    |                             5.5.2.4. Risk factors~ ~A tremendous amount
 229   II,     5.  5.  2    |      vascular dementia). A number of risk factors and possible protective
 230   II,     5.  5.  2    |           found to both increase the risk of but also protect against
 231   II,     5.  5.  2    |         associated with an increased risk of developing dementia,
 232   II,     5.  5.  2    |              a descriptive review of risk factors for dementia based
 233   II,     5.  5.  2    |              detailed information on risk reduction and one of the
 234   II,     5.  5.  2    |            2008 on how to reduce the risk of developing dementia.~ ~
 235   II,     5.  5.  2    |         psycho-social interventions, risk factors and risk reduction/
 236   II,     5.  5.  2    |      interventions, risk factors and risk reduction/prevention strategies
 237   II,     5.  5.  2    |              2002). Certain possible risk factors such as age, gender
 238   II,     5.  5.  2    |          taken to reduce exposure to risk factors which can be influenced
 239   II,     5.  5.  2    |           which further increase the risk of developing dementia in
 240   II,     5.  5.  2    |              with the non-modifiable risk factors. Useful primary
 241   II,     5.  5.  2    |        strategies to reduce vascular risk factors and public campaigns
 242   II,     5.  5.  2    |            which might put people at risk or have a buffering effect
 243   II,     5.  5.  2    |          your brain: the evidence on risk reduction and dementia,
 244   II,     5.  5.  3    |           incidence) about the whole risk group (Alexander and Rigby,
 245   II,     5.  5.  3    |     identification of adolescents at risk of eating disorders (Austrian
 246   II,     5.  5.  3    |        during 1988-1993. The highest risk group (i.e., 2024-year-old
 247   II,     5.  5.  3    |                           5.5.3.1.4. Risk factors and vulnerable population
 248   II,     5.  5.  3    |           eating disorder depends on risk factors as well as on individual
 249   II,     5.  5.  3    |             are critically important risk factors influencing personal
 250   II,     5.  5.  3    |             1000 and lifetime morbid risk 7.2 per 1000, respectively.
 251   II,     5.  5.  3    |            on a consistent morbidity risk over the life span of 1%
 252   II,     5.  5.  3    |             2 for lifetime morbidity risk (Saha et al, 2005). These
 253   II,     5.  5.  3    |            at an increased mortality risk compared to the general
 254   II,     5.  5.  3    |              represents an important risk factor to develop the metabolic
 255   II,     5.  5.  3    |         identify people at increased risk and to establish optimal
 256   II,     5.  5.  3    |            social functioning. Their risk for development of full-blown
 257   II,     5.  5.  3    |           and the Prevention through Risk Identification, Management,
 258   II,     5.  5.  3    |              prodrome and moderating risk/resilience factors of psychosis.
 259   II,     5.  5.  3    |      incidence and prevalence rates, risk factors etc is most desirable (
 260   II,     5.  5.  3    |           targeted to people at high risk and emerging prodromal symptoms (
 261   II,     5.  5.  3    |             research in the field of risk assessment, early detection,
 262   II,     5.  5.  3    |          substance misuse), emerging risk factors like migration;~·
 263   II,     5.  5.  3    |             2002): Prevalence of and risk factors for medication nonadherence
 264   II,     5.  5.  3    |              JM (2005): The lifetime risk of suicide in schizophrenia:
 265   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Although a higher mortality risk has been observed in autism
 266   II,     5.  5.  3    |            genetic and environmental risk factors for ASD. The study
 267   II,     5.  5.  3    |        factors for ASD. The study of risk factors has contributed
 268   II,     5.  5.  3    |           been found to be potential risk factors. Most risk factors
 269   II,     5.  5.  3    |         potential risk factors. Most risk factors have been identified
 270   II,     5.  5.  3    |            made direct comparison of risk factors very difficult.
 271   II,     5.  5.  3    |        identifying unique and strong risk factors for ASD.~A systematic
 272   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Network of Surveillance on Risk Factors for Autism and Cerebral
 273   II,     5.  5.  3    |         England, France and Denmark. Risk factors found in more than
 274   II,     5.  5.  3    |           the populations as well as risk factors found to be associated
 275   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Network of Surveillance on Risk Factors for Autism and Cerebral
 276   II,     5.  5.  3    |            recognized etiological or risk factor (idiopathic and cryptogenic
 277   II,     5.  5.  3    |     background of the populations at risk may be a strong confounder
 278   II,     5.  5.  3    |        distribution of environmental risk factors to be evenly distributed.~ ~
 279   II,     5.  5.  3    |             different populations at risk, the extent of case identification
 280   II,     5.  5.  3    |        prevalence of the most common risk factors in the two sexes
 281   II,     5.  5.  3    |       structure of the population at risk, the prevalence of the etiological
 282   II,     5.  5.  3    |           two- to six-fold mortality risk than the general population.
 283   II,     5.  5.  3    |             reported to be at higher risk of suicide than the general
 284   II,     5.  5.  3    |         epilepsy a 25-fold increased risk of suicide (Barraclough,
 285   II,     5.  5.  3    |             a 4-fold increase in the risk of suicide in a Swedish
 286   II,     5.  5.  3    |           thus explain the increased risk of suicide in patients with
 287   II,     5.  5.  3    |            al, 1995). The patient at risk for SUDEP is a young or
 288   II,     5.  5.  3    |     carbamazepine could increase the risk of SUDEP by causing arrhythmia
 289   II,     5.  5.  3    |        greater than two- to six-fold risk of psychiatric comorbidity
 290   II,     5.  5.  3    |           patient’s perspective, the risk of seizure-related accidents (
 291   II,     5.  5.  3    |              1.8)(Vaa, 2005) and the risk of serious accidents (RR
 292   II,     5.  5.  3    |            followed to calculate the risk of seizure recurrence and
 293   II,     5.  5.  3    |            identify patients at high risk of epilepsy.~The variability
 294   II,     5.  5.  3    |          with epilepsy to reduce the risk of seizure recurrence secondary
 295   II,     5.  5.  3    |            AT, Shinnar S (1991): The risk of seizure recurrence following
 296   II,     5.  5.  3    |              et al (2001): Mortality risk in children with epilepsy:
 297   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Forsgren L (2000): Mortality risk in an adult cohort with
 298   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Farahmand BY, et al (2002): Risk factors for suicide in epilepsy:
 299   II,     5.  5.  3    |            estimate of the mortality risk. Epilepsia 43:445-450.~Sheth
 300   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Chadwick D, Johnson T (1996): Risk of accidents in drivers
 301   II,     5.  5.  3    |               age and their relative risk of accident involvement:
 302   II,     5.  5.  3    |            with a discrete change in risk at the Scottish border.
 303   II,     5.  5.  3    |         assessment over time. The MS risk in Iceland is similar to
 304   II,     5.  5.  3    |      northern Africa, an area at low risk for MS, is believed to account
 305   II,     5.  5.  3    |              for the low absolute MS risk in the Maltese.~Prevalence
 306   II,     5.  5.  3    |          associated with an elevated risk for death in Europe, with
 307   II,     5.  5.  3    |                           5.5.3.5.4. Risk factors~ ~MS is a complex
 308   II,     5.  5.  3    |          2000). The most influential risk factor for MS is hypothesised
 309   II,     5.  5.  3    |           may act in determining the risk, either with individual
 310   II,     5.  5.  3    |            operate in determining MS risk especially at familial level.
 311   II,     5.  5.  3    |              are major environmental risk factors, studies of disease
 312   II,     5.  5.  3    |           all patients with MS or at risk of developing MS (eg., ‘
 313   II,     5.  5.  3    |          type of individuals were at risk for leaving the workforce.
 314   II,     5.  5.  3    |        employed people and at/not at risk for job loss);~o identifying
 315   II,     5.  5.  3    |       evidence for a true increasing risk. Acta Neurol Scand 103:20-
 316   II,     5.  5.  3    |          year survival rate was 23%. Risk of death following initiation
 317   II,     5.  5.  3    |                           5.5.3.6.4. Risk factors~ ~The cause of the
 318   II,     5.  5.  3    |             than threefold increased risk of PD. Tsui et al, (1999)
 319   II,     5.  5.  3    |   investigated a 2-2.5 times greater risk for PD in those working
 320   II,     5.  5.  3    |              to pesticide affect the risk of developing PD (Lai et
 321   II,     5.  5.  3    |          associated with a decreased risk for Parkinson’s disease (
 322   II,     5.  5.  3    |            464 matched controls. The risk for PD showed a dose-dependent
 323   II,     5.  5.  3    |              manner, with the lowest risk in heavy smokers. Alcohol
 324   II,     5.  5.  3    |           was not associated with PD risk. The authors concluded that
 325   II,     5.  5.  3    |          cigarettes which affect the risk of PD.~Some dietary factors
 326   II,     5.  5.  3    |        decreased Parkinson’s disease risk, but the associations are
 327   II,     5.  5.  3    |              factors influencing the risk of Parkinson's disease:
 328   II,     5.  5.  3    |              CG, Stebbins GT (1993): Risk factors for nursing home
 329   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Johnson CC (2004): Multiple risk factors for Parkinson’s
 330   II,     5.  5.  3    |       Occupational and environmental risk factors for Parkinson’s
 331   II,     5.  5.  3    |             early life environmental risk factors in Parkinson disease:
 332   II,     5.  5.  3    |             A, Devoto MC (1980): The risk of Parkinson disease in
 333   II,     5.  6.  3    |   differences in the epidemiology of risk factors, such as obesity,
 334   II,     5.  6.  3    |             B) Women~ ~Determinants, risk factors and population at
 335   II,     5.  6.  3    |            factors and population at risk~ ~Age is the strongest predictor
 336   II,     5.  6.  3    |            associated with a reduced risk of the development and progression
 337   II,     5.  6.  3    |          2002).~ ~Obesity (BMI) is a risk factor for the development
 338   II,     5.  6.  3    |             units would decrease the risk of developing knee OA by
 339   II,     5.  6.  3    |           and intensive activity are risk factors for the development
 340   II,     5.  6.  3    |       presents the greatest relative risk for OA: 4.5 for farming
 341   II,     5.  6.  3    |         Felson et al, 1996).~ ~These risk factors are summarised in
 342   II,     5.  6.  3    |          table 5.6.5.~ ~Table 5.6.5. Risk factors for incidence and
 343   II,     5.  6.  3    |        disability (Global burden and risk factors 2006) .~ ~Economic
 344   II,     5.  6.  3    |         seems clear.~ ~Determinants, risk factors and the population
 345   II,     5.  6.  3    |        factors and the population at risk~ ~RA tends to run in families.
 346   II,     5.  6.  3    |         Smoking and obesity are also risk factors for RA (Symmons
 347   II,     5.  6.  3    |           mineral density (BMD). The risk of fracture rises when the
 348   II,     5.  6.  3    |            might have one of several risk factors: low body weight,
 349   II,     5.  6.  3    |        hospitalisation, a 20% excess risk of death, considerable functional
 350   II,     5.  6.  3    |              condition. The lifetime risk or the 10 year probability
 351   II,     5.  6.  3    |              al, 2001). The lifetime risk of fragility fractures at
 352   II,     5.  6.  3    |            al, 2000)~ ~Determinants, risk factors and the population
 353   II,     5.  6.  3    |        factors and the population at risk~ ~Apart from age and female
 354   II,     5.  6.  3    |           trauma fracture. There are risk factors that identify those
 355   II,     5.  6.  3    |           have osteoporosis or be at risk of fracture (Table 5.6.9).
 356   II,     5.  6.  3    |            are some semi-independent risk factors for fracture such
 357   II,     5.  6.  3    |            and co-morbidity are also risk factors for poor outcome
 358   II,     5.  6.  3    |           reduced bone strength. The risk of falling increases with
 359   II,     5.  6.  3    |        Melton, 1995).~ ~Table 5.6.8. Risk Factors for Falling in the
 360   II,     5.  6.  3    |           the Elderly~ ~Table 5.6.9. Risk factors for bone loss, development
 361   II,     5.  6.  3    |           with the presence of other risk factors for fracture. In
 362   II,     5.  6.  3    |           bone density combined with risk factors that are at least
 363   II,     5.  6.  3    |              those at much increased risk of fracture but the exact
 364   II,     5.  6.  3    |             interaction of different risk factors has not yet been
 365   II,     5.  6.  3    |             to describe the absolute risk for the individual patient
 366   II,     5.  6.  3    |            population and changes in risk factors (Report on osteoporosis
 367   II,     5.  6.  3    |               2003).~ ~Determinants, risk factors and the population
 368   II,     5.  6.  3    |        factors and the population at risk~ ~The occurrence of low
 369   II,     5.  6.  3    |        dissatisfaction. Obesity is a risk factor for chronicity.~ ~
 370   II,     5.  6.  5    |         those individuals at highest risk of developing these conditions;
 371   II,     5.  6.  6    |             Black D, Vogt TM (1995): Risk factors for hip fracture
 372   II,     5.  6.  6    |            Dawson A (2002): Ten-year risk of osteoporotic fracture
 373   II,     5.  6.  6    |           fracture and the effect of risk factors on screening strategies.
 374   II,     5.  6.  6    |             Laet C, Dawson A (2000): Risk of hip fracture according
 375   II,     5.  6.  6    |         Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors ISBN-10: 0-8213-
 376   II,     5.  6.  6    |         review of the literature. I. Risk factors for the development
 377   II,     5.  6.  6    |               Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening
 378   II,     5.  7.Acr    |      Acronyms~ ~ARIC~Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities~CKD~Chronic
 379   II,     5.  7.  1    |             because it amplifies the risk for cardiovascular complications.
 380   II,     5.  7.  1    |               Independent from other risk factors, patients with stage
 381   II,     5.  7.  1    |           stage 4-5 CKD have a death risk for cardiovascular complications
 382   II,     5.  7.  1    |              have a 100 times higher risk (Baigent et al, 2000). There
 383   II,     5.  7.  1    |          diseases where it acts as a risk multiplier (Sarnak et al.
 384   II,     5.  7.  1    |            is emerging that CKD is a risk factor for death and other
 385   II,     5.  7.  1    |       contribution to cardiovascular risk and to other diseases and
 386   II,     5.  7.  1    |         neoplasias and amplifies the risk for adverse outcomes and
 387   II,     5.  7.  3    |               In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
 388   II,     5.  7.  3    |              al, 2006a) the relative risk for progression from CKD
 389   II,     5.  7.  3    |              stages showing a higher risk for CV complications and
 390   II,     5.  7.  3    |     meta-analysis has shown that the risk of mortality in CKD rises
 391   II,     5.  7.  3    |              cohort 1995-1999) lower risk of death. The mortality
 392   II,     5.  7.  3    |              of death. The mortality risk reduction in transplant
 393   II,     5.  7.  4    |                               5.7.4. Risk factors~ ~Hypertension and
 394   II,     5.  7.  4    |              perhaps non-traditional risk factors such as anaemia,
 395   II,     5.  7.  4    |      nephrotoxic drugs are at higher risk for CKD.~ ~There are no
 396   II,     5.  7.  4    |            et al, 2006). Since these risk factors are also the main
 397   II,     5.  7.  5    |      individuals with cardiovascular risk factors or with cardiovascular
 398   II,     5.  7.  5    |    individuals in whom CKD acts as a risk amplifier) and diabetics
 399   II,     5.  7.  5    |           HBC and HBB) are at higher risk for CKD. When the risk of
 400   II,     5.  7.  5    |        higher risk for CKD. When the risk of complications due to
 401   II,     5.  7.  7    |             kidney, a cardiovascular risk marker, and a new target
 402   II,     5.  7.  7    |          Nyren O (2006): Obesity and risk for chronic renal failure.
 403   II,     5.  7.  7    |          disease prevalence and ESRD risk. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;
 404   II,     5.  7.  7    |           Metabolic syndrome and the risk for chronic kidney disease
 405   II,     5.  7.  7    |       Identification of patients and risk factors in chronic kidney
 406   II,     5.  7.  7    |         kidney disease -- evaluating risk factors and therapeutic
 407   II,     5.  7.  7    |           Chronic kidney disease and risk of incident myocardial infarction
 408   II,     5.  7.  7    |              al, Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of
 409   II,     5.  7.  7    |         kidney disease and mortality risk: a systematic review. J
 410   II,     5.  8.Acr    |   Respiratory Infections~RR~Relative Risk~VC~Vital Capacity~
 411   II,     5.  8.  1    |             function, increasing the risk for exacerbations. These
 412   II,     5.  8.  3    |              smoking is a well-known risk factor for both COPD and
 413   II,     5.  8.  3    |           COPD patients were at high risk for pneumonia (relative
 414   II,     5.  8.  3    |              for pneumonia (relative risk (RR) = 16.0), osteoporosis (
 415   II,     5.  8.  3    |          COPD proved to be at higher risk of depression (OR 3.52,
 416   II,     5.  8.  4    |                               5.8.4. Risk factors~ ~Active and passive
 417   II,     5.  8.  4    |            tobacco smoking are major risk factors for COPD. Occupational
 418   II,     5.  8.  4    |            are other well recognized risk factors.~ ~Among 1711 middle-aged
 419   II,     5.  8.  4    |           between men and women. The risk of developing COPD decreases
 420   II,     5.  8.  4    |              and fumes increased the risk for chronic bronchitis from
 421   II,     5.  8.  5    |            spirometry. Most relevant risk factors have been identified
 422   II,     5.  8.  5    |       screening of the population at risk, with the aim of overcoming
 423   II,     5.  8.  5    |            detection of COPD in high risk population by means of spirometric
 424   II,     5.  8.  5    |            of the population at high risk of COPD, i.e. smokers, can
 425   II,     5.  8.  7    |           Pulmonary Disease (COPD) a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular
 426   II,     5.  8.  7    |     cumulative incidence of COPD and risk factors for incident disease
 427   II,     5.  8.  7    |       regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic
 428   II,     5.  8.  7    |               Global burden of COPD: risk factors, prevalence, and
 429   II,     5.  8.  7    |         Detecting patients at a high risk of developing chronic obstructive
 430   II,     5.  9. FB    |             allergic diseases can be risk factors for further allergic
 431   II,     5.  9. FB    |                              5.FB.5. Risk and protective factors~ ~
 432   II,     5.  9. FB    |             50% increase in relative risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.
 433   II,     5.  9. FB    |          childhood, are at increased risk for future asthma. Potential
 434   II,     5.  9. FB    |           limited. The evaluation of risk factors and determinants
 435   II,     5.  9. FB    |            still healthy although at risk. Unfortunately, all predictors
 436   II,     5.  9. FB    |         whole population, present no risk and have a low cost.~ ~All
 437   II,     5.  9. FB    |              early childhood and the risk of developing IgE responses
 438   II,     5.  9. FB    |           been studied in this “high risk group” during the last decade.
 439   II,     5.  9. FB    |            and a deeper knowledge of risk factors in the aetiology
 440   II,     5.  9. FB    |             rhinitis ) to reduce the risk of development of asthma;
 441   II,     5.  9. FB    |         identify the affected and at risk individuals to begin an
 442   II,     5.  9.  1    |            exposure to environmental risk factors and to the so-called
 443   II,     5.  9.  4    |                               5.9.4. Risk factors~ ~Data show a significant
 444   II,     5.  9.  4    |            in boys in 1989: relative risk (RR) 1.32 (1.12, 1.56),
 445   II,     5.  9.  4    |             age. Occupations at high risk include: farming and agricultural
 446   II,     5.  9.  4    |            significant excess asthma risk was seen after exposure
 447   II,     5.  9.  4    |        occupational asthma (relative risk=1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3, P=0.
 448   II,     5.  9.  4    |    occupations, a significant excess risk of asthma was seen for nursing (
 449   II,     5.  9.  4    |              3-4.0, P=0.007). Asthma risk was also increased in participants
 450   II,     5.  9.  4    |              population-attributable risk for adult asthma due to
 451   II,     5.  9.  4    |     asthmatic patients. However, the risk of developing allergic disease
 452   II,     5.  9.  4    |           will be used to assess the risk associated with air-pollution-linked
 453   II,     5.  9.  5    |   information about the places where risk factors conditions are progressively
 454   II,     5.  9.  5    |            and a deeper knowledge of risk factors in the aetiology
 455   II,     5.  9.  6    |          allergen-free diet for high risk woman in pregnancy is still
 456   II,     5.  9.  7    |         Earlycat ownership and teh risk of sensitization and allergic
 457   II,     5.  9.  7    |       improvement of knowledge about risk factors and preventive factors
 458   II,     5. 10.  2    |          methods and to identify the risk factors associated with
 459   II,     5. 10.  5    |              protecting consumers at risk. Council Directive 2000/
 460   II,     5. 10.  5    |               are not likely to be a risk for allergic peoples, Commission
 461   II,     5. 11.  3    |         about the associated allergy risk.~ ~Most body piercing jewellery
 462   II,     5. 11.  3    |           the point of view that the risk of becoming allergic to
 463   II,     5. 11.  3    |           ear piercing increases the risk of gold sensitization is
 464   II,     5. 11.  3    |          information on the chemical risk induced by metals at pierced
 465   II,     5. 11.  3    |          such as occupations at high risk of disease. The Lambeth
 466   II,     5. 11.  3    |               a form of cancer whose risk is strongly linked to cumulative
 467   II,     5. 11.  7    |            children are at increased risk of atopic dermatitis. J
 468   II,     5. 12.  4    |                              5.12.4. Risk factors~ ~The patterns in
 469   II,     5. 12.  7    |           alcohol consumption on the risk of symptomatic liver cirrhosis.
 470   II,     5. 13        |           five global disease burden risk factors closely related
 471   II,     5. 13        |             strongly associated with risk factors for cardiovascular
 472   II,     5. 13        |  particularly significant in certain risk groups among elderly, children,
 473   II,     5. 14.  1    |             to be assessed and whose risk factors are still to be
 474   II,     5. 14.  1    |    periodontal disease constitutes a risk for general well-being and
 475   II,     5. 14.  2    |  surveillance of chronic disease and risk factors (Petersen et al,
 476   II,     5. 14.  2    |             and its determinants and risk factors on the morbidity
 477   II,     5. 14.  3    |            population groups at high risk for dental caries include
 478   II,     5. 14.  3    |        population groups with a high risk of tooth decay. These populations
 479   II,     5. 14.  3    |            These populations at high risk for tooth decay -perhaps
 480   II,     5. 14.  3    |               perhaps not their only risk factor - remain on dental
 481   II,     5. 14.  3    |   periodontal disease is a potential risk for general health and well-being,
 482   II,     5. 14.  3    |      cardiovascular diseases and the risk of premature birth. Periodontal
 483   II,     5. 14.  3    |          whole. Proper diagnosis and risk assessment are prerequisites
 484   II,     5. 14.  4    |                              5.14.4. Risk factors~ ~The caries decline
 485   II,     5. 14.  4    |   professionals must address dietary risk factors associated with
 486   II,     5. 14.  4    |        evidence shows that important risk factors for periodontal
 487   II,     5. 14.  5    |   disadvantaged children, who are at risk, can access oral health
 488   II,     5. 14.  8    |          burden of oral diseases and risk to oral heath. Bull World
 489   II,     5. 15.  3    |          autonomy. In terms of vital risk, only 20% of the studied
 490   II,     5. 15.  3    |             The identification of at risk couples is hardly feasible.
 491   II,     5. 15.  4    |      strengthen the requirements for risk management and traceability
 492   II,     6.  3.  1    |              population segments and risk groups). For some of these
 493   II,     6.  3.  1    |            more in-depth analysis of risk factors, determinants, or
 494   II,     6.  3.  2    |             public health concern.~ ~Risk factors~ ~A key factor in
 495   II,     6.  3.  2    |           requires the collection of risk factors and the involvement
 496   II,     6.  3.  3    |           than in other countries.~ ~Risk factors~ ~In 2005, 28 044
 497   II,     6.  3.  3    |              populations at a higher risk. These are the high-incidence
 498   II,     6.  3.  3    |     vulnerable populations at higher risk of infection and therefore
 499   II,     6.  3.  3    |        activities place them at high risk of becoming infected, such
 500   II,     6.  3.  4    |         early autumn for three major risk groups (the elderly, healthcare