Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

 1   II,     9        |            congenital anomaly risk (EUROCAT, 2004; Macintosh et al,
 2   II,     9        |          higher risk (Waller, 2007; EUROCAT, 2004). In the case of epilepsy
 3   II,     9        |            Dolk and Vrijheid, 2003; EUROCAT, 2004). To protect the fetus,
 4   II,     9.  1.  2|             9.1.2.2. Data sources~ ~EUROCAT (European Surveillance of
 5   II,     9.  1.  2|     congenital anomalies in Europe. EUROCAT is a network of population-based
 6   II,     9.  1.  2|            made during childhood.~ ~EUROCAT started in 1979. There are
 7   II,     9.  1.  2|          and Croatia participate in EUROCAT (Table 1), as well as the
 8   II,     9.  1.  2|      anomalies not participating in EUROCAT are Czech Republic and Slovak
 9   II,     9.  1.  2|          the European Population by EUROCAT Full or Associate Member
10   II,     9.  1.  2|          and at a European level by EUROCAT. The proportion of national
11   II,     9.  1.  2|             anomalies are excluded (EUROCAT, 2005a), although it can
12   II,     9.  1.  2|        Research (www ). Many of the EUROCAT registers belong to ICBDSR
13   II,     9.  1.  2|           of congenital anomalies~ ~EUROCAT records a total prevalence
14   II,     9.  1.  2|      Prevalence per 1 000 births of EUROCAT congenital anomaly subgroups
15   II,     9.  1.  2|            defects (2.0 per 1 000). EUROCAT updates each year prevalence
16   II,     9.  1.  2|           available on its website (EUROCAT, 2007). Those with a total
17   II,     9.  1.  2|      discussed in detail elsewhere (EUROCAT, 2005b). In Poland, TOPFA
18   II,     9.  1.  2|             hypoplastic left heart (EUROCAT, 2007). TOPFA is not common
19   II,     9.  1.  2|           Europe, as represented by EUROCAT registers, the live birth
20   II,     9.  1.  2|          2005a; Busby et al, 2005b; EUROCAT, 1991). During the 1990s,
21   II,     9.  1.  2|             with or without palate (EUROCAT, 2002a; EUROCAT, 2002b).
22   II,     9.  1.  2|             palate (EUROCAT, 2002a; EUROCAT, 2002b). Some Northern European
23   II,     9.  1.  2|            per 1 000 for 2000-2004 (EUROCAT, 2007), while rates of 0.
24   II,     9.  1.  2|           are prenatally diagnosed (EUROCAT, 2007), but TOPFA is rare
25   II,     9.  1.  2|            congenital anomaly risk (EUROCAT, 2004; Macintosh et al,
26   II,     9.  1.  2|          higher risk (Waller, 2007; EUROCAT, 2004). In the case of epilepsy
27   II,     9.  1.  2|            Dolk and Vrijheid, 2003; EUROCAT, 2004). To protect the fetus,
28   II,     9.  1.  2|        2005b; Abramsky et al, 2007; EUROCAT, 2005) and is the major
29   II,     9.  1.  2|             diffused across Europe (EUROCAT, 2005). Screening policies
30   II,     9.  1.  2|         between European countries (EUROCAT, 2005), and even countries
31   II,     9.  1.  2| considerably in its implementation (EUROCAT, 2005).~ ~An increasing
32   II,     9.  1.  2|           determinants. Funding for EUROCAT network co-ordination currently
33   II,     9.  1.  2|         unique patient identifiers. EUROCAT is working with EURO-PERISTAT
34   II,     9.  1.  2|            Abramsky L, Dolk H and a EUROCAT Folic Acid Working Group (
35   II,     9.  1.  2|           Dolk H, Armstrong B and a EUROCAT Folic Acid Working Group (
36   II,     9.  1.  2|         Bulletin, Vol 68, pp 25-45.~EUROCAT (2007): Available at: www.
37   II,     9.  1.  2|            2007): Available at: www.eurocat.ulster.ac.uk/pubdata/tables.
38   II,     9.  1.  2|           ac.uk/pubdata/tables.html~EUROCAT (2005a): "EUROCAT Guide
39   II,     9.  1.  2|       tables.html~EUROCAT (2005a): "EUROCAT Guide 1.3: Instruction for
40   II,     9.  1.  2|           of Congenital Anomalies", EUROCAT Central Registry, University
41   II,     9.  1.  2|        University of Ulster. [ww l]~EUROCAT (2005b): "EUROCAT Special
42   II,     9.  1.  2|                   EUROCAT (2005b): "EUROCAT Special Report: Prenatal
43   II,     9.  1.  2|      Screening Policies in Europe". EUROCAT Central Registry, University
44   II,     9.  1.  2|        Ulster. Avaliable at: www f]~EUROCAT (2005c): "EUROCAT Special
45   II,     9.  1.  2|                   EUROCAT (2005c): "EUROCAT Special Report: Prevention
46   II,     9.  1.  2|         Supplementation in Europe", EUROCAT Central Registry, University
47   II,     9.  1.  2|        University of Ulster.[www l]~EUROCAT (2004): "EUROCAT Special
48   II,     9.  1.  2|                    EUROCAT (2004): "EUROCAT Special Report: A Review
49   II,     9.  1.  2|          for Congenital Anomalies", EUROCAT Central Registry, University
50   II,     9.  1.  2|            187-X. Available at: www.eurocat.ulster.ac.uk/pubdata/Envrisk.
51   II,     9.  1.  2|             uk/pubdata/Envrisk.html~EUROCAT Working Group (2002a): “
52   II,     9.  1.  2|             Working Group (2002a): “EUROCAT Report 8: Surveillance of
53   II,     9.  1.  2|               University of Ulster.~EUROCAT (2002b): "EUROCAT Special
54   II,     9.  1.  2|           Ulster.~EUROCAT (2002b): "EUROCAT Special Report: EUROCAT
55   II,     9.  1.  2|             EUROCAT Special Report: EUROCAT and Orofacial Clefts: The
56   II,     9.  1.  2|            in 30 European Regions", EUROCAT Central Registry, University
57   II,     9.  1.  2|         Italy. Avaliable at: www df~EUROCAT Working Group (1991): "Prevalence
58   II,     9.  1.  2|              Dolk H, Bradbury and a EUROCAT Working Group (2007): "Increasing