THE STATUS OF HEALTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: TOWARDS A HEALTHIER EUROPE - FULL REPORT




  • -
    • 1. FOREWORD
1 These Countries will be referred collectively as the “EUGLOREH Countries” and will be listed in Tables and Figures ac[...]



  • PART I – THE CONTEXT FOR HEALTH
    • 2.   THE CHANGING CONTEXT FOR HEALTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
      • 2.4. Socio-economic trends and inequalities
1 EUROSTAT Newsrelease 19/2009, 13 February 2009. [accessed on 15 February 2009 at http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/pls[...]



  • PART I – THE CONTEXT FOR HEALTH
    • 2.   THE CHANGING CONTEXT FOR HEALTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
      • 2.5. Unemployment rates and workforce ageing
2 European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Research on the changing world of work — Implications on occupational s[...]
3 EUROSTAT Newsrelease 180§/2008, 16 December 2008, accessed on 15 February 2009 at: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/p[...]



  • PART I – THE CONTEXT FOR HEALTH
    • 2.   THE CHANGING CONTEXT FOR HEALTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
      • 2.10 Technological developments
        • 2.10.2. Nanotechnologies
4 See: http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/nanotech/policy/index.htm.
5 See: http://www.nanotechproject. Org/44.



  • PART I – THE CONTEXT FOR HEALTH
    • 2.   THE CHANGING CONTEXT FOR HEALTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
      • 2.10 Technological developments
        • 2.10.3. Information and communication technologies
6 International Labour Office (2006): Changing patterns in the world of work. International Labour Conference, 95th Sess[...]
7 Freeman C, Soete L, Efendioglu U (1995): Diffusion and the employment effects of information and communication techno[...]



  • PART I – THE CONTEXT FOR HEALTH
    • 2.   THE CHANGING CONTEXT FOR HEALTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
      • 2.10 Technological developments
        • 2.10.4. Automatic identification and traceability technologies
8 Creation of a better medication safety culture in Europe. Building up safe medication practices” – Expert Group on Sa[...]
9 Coding for succes – Simple technology for safer patience care” – UK Departement of Healthh – 16 February 2007
10 Estudio Nacional sobre los efectos aversos ligados a la hospilitizacion (ENEAS 2005). Informe. Febrero 2006. Ministeri[...]
11 Her effect van elektronisch voorschrijven en electroninische toedienregistratie met barcodescanning op het optreden va[...]
12 Celsea an Westmenister Healthcare NHS Trust, K. Robertson Ref. “Coding for success – Simple technology for safer pati[...]
13 World Health Organization – Fact sheet N 275 – Revised 14 November 2006
14 Summary of Community Customs Activities on Counterfeit & Piracy – Results at the EU Border 2006”, European Commission[...]
15 World health Organization – Fact sheet N 275 – Revised 14 November 2006
16 The European Health Management Association
17 Creation of a Health Care Value Chain through an innovative & holistic approach to Supply Chain and Networks, EHMA Sp[...]
18 De Scioli D. (2005). Differatiating the Hospital Supply Chain for Enhanced Performance. Logistics, Massachusetts Ins[...]
19 Coding for success – Simple technology for safer patient care – UK Depertament of health – 16 February 2007
20 Vertical Integration ibn the Health Value Chain “, Dr. Alberto Sanna, Scientific Institute Hospital San Raffaele at t[...]
21 Creation of a better medication safety culture in Europe: Building up sa medication practises” Expert Group on Safe M[...]
22 Coding for success – Simple technology for safer patient care” UK Department of Health – 16 February 2007



  • PART I – THE CONTEXT FOR HEALTH
    • 3. DEMOGRAPHY
      • 3.1. Fertility and marriage patterns
1 Postponing the first child should be understood in a macro context, i.e. the relative change that occurs in the [...]
2 Vice versa it means that if women in a birth cohort would start getting their babies earlier than in previous co[...]
3 However, non-marital birth rates may not include children born to married women whose husbands are not the biolo[...]



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 4. OVERALL HEALTH TRENDS
      • 4.1. Life expectancy and healthy life years
1 www.ehemu.eu
2 http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
3 http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_information/indicators/lifeyears_en.htm
4 http://www.cdc.gov/nchs
5 http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/index.html



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 5. HEALTH IMPACTS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND RELATED TIME-TRENDS
      • 5.2. Cardiovascular diseases
        • 5.2.2. Data sources
1 Baltic Europe countries include: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.
2 Northern countries include: Denmark, Ireland, Finland, Sweden and United Kingdom.
3 Central Eastern Europe countries include: Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia.
4 Eastern Europe countries include: Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania.
5 Central Europe countries include: Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria, Slovenia.
6 Southern Europe countries include: Greece, Spain, Italy, Malta, France, Portugal.
7 Baltic Europe countries include: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 5. HEALTH IMPACTS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND RELATED TIME-TRENDS
      • 5.5. Mental and brain diseases and disorders
        • Introduction
8 European Commission (2004): The State of Mental Health in the European Union. Directorate General for Health and Cons[...]
9 Gabriel P and Liimatainen M-R (2000): Mental health in the workplace: Introduction. Geneva: International Labour Offi[...]
10 Myers F, McCollam A, Woodhouse A (2005): Equal minds. Scottish development centre for mental health. Available at: ht[...]
11 Austbury J. (2002): Mental Health: Gender Bias, Social Position, and Depression. In: Sen. G., A. George, and P. Östli[...]
12 Hallstrom, T. (2001) Gender differences in mental health. In P. Östlin, M. Danielsson, F. Diderichsen, A. Härenstam a[...]
13 WHO (2002): Mental Health: Responding to the Call to Action. Report by the Secretariat to the 55th WHA. Doc A55/18 [o[...]
14 WHO (2001): World Health Report 2001. [on-line publication available at: http://www.who.int/whr/2001].
15 Copeland JRM, Beekman ATF, Braam AW, Dewey ME, Delespaul P, Fuhrer R, Hooijer C, Lawlor BA, Kivela S-L, Lobo A, Magnu[...]
16 International Longevity Center (2006): Ageism in America. New York: International Longevity Center.
17 Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJL (2006): Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors [on-line pub[...]
18 Makino M, Tsuboi K, Dennerstein L.(2004): Prevalence of eating disorders: a comparison of Western and non-Western cou[...]
19 Fratiglioni L, Launer LJ, Andersen K, Breteler MM, Copeland JR, Dartigues JF, Lobo A, Martinez-Lage J, Soininen [...]
20 European Commission (2004): Action for Mental Health. Activities co-funded from European Community Public health Prog[...]
21 Fifth Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration activities (1998 to 2002), Decisi[...]
22 http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_determinants/life_style/mental/green_paper/mentalgp_report.pdf.
23 The EURO B category included countries with a low adult mortality rate (Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Turkey[...]
24 Work package 4 of the EuroCoDe project, financed by the European Commission with additional funding from the Fondatio[...]
25 Resolution of 17/04/1996 on Alzheimer’s disease and the prevention of disorders of the cognitive functions in the eld[...]
26 A5-0451/3003 European Parliament Resolution on Petition 842/2001 concerning the effects of discriminatory treatment m[...]



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 5. HEALTH IMPACTS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND RELATED TIME-TRENDS
      • 5.8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
        • 5.8.3. Data description and analysis
27 GOLD Criteria for the Spirometric Classification of COPD Severity: Stage I: Mild FEV1/FVC <[...]



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 5. HEALTH IMPACTS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND RELATED TIME-TRENDS
      • 5.9. Asthma and allergic rhinitis
        • 5.9.5. Control tools and policies
28 http://www.eea.europa.eu/pressroom/newsreleases/our_childrens_health-en



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 6. MAIN COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND RELATED TIME-TRENDS: PREVALENCE, INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY
      • 6.2. Data sources
1 The results presented here are from the Executive summary of the Annual Epidemiological Report of the European Centre[...]
2 References to these sources are available in the full Annual Epidemiological Report on Communicable Diseases in Europ[...]



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 6. MAIN COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND RELATED TIME-TRENDS: PREVALENCE, INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY
      • 6.3. Data description and analysis
        • 6.3.1. Overview
3 Part of the ECDC’s remit over the coming years is to bring more clarity to actual figures for incidence, morbidity, m[...]



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 7. ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES AND RELATED TIME TRENDS: PREVALENCE, INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY
      • 7.3. Data analysis and presentation
1 A fact sheet based on the mentioned report serves as the Executive Summary. (EuroSafe, 2008).



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 8. DISABILITIES
      • 8.1. OVERALL DISABILITY DATA AND POLICIES
        • 8.1.2. Data Sources
1 European Statistical System, see: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=1153,47169267,1153_47183518&_da[...]



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 8. DISABILITIES
      • 8.1. OVERALL DISABILITY DATA AND POLICIES
        • 8.1.5. Policies and control tools
2 Please see: http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/disability/index_en.html
3 The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was adopted by the United Nations' General Assembly on 13 o[...]
4 Article 31, paragraph 1 of the UN Convention on the rights of people with disabilities states that: States Parties un[...]
5 COM(2003)650 http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/news/2003/oct/com650_final_en.html
6 COM(2005)604 http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/index/com_2005_604_en.pdf
7 EU Charter on Fundamental Rights, Article 26: "The Union recognises and respects the right of persons with disabiliti[...]



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 8. DISABILITIES
      • 8.1. OVERALL DISABILITY DATA AND POLICIES
        • 8.1.6. References
8 See : www.pomonaproject.org
9 http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/citygroup/washington.htm



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 9. MAIN HEALTH ISSUES AND TRENDS FOR DIFFERENT AGE AND GENDER POPULATION GROUPS
      • 9.1. Newborns and perinatal health.
1 The data from Cyprus is based on one year data (2005) and 25 deaths only.



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 9. MAIN HEALTH ISSUES AND TRENDS FOR DIFFERENT AGE AND GENDER POPULATION GROUPS
      • 9.2. Children and adolescents (age 1-18)
        • 9.2.3. Data description and analysis
2 In the report prepared by Masoli et al an arbitrary figure of 50% of the prevalence of "current wheezing" (self-repor[...]



  • PART II – HEALTH CONDITIONS
    • 9. MAIN HEALTH ISSUES AND TRENDS FOR DIFFERENT AGE AND GENDER POPULATION GROUPS
      • 9.3. Adults
        • 9.3.1 General health conditions
3 Perimenopause comprises the period of time immediately before menopause (when the endocrinologic, biologic, and clini[...]



  • PART III HEALTH CAUSES, FACTORS AND DETERMINANTS
    • 10. HEALTH DETERMINANTS
      • 10.1. Introduction
        • 10.1.3. References
1 Non-medical use of drugs that have been classified and placed under international control by the 1961 UN Single Conve[...]
2 Not analyzed in this chapter.
3 www.emcdda.europa.eu
4 Methodological information can be found at http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index1311EN.html
5 See EMCDDA’s 2006 selected issues on drug use in recreational settings: http://issues06.emcdda.europa.eu/en/page024-en[...]
6 Hibell et al., 2004.
7 See Figure GPS-34 in the 2007 EMCDA statistical bulletin.
8 For further details see http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/stats07/GPS/methods
9 It needs to be kept in mind that these and other herein mentioned estimates are far from robust and more extensive dat[...]
10 Drugs-related infections. HIV surveillance among IDUs in Europe consists of two complementary systems, HIV case report[...]
11 EuroHIV. HIV/AIDS Surveillance in Europe. End-year report 2005. No.73. Saint-Maurice: Institut de veille sanitaire; 2[...]
12 Drug-related deaths data come from registers of mortality, which may miss some cases and misclassify a drug-related d[...]
13 See reference (Bargagli, et al). Note that these estimations refer to several big cities. Moreover, in some of them, H[...]
14 Most national case definitions are the same as the EMCDDA definition or very similar, although some countries still i[...]
15 See Table DRD-2 (i), Table DRD-3 and Table DRD-4 in the 2007 statistical bulletin.
16 See Figure DRD-1 in 2007 statistical bulletin.
17 For methodological information about ‘Treatment Demand Indicator’ please visit http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/stats07/TDI[...]
18 http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/?nnodeid=1346
19 See Figure HSR-3 in the statistical bulletin.
20 In this analysis, the cut point for “sufficient total activity” was 3,000 MET minutes per week accumulated over 7 days[...]
21 Cyprus (Savva et al, 2002; Savva et al, 2005), Czech Republic (Kobzová et al, 2004), France (Rolland-Cachera et al, 2[...]
22 Austria (Kirchengast et al, 2004), Cyprus (Savva et al, 2002), Czech Republic (Lobstein and Frelut, 2003), Greece (Ka[...]
23 Finland (prevalence of obesity available only) (Aromaa and Koskinen, 2004), Poland (Szponar et al, 2003), Portugal (d[...]
24 Austria (Statistics Austria, 2007), Belgium (Bayingana et al, 2006; Devriese et al, 2006), Bulgaria (Statistical Offi[...]



  • PART III HEALTH CAUSES, FACTORS AND DETERMINANTS
    • 10. HEALTH DETERMINANTS
      • 10.2. Individual characteristics
        • 10.2.3. Blood pressure.
25 Those classified as toxic according to the EU legislation, Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the app[...]
26 EU member states as of 2006
27 Method validation and quality control procedures for pesticide residues analysis in food and feed, Document No SANCO/[...]
28 Commission Directive 2002/63/EC of 11 July 2002 establishing Community methods for sampling for the official control [...]
29 Directive 2003/99/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 November 2003 on the monitoring of zoonoses [...]
30 OJ 121, 29.7.1964, p.1977
31 OJ L 224, 18.8.1990, p.19
32 OJ 186, 30.6.1989, p.23
33 Decision No 2119/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council setting up a network for the epidemiological surv[...]
34 In August 2006 the European Commission set targets for Member States to meet in reducing the presence of Salmonella in[...]
35 Council Directive 86/362/EEC of 24 July 1986 on the fixing of maximum levels of pesticides residues in and on cereals[...]
36 Council Directive 86/363/EEC of 24 July 1986 on the fixing of maximum levels of pesticides residues in and on foodstu[...]
37 Council Directive 90/642/EEC of 27 November 1990 on the fixing of maximum levels of pesticides residues in and on cer[...]
38 Commission of the European Communities: Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Products of Plant Origin in the European [...]
39 http//ec.europa.eu/food/fvo/specialreports/pesticides_index_en.htm
40 Commission f the European Communities:Monitoring of Pesticides Residues in Products of Plant Origin in the European U[...]
41 Commission Decision 2004/478EC concerning the adoption of a general plain for food/feed crisis management. Official Jo[...]



  • PART III HEALTH CAUSES, FACTORS AND DETERMINANTS
    • 10. HEALTH DETERMINANTS
      • 10.4. EXPOSURE ROUTES
        • 10.4.4. Contact and non-food consumer products
42 The EU 27 Member States plus Iceland, Lichtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey
43 Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Switzerland
44 EUROFOUND points out that the observed country differences may reflect cultural awareness of the issue and willingness[...]
45 The question put to respondents was: "First, a rather personal question. People sometimes grab, touch or assault [...]
46 The question was: 'Apart from the incidents just covered, have you over the past five years been personally attac[...]



  • PART IV – PROTECTING AND PROMOTING  PUBLIC HEALTH AND TREATING  DISEASES: HEALTH SYSTEMS, SERVICES AND POLICIES
    • 11. HEALTH SERVICES
      • 11.1. Factors determining the performance of health services
        • 11.1.2. Data sources
1 In an effort to improve comparability of health statistics and reduce the burden of data reporting from national stat[...]



  • PART IV – PROTECTING AND PROMOTING  PUBLIC HEALTH AND TREATING  DISEASES: HEALTH SYSTEMS, SERVICES AND POLICIES
    • 11. HEALTH SERVICES
      • 11.1. Factors determining the performance of health services
        • 11.1.3. The Performance of Health Systems
2 While the rather simplistic terminology used to classify health systems (Semashko, Beveridge and Bismarck) is a useful[...]



  • PART IV – PROTECTING AND PROMOTING  PUBLIC HEALTH AND TREATING  DISEASES: HEALTH SYSTEMS, SERVICES AND POLICIES
    • 11. HEALTH SERVICES
      • 11.3. Health system resources
        • 11.3.2. Pharmaceuticals
3 Data are not available for seven countries, while there is no available data for the UK after 1997



  • PART IV – PROTECTING AND PROMOTING  PUBLIC HEALTH AND TREATING  DISEASES: HEALTH SYSTEMS, SERVICES AND POLICIES
    • 11. HEALTH SERVICES
      • 11.6. Financing healthcare
        • 11.6.2. Description and assessment of health financing systems
4 It is important to notice that the WHO and OECD expenditure data classify all funds channelled through social insuran[...]